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Budgeting and-planning
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Budgeting and-planning


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      • Conducted By
      • Nadeem Yusuf Mufti
    • 3. Budgeting
      • 1. Definition
      • 2. Certain Questions in minds regarding Budgeting
      • 3. Objectives and Purposes of Budgeting
      • 4. Fundamental Purposes of Budgeting
      • 5. Budgeting and Planning
      • 6. Four Aspects of the Control Process
    • 4.
      • 7. Preliminary Checklist
      • 8. The Capital Budget
      • 9. Classification
      • 10.Categories
      • 11. Capital Budgeting- A Long-Range Planning
      • 12. Evaluating Capital Investments
      • 13. Required Returns
      • 14. Capital Project Analysis Techniques for its Feasibility
      • 15. Zero Base Budgeting
    • 5. Definition
      • Budget is the statement of operational intents of the business. Budgeting is the preparation of a detailed operating plan, which will meet or improve upon the profit objective, by providing control.
    • 6. Certain Questions in minds regarding Budgeting
      • What It Is and How To Do It?
      • What Business are we In?
      • What Assets do we Have?
      • Where are we going and where do we want to be – what are our Objectives?
    • 7. Objectives and Purposes of Budgeting
      • In all objectives, we finally arrive at a profit objective stated in money terms. How to achieve profit objective?
      • Answer to this very important Question is that, we need to have plans.
    • 8. Fundamental Purposes of Budgeting
      • The fundamental purpose of budgeting is to assist management to carry out its basic functions of Planning, Coordinating and Controlling operations, effectively.
      • It is very important that Management, from the top down, must participate in the establishment of goals, and in making plans, in harmony with other Departments. Adequate historical accounting data is required to put down in figures what is necessary for satisfactory results and Plans for the most economical use of recourses.
    • 9. Budgeting and Planning
      • There must be a formal Management structure to support a responsibility accounting budget. A responsibility accounting process means that each executive is accountable for achieving the budget, as part of the overall corporate development plan. The responsibility budget needs a budgetary planning and control system. To do their jobs effectively, people needs facts. Supplying the facts for control is an important budgeting function.
    • 10. Four Aspects of the control process
      • to Develop Plans to achieve Objectives
      • to Communicate Information about proposed Plans
      • to Motivate People to Accomplish the Plans
      • to Report Performance
    • 11. Preliminary Checklist
      • Review present financial statements, organization charts and the charts of accounts.
      • The financial statements will provide comparative information on which to base projections of revenues and expenditures.
      • Check that the chart of accounts is adequate for the analysis of expenditure needed.
      • Look at the organization chart critically. Does it represent the current responsibility and reporting structure accurately? Are any adjustments needed to reflect changes in the organizations?
    • 12.
      • Determine what management reports will be needed.
      • Based on the organization chart, what budget control information (reports) are needed, including the amount of details and the distribution to each level of management responsibility.
      • Appointment of the budget controller
      • Set up of Budget administration Team
      • Establish assumptions and guidelines
    • 13.
      • Establish time table
      • Draw up budgeting formats
      • Training session for budget preparations.
    • 14. The Capital Budget
      • Classified under following headings:
      • new assets acquisition
      • cost reduction and replacement
      • expansion of existing product lines
      • new products
      • health and safety
      • legal requirement
      • others
    • 15. Categories:
      • Land
      • Building and Civil Works
      • Plant and Machinery
      • Equipment
      • Motor Vehicles
      • Furniture and Fixtures
      • IT Equipment
      • Software’s
    • 16. Follow –ups
      • Follow –ups on capital expenditures includes checks on the spending itself and comparison of how near the estimates of the cost and returns were to actual. If there are wide variances, then a revised capital budget may be necessary to provide additional resource appropriation.
    • 17. Capital Budgeting- A Long-Range Planning
      • The component parts of Capital Budgets are:
      • A creative search for investment opportunities.
      • Long-range plans and projections for the company’s future development.
      • A correct yardstick of economic growth.
      • Investment analyses of facilities that are candidate for disposal
      • Forms and procedure to ensure smooth working of the system.
    • 18. Evaluating capital investments
      • The basic objective of any investment is that in return for paying out a given amount of cash today, a larger amount will be received back over a period of time. This larger amount should not only repay the original outlay, but also provide a minimum annual rate of return on the outlay. To obtain a true picture of the investment, all cash outlays and inflows must be taken into account.
      • Having calculated the rate of return for a project, it must then be decided whether the project is financially acceptable or not.
    • 19.
      • There are three factors to be considered:
      • Cost of Capital: The minimum acceptable return from any project is the rate of interest which the company is paying for the capital invested in the firm. i.e., the cost of capital.
      • Opportunity cost: All projects must compete with the return that the company could earn by investing its available finance outside the business. The risk and uncertainty attached to outside investments must also be taken into account.
      • Alternatives projects: Where the company is in a capital-rationing situation, alternatives projects will have to be ranked. These will compete with each other for the limited supply of finance available.
    • 20. Capital Project Analysis Techniques for its Feasibility
      • Paybacks: The payback method calculates the length of time taken by the projects net cash inflows to equal the initial investment. If the payback period is less than that demanded for this type of project, then the project is acceptable.
      • Accounting Rate of Return (ARR): In this method, the accounting rate of return of a project is calculated as a net profit percentage on capital employed after charging depreciation. The accounting rate of return can be determined for each year of the project, but is usually calculated as an average over the life of the project.
    • 21. Zero Base Budgeting
      • What is Zero Base Budgeting?
      • ZBB is:
      • A management process.
      • A process which recognizes budgeting as a key decision making process
      • An analysis and decision making process-which results in a budget.
    • 22.
      • ZBB is not:
      • Conceptually new
      • A budgeting process
      • Reinventing the wheel