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Fundamentals of Scientific Process
 

Fundamentals of Scientific Process

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    Fundamentals of Scientific Process Fundamentals of Scientific Process Presentation Transcript

    • INFORMATION LITERACY
      Fundamentals of Scientific Process
    • YOUTUBE science Video
      Click:
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rq2zNgdokm4
    • What’s information literacy?
    • Information Literacy
      The ability to…
      FIND information
      EVALUATE information
      INCORPORATE information
      DOCUMENT information
    • Topics to Be Covered
      Identifying & Selecting Library Databases
      Popular vs. Scholarly Journals
      The Meaning of “Peer-Reviewed”
      Confirming peer-reviewed status
      Using Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory (Ulrichsweb)
    • Topics
      Database Search Strategies & Techniques I
      Selecting Keywords (Search Terms)
      Using Synonyms / Using a Thesaurus
      Understanding Controlled Vocabulary
    • Topics
      Database Search Strategies & Techniques II
      Boolean Operators: Using AND, OR, NOT
      Power Search Techniques & Shortcuts
      Using Parentheses
      Truncation
      Phrase Searching
      Basic Search vs. Advanced Search
    • Topics
      Using the NYIT Journal Locator
      A Journal Citation: Its Parts & Fields
      Interlibrary Loan: Books & Journal Articles
      Citing Journal Articles in APA / MLA Style
      The References Page
      Listing Your Sources Alphabetically
      Parenthetical References
    • Finding & SelectingNYIT Library Databases
      Start on the Library Home Page
    • The Library Home Pagehttp://www.nyit.edu/library
      Click to access 200+ databases
      Click to access 100,000+ books
    • Databases A-Z
      Grouped by subject
      Alphabetical listing
    • To Research Science TopicsMultidisciplinary Databases
      Two databases focusing on science topics:
      Science Direct
      Scitation(not listed here)
    • For Search Strategy WorksheetChoose one of these databases:
    • Popular vs. Scholarly Sources
      Identifying scholarly sources
    • Criteria to Apply
    • Peer-Reviewed Journals
      A peer-reviewed journal is scholarly
    • Peer-Reviewed
      Peer-reviewed = Screened by a panel of subject experts and found to meet stringent criteria of scholarship. A peer-reviewed journal contains articles that have been carefully evaluated for academic quality and deemed worthy of publication by a select group of subject authorities.
      Not precisely synonymous, these terms mean roughly the same thing as peer-reviewed:
      Scholarly / Refereed / Juried
    • Is This Journal Peer-Reviewed?Use Ulrich’s to Find Out
      Sample title in Ulrich’s
      Journal is shown to be Scholarly and Refereed
    • Database Search Strategies & Techniques I
      Keywords, Synonyms, Thesauri, Controlled Vocabulary
    • Let’s assume you have to write a research paper. You’ve chosen this topic:
      robotICS
      Near-future developments in…
    • Selecting Search TermsUsing Synonyms / Using a Thesaurus
      Database search engines look for SEARCH TERMS (keywords).
      These should correspond closely to your topic.
      The better your search terms, the better your search.
      Entering synonyms can be helpful when searching. A THESAURUS provides synonyms, words that mean the same thing. Look up “robots” to find synonyms that include:robotics, automaton, “mechanical man,” android, cyborgYour search can contain any or all of these terms.
    • Controlled Vocabulary / Subject Headings
      • Books and articles are categorized under subject headings.
      • This is “controlled vocabulary,” used to group different sources on the same topic TOGETHER under ONE specific term.
      • The Library of Congress Subject Headings List is one HUGE controlled vocabulary scheme – a vast attempt to organize virtually all human knowledge into a vast array of subject headings and subheadings.
    • Using Subject Headings Provided in Databases
      A keyword search in EBSCO produces this article. Its citation record reveals helpful Subject Terms, headings under which the article has been categorized. Clicking a term leads you to related articles categorized the same way.
      Click a subject term to find related articles.
      These can also be a good source of synonymous search terms.
    • Database Search Strategies & Techniques II
      Boolean LogicUsing Parentheses Truncation Phrase Searching Basic vs. Advanced Searching
    • Boolean Operators: AND, OR, NOTCombining & relating search terms----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A = Dogs / B = Cats / Blue = Articles Retrieved
      AND narrows a search.
      OR broadens a search.
      NOT narrows a search.
      Articles discussingDogs OR Cats
      Articles discussingDogs AND Cats
      Articles discussingDogs NOT Cats
      I want articles that discuss both dogs AND cats.
      I want articles that discuss either dogs OR cats or both dogs and cats.
      I want articles that discuss dogs but NOT cats, i.e., that discuss dogs only.
    • A Possible Boolean Search
      ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      TOPIC: Near-future developments in robotics
      ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      (robotics OR robots OR automatons) AND(developments OR evolution OR progress)
      OR connects SYNONYMS / AND combines CONCEPTS---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      More:
      PARENTHESES -- used to group and sequence operations
      TRUNCATION -- (robot* OR automatons)
      PHRASE SEARCH -- “developments in robotics”
    • Basic Search vs. Advanced SearchExample: Academic Search Complete
      A Basic Search is not necessarily easier and can be very precise – IF you know how to wield Boolean logic and choose your keywords carefully.
      A Basic Search done badly can be so broad that results are overwhelming in number – with many irrelevant “hits” to wade through.
      An Advanced Search typically provides many more ways to FILTER your results by different criteria (delimiters).
      An Advanced Search might well be called a Guided Search. A good advanced search can be easier to do than a good basic search.
      RECOMMENDED: Choose Advanced Search.
    • Basic Search Screen
      Note Search Delimiters / Criteria (10)
    • Advanced Search Screen
      Note (2) additional delimiters / criteria (Total: 12)
    • Field designators
      Truncation
      Synonyms + Boolean
      A possible Advanced Search on the sample topic
      Delimiters selected
    • Results (96 “hits” with keywords in titles)
    • The NYIT Journal LocatorFind link on Library home page
      Sample question answered by the Journal Locator: Do you have the journal GENOME, June 2007?
      Fill in the blank to see IF and WHERE the Library has a specific journal – either electronic/online in a database or in its print collection.
    • The NYIT Journal LocatorYou’re looking for Genome, June 2007.
      Step 1: Launch Locator, enter title you seek, click Search.
    • The NYIT Journal LocatorA list of locations appears.
      A results page appears, locating the full text journal in one or more Library databases.
      Let’s click on this database.
    • The NYIT Journal LocatorAccess the journal and the year you want.
      The journal record opens.
      Click open Genome 2007
    • The NYIT Journal LocatorOpen the specific issue you want.
      The year expands to list individual issues.
      Click here
    • The NYIT Journal LocatorWith the issue open, find your article – in full text.
    • Need a Journal the Library Doesn’t Have?
      Interlibrary Loans
      3 Complete & Submit
      1
      2
    • DOCUMENTING YOUR SOURCES:
      Citations & Parenthetical References
    • Citing Your Sources
      • Your research paper will incorporate ideas, concepts, quotes, etc., taken from your SOURCES.
      • In other words, you’ll use the thoughts and words of OTHERS in YOUR paper.
      • To avoid PLAGIARISM, you must CITE these sources.
      • That is, you must credit themwithin your paper with parenthetical references and list them at the end of your paper on a References page.
    • More on Citations (APA)
      • Each source listed on your References must be properly formatted in APA style.
      • EXAMPLE:Assume you quoted this journal article in your paper. This is how the citation would look:
      Shackell, J. (2010). Wired for war: The robotics revolution and conflict in the 21st century [Electronic version]. Air & Space Power Journal, 24(2), 95-96.
      • On your References page, list your sources alphabetically, usually by author’s last name.
    • More on Citations (MLA)
      • Each source listed on your References must be properly formatted in MLA style.
      • EXAMPLE:Assume you quoted this journal article in your paper. This is how the citation would look:
      Shackell, John M. “Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict
      in the 21st Century.” Air & Space Power Journal 24.2 (2010): 95-96.ProQuest. Web. 4 Aug. 2010.
      • On your References page, list your sources alphabetically, usually by author’s last name.
    • The Parts of an APA Journal Citation
      Author
      Year of publication
      Article Title / Subtitle
      Shackell, J. (2010). Wired for war: The robotics revolution and conflict in the 21st century [Electronic version]. Air & Space Power Journal, 24(2), 95-96.
      Pages
      Journal title
      Volume no. / Issue no.
      Database search engines can be directed to find search terms in a single part of a citation. In this case, parts are called fields. Example: Searching for “robotics” in article titles only is called a FIELD SEARCH.
    • The Parts of an MLA Journal Citation
      Author
      Article title / Subtitle
      Shackell, John M. “Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict
      in the 21st Century.” Air & Space Power Journal 24.2 (2010): 95-96.ProQuest. Web. 4 Aug. 2010.
      Volume no.
      Pages
      Journal title
      Issue no.
      Database / Source / Date accessed
      Year published
      Database search engines can be directed to find search terms in a single part of a citation. In this case, parts are called fields. Example: Searching for “robotics” in article titles only is called a FIELD SEARCH.
    • A Sample References Page – APA Style
      Sources here are alphabetized by author’s last name.
      From: The Purdue Online Writing Lab
    • A Sample References Page – MLA Style
      Sources here are alphabetized by author’s last name.
      From: The Purdue Online Writing Lab
    • Apt Quote
      The longest journey begins with a single step. – Lao Tzu