Setting the Table: The Changing Flora of the New York Metropolitan Region

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Dr Gerry Moore, Director of Science/BBG
Symposium:
What is Local? Genetics & Plant Selection in the Urban Context. (Tuesday, May 23, 2006, American Museum of Natural History)

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  • Setting the Table: The Changing Flora of the New York Metropolitan Region

    1. 1. Setting the Table: The Changing Flora of the New York Metropolitan Region Gerry Moore
    2. 3. The New York Metropolitan Flora Project (NYMF)
    3. 4. NYMF Region
    4. 5. Objectives of NYMF <ul><li>Document occurrences of all vascular plants growing without cultivation in area </li></ul><ul><li>Current field work </li></ul><ul><li>Herbarium and library work </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Examination of how the flora is changing </li></ul><ul><li>www.bbg.org </li></ul>
    5. 8. seabeach amaranth (Amaranthus pumilus)
    6. 11. Gardeners’ Resource Center Science Library Rare Book Room
    7. 12. Statistics <ul><li>SPECIES: ca. 3000 (15% U.S. flora) </li></ul><ul><li>CURRENT RECORDS IN DATABASE: </li></ul><ul><li>326, 000 </li></ul><ul><li>AREA: 25 Counties, 7650 sq. miles </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION: 19.75 million (7% OF U.S. population) </li></ul>
    8. 14. False heather (Hudsonia ericoides)
    9. 15. Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana)
    10. 16. Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora)
    11. 17. Bog rosemary (Andromeda glaucophylla)
    12. 19. Clemants, S.E. & G. Moore. 2005. The changing flora of the New York Metropolitan Region. Urban Habitats 3: 192-210. www.urbanhabitats.org <ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>We statistically analyzed 100 years of herbarium specimen data for woody plants in the New York metropolitan region in order to measure the floristic changes of this area. Change index values were computed for 224 of the region's 556 woody species to provide a specific measure of whether these species are expanding, contracting, or stable. The results show that, in general, nonnative invasive species are spreading rapidly in the region, while native species are in slight decline. </li></ul>
    13. 20. Results 467 species studied <ul><li>Alien </li></ul><ul><li>187 species </li></ul><ul><li> 18% ( 33) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6% (11) </li></ul></ul><ul><li> 15% (27) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>17% (32) </li></ul></ul><ul><li> 3% (5) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7% (13) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>N 65% (119) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% (128) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Native </li></ul><ul><li>283 species </li></ul><ul><li> 9% (28) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16% (45) </li></ul></ul><ul><li> 41% (117) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>39%(110) </li></ul></ul><ul><li> 26% (74) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>22%(61) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>N 23% (64) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24%(67) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 22. Native vs. Alien
    15. 23. Ericaceae <ul><li>Arctostaphylos uva-ursi -1.92 </li></ul><ul><li>Chamaedaphne calyculata -0.92 </li></ul><ul><li>Chimaphila maculata -0.38 </li></ul><ul><li>Chimaphila umbellata -2.49 </li></ul><ul><li>Epigaea repens -1.06 </li></ul><ul><li>Gaultheria procumbens -0.81 </li></ul><ul><li>Gaylussacia baccata - 0.16 </li></ul><ul><li>Gaylussacia frondosa -0.87 </li></ul><ul><li>Kalmia angustifolia -0.53 </li></ul><ul><li>Kalmia latifolia -0.02 </li></ul><ul><li>Leucothoe racemosa -0.54 </li></ul><ul><li>Lyonia ligustrina -0.38 </li></ul><ul><li>Lyonia mariana -0.67 </li></ul><ul><li>Rhododendron maximum -0.05 </li></ul><ul><li>Rhododendron periclymenoides -0.20 </li></ul><ul><li>Rhododendron viscosum -0.20 </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinium angustifolium -1.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinium corymbosum -0.07 </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinium macrocarpon -1.26 </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinium pallidum +0.09 </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinium stamineum -0.14 </li></ul>
    16. 24. Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)
    17. 25. Oriental bittersweet ( Celastrus orbiculata )
    18. 26. American Bittersweet ( Celastrus scandens)
    19. 27. Aralia
    20. 28. Aralia
    21. 29. Aralia spinosa /// Aralia elata 
    22. 30. Phragmites Image source: www.nps.gov P. australis subsp. americanus
    23. 31. Rise of the South? Curtiss’s milkwort Polygala curtissii Camphorweed Heterotheca subaxillaris Inflated bladderwort Utricularia inflata
    24. 32. Factors <ul><li>Plant diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in wildlife populations </li></ul><ul><li>Fire suppression </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat fragmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Soil alterations </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Sea level changes </li></ul>
    25. 33. American Chestnut (Castanea dentata)
    26. 34. White-tailed Deer
    27. 36. Spotted Wintergreen ( Chimaphila maculata)
    28. 37. Pipsissewa (Chimaphila umbellata)
    29. 38. Gentiana autumnalis Fire Suppression Method for smoke infusion for seeds
    30. 40. Habitat Destruction/Fragmentation
    31. 41. Fragmentation: Effects on Population structure <ul><li>Alistair S. Jump * and Josep </li></ul><ul><li>Peñuelas. In press. Genetic </li></ul><ul><li>effects of chronic habitat </li></ul><ul><li>fragmentation in a wind </li></ul><ul><li>pollinated tree. PNAS. </li></ul><ul><li>“… fragmentation in [Fagus sylvatica] has led to genetic bottlenecks and the disruption of the species’ breeding system” </li></ul>European beech (Fagus sylvatica)
    32. 42. Soil Alterations Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum)
    33. 43. Climate Change/Sea Level Rise
    34. 44. Restoration
    35. 45. What is Local?
    36. 46. BBG

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