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Global convergence sped up thedynamic of world change.   From 1400 to 1800   the rate of change   accelerated more   rapid...
The GreatPopulation &                    DyingEnvironment               The Great Dying was caused by smallpox and other  ...
Europeans brought               African slaves across the               South Atlantic to labor in               the colon...
4
The Columbian ExchangePopulation &Environment  Plants, animals, and micro-organisms of Afroeurasia were  exchanged with th...
The Columbian ExchangePopulation &Environment               New crops like potatoes and                beans spread and   ...
Environmental changes resulted               from introducing new speciesPopulation &Environment           Global cash cro...
Deforestation intensified with growth in               mining, shipbuilding, and plantation               agriculture.Popu...
World population grew a lot          during Big Era Six                                                        Population ...
Islam and Christianity spread               with empires, trade, andPopulation &Environment    migration.• Traders and Suf...
Printed books carried more and more                         information.Ideas &Inventions    Page numbers, indexing,      ...
Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler proved that the earth wasnot the center of the universe… but the Church opposed the       ...
Maps                      reflectedIdeas &Inventions                      discovery                      and              ...
Maritime technologies             continued to improve afterIdeas &Inventions             1500.                    •Mappin...
Trade encircled the globe.Trade &Manufacturing                                             15
Global artistic influences led to new                       European industries.Trade &Manufacturing                    Ch...
Banking and law served new demands.Trade &Manufacturing  • Accountants learned double-entry    bookkeeping with “Arabic” n...
Big Era SixStates &Empires    was the        Large bureaucratic           first age of   states in Afroeurasia           g...
Gunpowder empires in           Asia, Africa, and           Europe honed skills inStates &   production of artilleryEmpires...
States and Empires in 1519 CEStates &Empires                                           20
States and Empires in 1600 CEStates &Empires                                           21
States and Empires in 1714 CEStates &Empires                                           22
States and Empires in 1804 CEStates &Empires                                           23
Monarchs claimed           absolute power.States &Empires           Philip II   Elizabeth I    Louis XIV   Catherine the G...
Challenges to absolutism came from new            elites with ideas about human rights.States &Empires                    ...
Summary: global convergence led to            accelerating world change.•Environmental change accelerated with the Columbi...
Summary: global convergence led to            accelerating world change.•World trade volume increased dramatically and beg...
Is Big Era Sixthe Modern World?   Are we   there   yet?                     28
Historians argue whether the world became          “modern” in Big Era Six.   “Modernity” means   advanced, continuous    ...
End of Big Era Six                     30
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Global convergence pp

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Transcript of "Global convergence pp"

  1. 1. Global convergence sped up thedynamic of world change. From 1400 to 1800 the rate of change accelerated more rapidly in many areas of human Population & Ideas & activity. Environment Inventions Trade & States & Manufacturing Empires 1
  2. 2. The GreatPopulation & DyingEnvironment The Great Dying was caused by smallpox and other disease germs carried by the conquerors. Native Americans had no immunity to these diseases. By some accounts, the population of the Americas fell from 22 million in 1500 to less than 1 million in 1640. 2
  3. 3. Europeans brought African slaves across the South Atlantic to labor in the colonies. The Atlantic slave trade grew from about 1,000 per year in the early 1500s to nearly 80,000 per year at the end of the 1700s.Population & 3Environment
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. The Columbian ExchangePopulation &Environment Plants, animals, and micro-organisms of Afroeurasia were exchanged with those of the Americas across the oceans. 5
  6. 6. The Columbian ExchangePopulation &Environment New crops like potatoes and beans spread and improved nutrition worldwide. Luxury products like coffee, chocolate, tea, tobacco, and spices meant new cultural habits for those with money to spend. 6
  7. 7. Environmental changes resulted from introducing new speciesPopulation &Environment Global cash crops were grown on large plantations with slave labor. Caribbean sugar plantation 1600s Livestock introduced to the Americas changed indigenous groups’ ways of life. Plains woman hunting buffalo 7 1800s
  8. 8. Deforestation intensified with growth in mining, shipbuilding, and plantation agriculture.Population &Environment mining boiling sugar 8
  9. 9. World population grew a lot during Big Era Six Population & Environment The number of people in the world increased about Growth differed 2 ½ times between 1400 among world and 1800 CE regions. Population change in millions, 1400-1800 CE400 China300 India200 Europe100 Sub-Saharan Africa 0 1400 CE 1600 CE 1800 CE Latin America 9
  10. 10. Islam and Christianity spread with empires, trade, andPopulation &Environment migration.• Traders and Sufi orders • Catholic missionaries andspread Islam in Africa and religious orders followed theAsia. spread of empires in Asia,• The Ottoman Empire Africa, and the Americas.expanded into eastern Europe,and Islam spread into the • Protestants colonized North 10Balkans. America.
  11. 11. Printed books carried more and more information.Ideas &Inventions Page numbers, indexing, and other citation systems became common. Sharp, accurate engraved illustrations helped spread innovative inventions rapidly. Scientists shared detailed diagrams to replicate experiments and instruments. Rich illustrations stimulated interest in 11 literacy and learning.
  12. 12. Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler proved that the earth wasnot the center of the universe… but the Church opposed the idea.You meanI’m not thecenter ofeverything?! Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition, a painting by Cristiano Banti, 1857 12
  13. 13. Maps reflectedIdeas &Inventions discovery and colonization. …and helped exchanges of knowledge among people in the world. 13
  14. 14. Maritime technologies continued to improve afterIdeas &Inventions 1500. •Mapping world wind patterns and oceanic currents. •Ships were fully rigged with sails for speed and handling. •Ships grew larger & stronger (500 tons in 1450 to 2000 tons by 1590). •The sextant greatly improved navigation at sea. •Cannons and ammunition improved. 14
  15. 15. Trade encircled the globe.Trade &Manufacturing 15
  16. 16. Global artistic influences led to new European industries.Trade &Manufacturing Chinese silks and Indian cottons led to building of English and French textile factories. Ottoman and Persian ceramics led to Holland’s Delft stoneware industry. Chinese influence led English manufacturers to try to make “china” after they found the right clay. 16
  17. 17. Banking and law served new demands.Trade &Manufacturing • Accountants learned double-entry bookkeeping with “Arabic” numerals. • Commercial law protected private property and investments. • More efficient bureaucracies and taxation increased the power of the government’s purse. • European monarchs issued charters to colonize overseas. • Jurists experimented with civil and constitutional law. 17
  18. 18. Big Era SixStates &Empires was the Large bureaucratic first age of states in Afroeurasia global used gunpowder and empires. artillery to expand trade and win territory in several parts of Afroeurasia. 18
  19. 19. Gunpowder empires in Asia, Africa, and Europe honed skills inStates & production of artilleryEmpires and handguns. Land and maritime empires battled over control of trade, resources, and territory. Persian, Indian, Turkish, Chinese, Japanese, and European artisans experimented with steel production for weapons. 19
  20. 20. States and Empires in 1519 CEStates &Empires 20
  21. 21. States and Empires in 1600 CEStates &Empires 21
  22. 22. States and Empires in 1714 CEStates &Empires 22
  23. 23. States and Empires in 1804 CEStates &Empires 23
  24. 24. Monarchs claimed absolute power.States &Empires Philip II Elizabeth I Louis XIV Catherine the Great Spain England France Russia 1556-1598 1558-1603 1643-1715 1762-1796Süleyman Xizong Shah Abbas JahangirOttoman Empire Ming China Persia India 241520-1566 1620-1627 1587-1629 1605-1627
  25. 25. Challenges to absolutism came from new elites with ideas about human rights.States &Empires Louis XVI Charles I 1775-1793 Charles I, beheaded in 1649 1625-1649 King George III Rebellion in American 1760-1820 Colonies 1776 French Revolution 25 1789
  26. 26. Summary: global convergence led to accelerating world change.•Environmental change accelerated with the ColumbianExchange, intensified resource exploitation, and continuingdeforestation.•World population increased owing to improved nutritionand migration. But Africa gained only slowly due to slavery,and native Americans suffered massive population lossesbecause of Old World disease pathogens.•Science, technology and cultural development expandedwith the invention of printing and new knowledgeinstitutions—libraries, universities, and museums. 26
  27. 27. Summary: global convergence led to accelerating world change.•World trade volume increased dramatically and began toshift its center from Asia to the Atlantic region.•States increased their power with gunpowder conquestsand new sources of mercantile wealth.•In Europe rising economic elites enjoyed growing wealth,which led them to challenge old landed aristocracies andmonarchs. 27
  28. 28. Is Big Era Sixthe Modern World? Are we there yet? 28
  29. 29. Historians argue whether the world became “modern” in Big Era Six. “Modernity” means advanced, continuous Wait until human development in you see science, technology, Big Era standards of living, and Seven! social organization. Do you think human society was “there yet” in Big Era Six? 29
  30. 30. End of Big Era Six 30
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