Management process is characterized by the following features:
The entire management process is regarded as a social process as the success of all organizational efforts depends upon the willing co-operation of people
The process of management is on going and continuous. Managers continuously take up one or the other function. Management cycle is repeated over and over again.
Management functions are universal in the sense that a manager has to perform them irrespective of the size and nature of the organization. Each manger performs the same functions regardless of his rank or position in the organization.
Managerial functions are contained within each other. The performance of the next function does not start only when the earlier function is finished. Various functions are taken together.
All Managerial functions are composite and integrated. There cannot be any sequence which can be strictly followed for performing various functions. The sequential concept may be true in a newly started business where functions may follow a particular sequence but the same will not apply to a going concern.
CLASSIFICATION OF MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS
Henry Fayol, the pioneer of management process approach gave
Controlling as functions of management.
Luther Gullick used the word POSDCORB to describe functions such as Planning (P) Organizing (O), Staffing (S), directing (D) , controlling (CO), reporting ® and budgeting (B), Koontz and O Donnel adopted managerial functions as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. Earnest dale has included innovation and representation to the earlier mentioned functions
Planning is a basic managerial function,. Planning helps in defining the course of action to be followed for achieving various organizational objectives. It is a decision in advance, what to do, when to do, how to do and who will do a particular task. Planning is a process which involves thinking before doing.
According to Terry, “Planning is the selecting and relating of facts and the making and using assumptions regarding the future in the visualization and formulation of proposed activities believed necessary to achieve desired results.
Planning is a process of looking ahead. The primary object of planning is to achieve better results. It involves the selection of organizational objectives and developing polices procedures, programmes, budgets and strategies. Planning is a continuous process that takes place at all levels of management.
The process of planning involves
Laying down objectives
Developing Planning premises
Examining alternative courses of action
Evaluation of action patterns
Implementation of planning
Every business enterprises needs the services of a number of persons to look after its different aspects. The management sets up the objectives or goals to be achieved by its personnel. The energy of every individual is channelized to achieve the enterprise objectives. The function of organizing is to arrange, guide coordinating, direct and control the activities of other factors of production, Viz, men, material, money and machines so as to accomplish the objectives of the enterprise,.
Louis A. Allen describes organization as the process of identifying and grouping work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives
PROCESS OF ORGANISATION INVOLVES
To identifying the work to be performed
To classify or group the work
To assign these groups of activities or work to individuals
To delegate authority and fix responsibility
To Co-ordinate these authority-responsibility relationships of various activities.
Though they are many types of organizations but generally three types of organizations are in vogue: 1.Line Organization 2.Functional Organization and 3.Line and staff organization.
The function involves manning the positions created by organization process. It is concerned with human resources of an organization.
In the words of Koontz and O Donnel, Staffing is filling, keeping filled positions in the organization structure through defining work-force requirements, appraising, selecting compensating training
STAFFING CONSISTING OF:
Manpower planning i.e.., assessing manpower requirements in terms of quantity and quality
Recruitment, selection and training
Placement of man power
Development, promotion, transfer and appraisal
Determination of employee remuneration.
Directing is concerned with carrying out the desired plans. It initiates organized and planned action and ensures effective performance by subordinates towards the accomplishment of group activities. Direction is called management in action. In other words of George R. Terry, Direction is moving to action and supplying simulative power to the group after planning.
MAIN ACTIVITES INVOLVED IN DIRECTING:
A manager has to issue orders and instructions and guide and counsel his subordinated in their work with a view to improve their perform mace and achieve enterprise objectives.
Leadership is the ability to build up confidence and zeal among people and to create an urge in them, to be led. To be successful leader, a manager must possess the qualities of foresight, drive initiative, self confidence and personal integrity.
Communication constitutes a very important function of management. It is said to be the number one problem of management today. It is an established fact that managers spend 75 to 90 per cent of their working time in communicating with others
Thus, communicating means sharing of ideas in common. The essence of communicating is getting the receiver and they sender turned together for a particular message. It refers to the exchange of ideas feelings, emotions and knowledge and information between two or more persons. Nothing happens in management till communication takes place.
The term motivation is derived from the word’ motive’ which means a need, or an emotion that prompts an individual into action motivation is the psychological process of creating urge on the subordinates to do certain things or behave in the desire manner. It is a very important function of management. The importance of motivation can be realized from the fact that performance of a worker depends upon his ability and the motivation.
Supervision is another element of directing function of management. After issuing instructions, the manager or the supervisor of management has to see that all given instructions are carried out. This is the aim of supervision. Supervision refers to the job of overseeing subordinates at work to ensure maximum utilization of resources to get the required and directed work done and to correct the subordinates whenever they go wrong.
Coordination is one of the most important functions of management. It is essential to channelise the activities of various individuals in the organization for the achievement of common goals. Every department or section is given a target to be achieved and they should concentrate only on their work and should not bother about the work of other organs.
Coordination creates a team spirit and helps in achieving goals through collective efforts. It is the orderly arrangement of group effort to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common objectives.
CO-ORDIANTION AND CO-OPEARATION
Co-ordination is much wider term then co-operation. Co-operation indicates the willingness of individuals to help each other. It is and attitude of a group of people and is largely the result of voluntary action. Co-ordination, on the other hand is a conscious managerial effort which is the result of a deliberate action.
Controlling can be defined as “determining what is being accomplished that is evaluating the performance, if necessary, applying corrective measures so that the performances take place according to plans.
Control is essential for achieving objectives of an enterprise. The planning of various activities does not ensure automatic implementation of policies. Control is the process which enables management to get its policies implemented and take corrective actions if performance is not according to the pre-determined standards.