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NWIFC Magazine Summer 2009

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Tribes Celebrate First Salmon
Protecting Steelhead
Hatchery Programs Grow
Marine Mammals Rescued
Surveying Culverts

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  • 1. Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission NWIFC News Summer 2009 www.nwifc.org Inside: ■ Tribes Celebrate First Salmon ■ Protecting Steelhead ■ Hatchery Programs Grow ■ Marine Mammals Rescued ■ Surveying Culverts
  • 2. Being Frank NWIFC News Northwest Indian Cooperation Leads the Way Fisheries Commission 6730 Martin Way E. By Billy Frank Jr. Olympia, WA 98516 (360) 438-1180 NWIFC Chairman NWIFC News is published quarterly. Free For years, Skagit County subscriptions are available. This edition has been a battleground be- is also online at www.nwifc.org. Articles in tween fishermen and farm- NWIFC News may be reprinted. ers. After a recent court vic- tory, the Swinomish Tribe is finding a way for the once NWIFC Chairman warring sides to come to- Billy Frank Jr. gether for the good of salmon habitat. Executive Director A few years back, the Mike Grayum Swinomish Tribe sued Skagit County Dike District No. 22 for building tide gates with- T. Meyer Information and Education Services out the permits they needed from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Last Division Manager September, a federal judge ruled that the district had violated both the Clean Tony Meyer Water Act and the Endangered Species Act. With the judge’s ruling on their side, the Swinomish Tribe took the issue Regional Information Officers out of the courtroom. Instead of forcing the district to pay federal fines, the Debbie Preston, Coast tribe suggested that the two become partners in restoring 200 acres of estu- Emmett O’Connell, South Sound ary in the Skagit delta. Tiffany Royal, Hood Canal/Strait of Juan de Fuca It’s too bad that people sometimes need a court-ordered push to do the right Kari Neumeyer, North Sound thing. Last winter, the tribe and the dike district filed their formal plan about how Editorial Assistant they’re going to restore that estuary habitat. The 200 acres of land proposed Sheila McCloud for restoration is owned by the state Department of Fish and Wildlife and for now, provides food for over-wintering waterfowl. Decades ago, at great cost to vital salmon habitat, most of the estuary was NWIFC Member Tribes: Hoh, diked and drained to create farmland. Now, the salmon recovery effort is Jamestown S’Klallam, Lower Elwha Klallam, working to undo that damage and restore tidal flow so young salmon have a Lummi Nation, Makah, Muckleshoot, place to rear before heading to sea and adult salmon have somewhere to rest Nisqually, Nooksack, Port Gamble before returning home to spawn. S’Klallam, Puyallup, Quileute, Quinault To protect farmland, tide gates let excess water drain from the fields to Indian Nation, Sauk-Suiattle, Skokomish, Skagit Bay, but keep salt water from getting in when the tides turn. Skagit Squaxin Island, Stillaguamish, Suquamish, County Dike District No. 22 is responsible for the construction, maintenance Swinomish, Tulalip and Upper Skagit and operation of the system of dikes and tide gates on Fir Island, between the two forks of the Skagit River. Tribal contact information is available under When three tide gates needed replacing in 2002 and 2006, the dike district Member Tribes at www.nwifc.org. moved ahead without getting permits from the Corps of Engineers. That was a violation of the Clean Water Act. The new tide gates also prevented juvenile salmon from reaching their rearing habitat. That was a violation of the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Chinook salmon in Puget Sound have been listed as “threatened” under the ESA since 1999. In the Skagit, the biggest obstacle standing in the way of their recovery is a shortage of estuary habitat. Tribes like Swinomish haven’t been able to fish like they used to, because of the collapse of so many Puget Sound salmon populations. The tribe’s har- On the cover: Swinomish tribal members vest of chinook has dropped 94 percent since 1975, and they haven’t fished a Clay Day (left), Hawk Wilbur and Joe McDonald full season for more than 20 years. prepare to release the remains of a wild Skagit Thanks to the federal judge’s decision in this case, the Swinomish Tribe River chinook back to the water. The quiet and the dike district can put their differences aside and work together. moment near Deception Pass culminated the This is the spirit of cooperation that guides natural resources co-manage- tribe’s annual Blessing of the Salmon Fleet and ment in this area and will eventually be the reason we’re able to bring salmon First Salmon Ceremony in May. See story next back. page. Photo: K. Neumeyer
  • 3. K. Neumeyer K. Neumeyer Lummi Nation’s Swan Clan Dancers perform at the tribe’s First Salmon Swinomish tribal member John Cayou Jr. sings a Shaker blessing during Ceremony at Lummi Nation School in May. the Upper Skagit Tribe’s Blessing of the Fleet. Time to Bless Fishermen, Welcome First Salmon W hen the winter snow has melted and cottonwood fluff is in the air, chinook salmon make their way home to western Washington rivers. Treaty tribal fishermen return to the water as well, and the tribes celebrate the season with blessings of the fleet and first salmon ceremonies, to protect tribal fishermen and honor the salmon that sustain them. The cultural events include a feast of “ESA is hard for the tribes,” she said. “It per Skagit Tribe’s natural resources direc- traditional food such as salmon, halibut, is hard when we have to throw back the chi- tor. “Ideally, we also have a fishery for our shellfish, prawns and crab – usually caught nook. It’s hard for me to work all year and general membership so they can meet their and prepared by tribal fishermen. come home to say we have no fishery.” individual needs and either put away fish At the Lummi Nation ceremony in May, The Swinomish Tribe held its Blessing or sell it to support their families.” tribal elder Jack Cagey led drummers and of the Fleet and First Salmon Ceremony – K. Neumeyer a procession of students carrying paddles the following week along the Swinomish and cedar branches through a crowd of Channel in La Conner. Four young tribal about 600 people gathered in the school members carried the remains of wild gymnasium. Skagit River chinook, wrapped in cedar “It feels good in my heart to have this boughs and decorated with prawns, crab ceremony done at the Lummi Nation legs and berries. After blessings from the School,” said Cliff Cultee, a tribal fisher- Catholic, Pentecostal and Shaker faiths, man and Lummi Natural Resources Com- the young men returned the fish remains mission secretary. “It’s really important to the water. (Listen to a podcast about the for the kids to learn our culture.” Swinomish blessing at www.nwifc.org/sec- NWIFC Officers Re-elected The ceremonies also educate the tribal tion/podcasts.) At the annual election in May, and non-tribal community about salmon The Upper Skagit Tribe held its blessing NWIFC Chairman Billy Frank Jr. recovery and the role fishing plays in tribal on the bank of the Skagit River. Rev. Pat received a unanimous vote of culture. Twohy and Larry Campbell of the Swin- confidence from the Board of Puget Sound chinook are listed as omish Tribe blessed each fisherman indi- Commissioners to continue in his “threatened” under the federal Endangered vidually with a cedar bough. long-time role as chairman. Frank, Species Act (ESA), posing a challenge to The blessing was significant to the Up- a Nisqually tribal member, was tribal fishermen, noted Merle Jefferson, per Skagit Tribe because this was only the re-elected in 2007 to a three-year the tribe’s natural resources director. second time in many years that the tribe term. “The habitat is going to take many years had a commercial spring chinook fishery The board also re-elected to fix,” he said. for its members. Swinomish fisheries manager Swinomish fisheries manager Lorraine “We provide for the overall community Lorraine Loomis (above left) as vice Loomis, vice chair of the Northwest Indian needs of the tribe with ceremonial fisher- chair and Quinault Indian Nation Fisheries Commission, shared her thoughts ies conducted by our natural resources policy representative Ed Johnstone as a witness at the Lummi ceremony. department,” said Scott Schuyler, the Up- (above right) as treasurer. Both officers hold one-year terms.
  • 4. Good Fisheries Planning Renews Harvest Skagit River Tribes, Sport Fishermen Share Summer/Fall Chinook Fishery For the first time in 16 years, The Skagit River is the larg- recreational fishermen will est producer of wild chinook in be able to fish for Skagit Riv- the region. More than 23,000 er summer and fall chinook, summer and fall chinook are thanks to a plan developed by expected to return to the Skagit. tribal and state co-managers. The next largest runs of chi- Each spring, the co-manag- nook to any Puget Sound river K. Neumeyer ers set fishing seasons that are are fewer than 10,000 fish. A Skagit River chinook cools on ice during the Upper Skagit Tribe’s spring fishery. designed to protect weak wild Recreational fishing on the runs while providing limited summer/fall run has been Ceremonial Fishery First Since 1985 harvest for treaty tribal and closed since 1993. A key fac- This summer, the Stillaguamish Tribe is holding its state sport and commercial tor to lasting salmon recovery first ceremonial and subsistence chinook fishery since fisheries. is habitat restoration, Loomis 1985. The tribe plans to catch 20 North Fork Stillagua- “The tribes are committed to said. “The largest reason for mish River chinook and host a first salmon ceremony on working together with non-In- the decline of salmon is the July 25. dian fishermen for the benefit loss and degradation of habi- The tribe stopped fishing in the 1980s because Still- of the salmon resource,” said tat,” she said. “The only way aguamish River chinook were struggling. For years, trib- Lorraine Loomis, Swinomish to lasting salmon recovery is to al and state co-managers structured all the other fisheries fisheries manager and the tribal repair that damage.” in the region to protect the weak populations of Stillagua- coordinator for the salmon set- Restoration projects by the mish River chinook. ting process. “This harvest op- Upper Skagit, Swinomish and Meanwhile, the tribe has supplemented the North Fork portunity on the Skagit River is Sauk-Suiattle tribes so far have population with a hatchery program. Now, 1,000 fish or the outcome of strong salmon improved hundreds of acres more return to spawn each year. management allowing us to of chinook rearing habitat in “We’ve worked hard to recover these salmon, and the share the resource.” freshwater banks, backwaters, payoff is the opportunity to carry on our cultural tradi- This summer, tribal and estuary channels and pocket tions,” said Stillaguamish Chairman Shawn Yanity. sport fishermen will divide the estuaries. – K. Neumeyer – K. Neumeyer week equally, with each fishing for three-and-a-half days. K. Neumeyer K. Neumeyer Stillaguamish natural resources technicians Kate Konoski (left), A juvenile chinook salmon swims in its “fish condo” at the Stillaguamish Charlotte Scofield and Jody Pope seine for juvenile chinook salmon. Tribe’s hatchery. Stillaguamish Tribe Collects Juveniles, Expands Hatchery Program While chinook returns to the North gram in the South Fork is the best way to until they are old enough to spawn. The Fork Stillaguamish River have recovered keep the population from going extinct un- tribe has collected about 30 juvenile chi- enough to allow for a small tribal harvest, til the habitat can be restored,” said Still- nook from the South Fork Stillaguamish returns to the South Fork have declined aguamish Chairman Shawn Yanity. River to test the feasibility of implement- to fewer than 100 fish. The Stillaguamish To maintain genetic diversity, the tribe ing a captive brood program. Efforts to tribe is working to recreate the success of needs to use at least 15 male and 15 fe- collect adults will continue later this year. the North Fork hatchery program on the male adult chinook. The extensive effort A similar captive broodstock program South Fork, where chinook are genetically to collect broodstock last summer and fall already is under way for South Fork Nook- distinct and always have been smaller in included snorkel surveys and an attempt- sack River spring chinook, which also have number. ed helicopter retrieval, but there weren’t declined severely. The Lummi Nation and Hatchery supplementation is not a sub- enough adult chinook salmon to be found. Nooksack Tribe have collected more than stitute for habitat restoration – it is consid- Now, the natural resources department 800 juveniles that are being raised to adult- ered genetic maintenance. is trying something different: beach sein- hood in hatcheries. – K. Neumeyer “Starting a hatchery broodstock pro- ing for juvenile salmon to hold in captivity
  • 5. Will Recovery Plan Bring Help for Ozette Sockeye? The Makah Tribe welcomed the recen- placing large woody trelease of a recovery plan for threatened debris along stream- Lake Ozette sockeye salmon as a signal banks and replacing that more help is coming with their de- invasive, non-native cades of work to restore a cultural icon to a species along streams harvestable population. with native plants. Lake Ozette sockeye salmon were list- The plan’s biologi- ed as “threatened” under the Endangered cal recovery goals Species Act (ESA) in 1999. The Makah were developed by the Tribe has been working since the 1970s National Oceanic and to return Lake Ozette sockeye to numbers Atmospheric Admin- that will allow it again to be part of the istration Fisheries Ser- Makah diet. vice technical recov- D. Preston “When I was a child, I learned about ery team with active Joe Hinton, Makah’s Hoko Hatchery manager, prepares to release an Lake Ozette through my great-grandfather, participation from the adult sockeye with identification tags back to Umbrella Creek. grandmother, uncles and aunts,” said Russ Lake Ozette Steering The Makah Tribe’s decades of work to Svec, Makah tribal fisheries program man- Committee, made up of tribal representa- recover sockeye populations includes: ager. “It was common for my generation to tives, local citizens, forest managers, and know about the traditional resources avail- biologists from several county, state and ● Mapping the instream habitat of able to us at Lake Ozette.” federal entities. the entire Ozette watershed. The tribe has not fished commercially Although the Fisheries Service is re- ● Improving spawning habitat by for Ozette sockeye since the 1970s. quired under the ESA to produce a recov- adding wood that traps important “With the recovery plan finished, we are ery plan, its implementation is voluntary. spawning gravel. more optimistic about the resources that “We understand that the recovery plan is ● Monitoring water quality at all the will be available to assist us with our work not legally binding,” Svec said. “But it does major tributaries to the lake. to restore this fish and an area, altered by provide us with a road map to recovering ● Annual sockeye spawning surveys extensive land use practices, that is critical Lake Ozette sockeye. With our continued that have been expanded to to the viability of Lake Ozette sockeye,” efforts and the help of other partners, we accurately assess the extent of the Svec said. look forward to the day that Lake Ozette sockeye spawning population. The recovery plan calls for a range of ac- sockeye are recovered and we can return to ● Enhancement of the population tions, including improvement to habitat by our traditional practices.” – D. Preston through the Makah Tribe’s Hoko Hatchery. Floods, Habitat Loss Hurt Puyallup River Chinook Fewer juvenile wild chinook year. A mild winter in 2007 “Because of habitat degra- are migrating out of the Puy- resulted in the largest wild dation, spawning and rearing allup River this year, likely chinook outmigration ever re- habitat throughout the Puyal- because winter floods washed corded in the river: 89,000 wild lup watershed is limited,” Lad- away chinook redds before the chinook. ley said. “One flood can do a lot fish had a chance to emerge “It is possible that we’re see- of damage.” from the gravel nests. ing just a very late outmigra- Historically, floods in the The Puyallup Tribe of Indi- tion, but it’s much more likely Puyallup watershed were not ans counts outgoing chinook that the chinook were killed as dangerous to salmon. “The with a smolt trap in the lower during the winter floods,” said nature of the watershed has E. O’Connell Puyallup River. The trap allows Russ Ladley, resource protec- changed dramatically, with The Puyallup Tribe measures juvenile young salmon to be safely cap- tion manager for the tribe. dikes being built up right next salmon from a smolt trap. Smolts are tured and released, providing A flood in 2006 had a simi- to the river. An increase in im- salmon undergoing “smoltification,” a physiological process that allows an estimate of the watershed’s lar impact on the outmigrat- pervious surfaces such as park- them to survive their transition from productivity. ing chinook population. After ing lots make stormwater all fresh to salt water. In early May, more than half- analysis, the tribe determined the more destructive,” Ladley way through the outmigration that only 10,000 chinook left said. fewer adult chinook returning season, only 34 chinook had the watershed that year, down Low numbers of juvenile three or four years from now, been caught in the trap. That’s from a peak of 60,000 fish in chinook migrating out to the and that will mean restricted down from 2,500 chinook last 2005. ocean this year will mean even fisheries. – E. O’Connell
  • 6. ShellfiSh ManageMent Upper Skagit Comes Together for Clam Dig A day before her 87th birthday, Upper Skagit tribal member Vi Fernando watched her children and grand- children dig for clams. This was the first time Fernando found herself unable to dig. Last year, fellow elders watched in surprise as she got on the boat bound for the shellfish beds, instead of waiting on the beach for a bucket of clams to be brought to her. “This is a community clam dig. Nobody just digs for themselves,” said Scott Schuyler, natural resources di- rector for the Upper Skagit Tribe and one of Fernando’s grandsons. “It’s never one person digging, or one family. We’re digging for everyone.” The Upper Skagit Tribe held the community clam dig at Cama Beach State Park in May. The beach on Camano Island is part of the tribe’s usual and accustomed shell- fishing area. In July, the tribe will have a dig at its other traditional site, which is now part of the U.S. Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. K. Neumeyer “It’s important for our members to get out there exer- cising our treaty rights,” Schuyler said. “Our ancestors Upper Skagit tribal elder Vi Fernando supervises Tamara Sam (left), Linnette Hernandez and Carmella Fernando during a community clam gave everything up for our treaty rights. We’d be doing dig at Cama Beach. them a disservice not to exercise those rights.” This year, a sore foot prevented Fernando from being great-grandmother used to have them hung up in the smokehouse able to step on a clam fork to dislodge the shellfish from where she smoked the fish.” beneath the sand and gravel. She got a few digs in, with The tribal members filled up buckets of butter clams, usually the help of her daughter Carmella Fernando, who stepped leaving behind the larger horse clams, which aren’t as tasty. on the clam fork for her. “They’re just mostly stomach,” Fernando said. “Butter clams “They’re allowed to take 5-gallon buckets for whoever have a lot more meat on them than a horse clam does. I’d keep they’re digging for. That’s a lot of clams,” Vi Fernando the big horse clams – they’ve got big necks, so they make good said. “That’s what we used to live on a long time ago. My chowder.” – K. Neumeyer Shellfish Agreement Leads to Public Beach Enhancement The first clam seeding stemming from Representatives from the Skokomish clusive use. As part of the agreement, the the historic 2007 shellfish agreement Tribe, Taylor Shellfish and state agencies, growers are providing $50,000 annually to brought together a group of nearly 30 folks plus volunteers from as far away as Span- enhance shellfish on public beaches of the from all over Puget Sound to Twanoh State away, scattered approximately 500,000 ju- state’s choosing for the next decade. Park on Hood Canal in April. venile manila clams on the park’s beach. “We need more enhancement opportuni- The project is the result of ties like today to provide more harvest op- an agreement that resolved portunities throughout Hood Canal,” said lingering issues from a 1994 Randy Lumper, the Skokomish Tribe’s federal court ruling that up- aquatic resources enhancement biologist. held the treaty tribes’ right The tiny clams are expected to grow to to harvest shellfish on public legal harvest size in several years. and private tidelands. Under “The tribes and the state have been en- the $33 million agreement hancing public beaches with clams and oys- settled in 2007, treaty tribes ters for years, but our budgets are limited,” agreed to forgo harvesting said Brady Blake, Washington Department naturally occurring shell- of Fish and Wildlife shellfish enhancement fish on commercial growers’ biologist. “Grower-funded seeding will re- farms. The tribes are using ally bump up recreational opportunity on the settlement funding for beaches like this over the next decade or shellfish enhancement on so.” – T. Royal reservation beaches and oth- ers designated for their ex- T. Royal Skokomish Tribe natural resources technician Shane Miller spreads manila clam seed at Twanoh State Park.
  • 7. Concern Grows over Harmful Algal Blooms The Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe is on the hunt for harmful algal blooms this summer in Sequim Bay, to get a better picture of how the explosions of microorganisms affect the bay. “We’re looking at the effects of these blooms on factors such as water qual- ity and toxins in shellfish,” said Chris Whitehead, tribal shellfish biologist. “We also hope that the information will help contribute to the development of a harmful algal bloom early warning system.” Harmful algal blooms occur when T. Royal Suquamish shellfish biologist Paul Williams shows Jean Walat, volunteer coordinator for the Port water temperatures rise or when there Townsend Marine Science Center, how to catch juvenile crabs with a bag of mesh scrubbers. are excess nutrients in the water. The blooms can cause toxins such as domoic acid to develop in shellfish. While not Capturing Wide-eyed Baby Crab to Understand Population Decline harmful to the bivalves, the toxins can sicken humans who eat them. The tribe is sampling shellfish and water at four sites at the same time each The instrument is simple – attach a bag “This project will allow managers to week through September 2009. filled with mesh kitchen scrubbers to a gain insight into the early life stages of this The Washington Department of small buoy and place the contraption in commercially important species and help Health (DOH) and National Ocean- Puget Sound. Pull the buoy 24 hours later to determine how fluid populations are ic and Atmospheric Administration and there should be dozens of Dungeness throughout the state,” said Rasmuson, who (NOAA) have been conducting studies crab larvae attached. wrote the project proposal. of the bay to determine when toxins are Biologists are placing these scrubbers When crab eggs hatch, the larvae drift in the water. But the tribe, which uses along the nearshore to capture a subsample with tidal currents for up to six months be- the bay for a wide range of cultural and of crab washing toward the shore. When fore settling down to mature into adults in economic uses, believes more informa- post-larval crabs are ready to settle, they estuaries and other nearshore areas. tion is needed to get a better grasp of grab the first thing with enough texture While this study is looking at the natural the bay’s overall health. for them to hold onto. Shellfish biologists fluctuation of larvae coming from outside “There seems to be a gap in the data Paul Williams, with the Suquamish Tribe, Puget Sound, a number of factors may con- collected by DOH and NOAA, since and Leif Rasmuson, with the Skokom- tribute to the decline including overfishing, they’re not collected at the same time or ish Tribe, are recruiting tribes, state and low dissolved oxygen and disease. at the same location,” Whitehead said. county agencies, and volunteer groups to Williams and Rasmuson are looking “That makes it difficult to link water collect the native crustaceans throughout for volunteers in Hood Canal, the Strait toxin levels and algae counts with toxin Puget Sound. of Juan de Fuca, Admiralty Inlet, the San levels in shellfish.” “By collecting crab larvae, shellfish Juan Islands and Whidbey Basin. Funding for the study comes from the managers hope to find out where they More information can be found at http:// U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. came from,” Williams said. “In their last sites.google.com/site/megalopasite. The University of Washington also is larval stage, they are called megalops due – T. Royal collaborating on the project. to their huge eyes. We just put the scrub- – T. Royal bers in their path and they grab on. Having collection stations throughout the region Jamestown S’Klallam tribal biologist Lorna will bring in extensive data about the re- O’Rourke samples water in Sequim Bay. gion’s fluctuating crab population and help T. Royal us better manage the harvest.” The focus of the project is the declining Dungeness crab population in Hood Canal. In 2008, crab catch in the area dropped 75 percent, down from 700,000 pounds in 2005. The tribes want to know if the crab found in Hood Canal originated there or if it came from the Pacific Coast or other Submitted photo parts of Puget Sound. A crab larva, known as a megalop for its large eyes, is shown under a microscope.
  • 8. Steelhead RecoveRy Tribal Programs Preserve Steelh Puget Sound steelhead are listed as “threatened” under the federal Endan- gered Species Act, along with Puget Sound chinook, Lake Ozette sockeye and Hood Canal summer chum. Treaty tribes in western Washington are preserving the genetic traits of steelhead at hatcheries while exploring ways to restore lost and degraded habitat. Live Spawning Operation Moves to Tribal Hatchery The Puyallup Tribe of Indi- of killed beforehand. ans is rescuing a wild steelhead “By not killing the fish to broodstock program threatened spawn them in the hatchery, by the closure of the state’s we are allowing the fish to take Voights Creek hatchery, which their natural course,” Smith was heavily damaged by win- said. “Hopefully, now that they ter floods. have a chance to come back, “If steelhead native to this they’ll come back and spawn watershed can’t thrive in the again.” wild, the only option is to raise Historic low runs of Puyallup some of them in a hatchery to River steelhead have become ensure their survival and make common in recent years. sure their genetic traits aren’t “With a stock on the brink, lost,” said Blake Smith, en- every little bit helps,” Smith hancement biologist with the said. tribe. “Certain conditions, such For the past three years, adult as water temperature, can be steelhead have been collected controlled in a hatchery, so fish in a trap on the White River – a show a higher rate of survival tributary to the Puyallup – and there than they do in the wild.” held at Voights Creek until they Offspring of wild Puyallup were spawned. Their offspring Lower Elwha Klalla steelhead broodstock are raised also were raised at Voights tribe has been raisi at a handful of state and tribal until they were transported to hatcheries in the Puyallup Riv- er watershed to safeguard the the Puyallup tribal facility at Diru Creek and finally to the Protect population from extinction. Muckleshoot Tribe’s White The se With the temporary closure River hatchery for release. covered w of the Voights Creek hatch- With Voights Creek offline for a digital ery, the tribe is continuing the at least this year, the fish will blood sam steelhead recovery effort at be spawned and raised at Diru Elwha Kl its Diru Creek Hatchery near until they are transported to head are Puyallup. It’s there that some White River. measured E. O’Connell of the threatened, ESA-listed “Doing the spawning and nearly a Above: Terry Sebastian, Puyallup fisheries biologist, holds an adult steelhead at a fish trap on the White River. The steelhead are undergoing a rearing at Diru will keep the this organ steelhead will contribute to a broodstock program oper- hand-spawning technique that program going for at least this 4-year-ol ated jointly by the Puyallup and Muckleshoot tribes and the allows them to be released back year, but the best long-term so- These state of Washington. Below: Air is pumped into a female into the river after their eggs or lution is to get Voights Creek – they are steelhead to release the eggs during live spawning. milt (sperm) are collected. back up and running,” Smith broodstoc “Unlike other salmon that al- said. After flirting with closing program ways die soon after they spawn, Voights Creek permanently, the ing Elwh a portion of steelhead return state legislature allocated some during th more than once to spawn,” funds to repair the facility. River’s tw Smith said. “A program like this brood- and 108-f Typically, eggs and milt are stock effort is just a stop-gap Curren taken from salmon after they measure until we can solve the can spaw are killed. In the live spawn- habitat issues that are keeping river. ing process, female fish are this population from sustaining Every s injected with air to push out itself,” Smith said. “We hope lected ste some of their eggs. Male fish we can hold on to this stock them in are spawned in a traditional until we know what exactly is believed manner – hand-squeezing milt happening to them.” – but are anesthetized instead – E. O’Connell E. O’Connell
  • 9. head Populations Mapping Redds to Maximize Restoration The Puyallup Tribe of Indians keeps a close eye on steelhead returning to Boise Creek because it’s one of the most popular steelhead spawning spots in the Puy- allup River watershed. Two tribal biologists survey Boise Creek every 10 days from March to May, counting every steelhead they see. They also map each steelhead redd location with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. “The GPS data gives us an almost exact location, within a few feet, of where steelhead lay their eggs,” said Russ Ladley, resource protection manager for the tribe. “With that information, we have another tool for habitat and stock protection.” Tribal surveyors count- ed 29 redds in 2008, up from 15 the year before, but down from 88 in 2006. The data is helping the tribe write a habitat restora- tion plan for Boise Creek. The tribe and the city of Enumclaw received a $120,000 grant from the state Salmon Recovery Funding Board to explore how Boi- se Creek could be made more hospitable to juvenile salmon and steelhead. “Even though a lot of steelhead and chinook return to Boise Creek, it doesn’t mean that the creek pro- duces a lot of juvenile fish,” Ladley said. “Right now T. Royal am hatchery technician Keith Lauderback prepares to spawn a captive-raised steelhead. The there is a lack of quality habitat in a large section of ing broodstock to protect the Elwha River steelhead run. the creek. We’re going to take a close look at what we might be able to do to give salmon the biggest bang ting Steelhead Before Dam Removal for the buck.” Biologists catalog the mapping data in an “Annual etup looks complicated. Two tables rally spawning stock. Fry collected in 2005 Salmon, Steelhead and Char Report” – the most com- with data sheets, laptops, glass slides, were spawned this spring as 4-year-olds; their prehensive report on salmon populations in the Puyal- l scale and instruments for taking progeny are expected to be released as 2-year- lup system. The tribe collects population data on all mples are set up next to the Lower olds in 2011. species of salmon during its survey season, which be- lallam Tribe’s hatchery ponds. Steel- “We’ve found that wild steelhead tend to gins in mid-August, continues through the winter and pulled from the ponds and weighed, emigrate to the ocean as 2-year-olds, so we’ll ends in mid-June. The most recent report is available d, sampled and spawned. Each of try to rear them to that age before we release online at: http://go.nwifc.org/hrw6y8. – E. O’Connell dozen people have a specific job in them,” said Larry Ward, a fisheries biologist nized chaos to help spawn nearly 150 and hatchery manager for the tribe. “We’ve ld steelhead. been successful at raising the 2005 stock to steelhead aren’t hatchery returns spawning maturity, so things are going well e part of the tribe’s captive steelhead so far.” ck program. The tribe started the The tribe collected blood and scale samples, in 2005 to ensure that the remain- and kept track of the genetic makeup of each ha River steelhead aren’t wiped out fish. Two or three males were spawned for ev- he 2011 deconstruction of the Elwha ery female and the fertilized eggs are incubat- wo dams: the 210-foot Glines Canyon ing in the tribe’s hatchery. More than 250,000 foot Elwha. eggs were taken and fertilized this spring. ntly, fish cannot get past the dams and Collaborators on the project include the wn only in the lower five miles of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis- tration, Washington Department of Fish and summer since 2005, the tribe has col- Wildlife and U.S. Fish and Wildlife. Funding eelhead fry from the river and raised for the project comes from the Pacific Coastal its hatchery. The fry collected are Salmon Recovery Fund. – T. Royal to be remnants of the river’s natu- E. O’Connell Puyallup biologist Terry Sebastian surveys Boise Creek for spawning steelhead.
  • 10. Skagit Nearshore Studies Crucial to Salmon Recovery Nearly every day from spring through salinity, depth, velocity and observe the gineers for the Deepwater Slough restora- early fall, somewhere in the Skagit basin substrate and vegetation. As a result, SRSC, tion. At the time of completion in 2000, and San Juan Islands, a crew from the the natural resources arm of the Swinom- it was the largest estuarine project on the Skagit River System Cooperative (SRSC) ish and Sauk-Suiattle tribes, has a 15-year West Coast. But $50,000 was only 2 per- is sampling fish populations. (and counting) comprehensive database of cent of the total project cost and it wasn’t Rain or shine, in smooth waters or blus- the way fish use nearshore habitat. enough, Beamer said. tery wind, the crew pulls beach seines and The nearshore is a nursery for a variety Beyond measuring the effectiveness of sets fyke traps to count and measure fish of fish including sculpins, perch, smelt, a particular project, long-term monitoring before returning them to the water. Crew herring and salmon. Puget Sound chinook on a larger scale is essential to understand- members also record water temperature, salmon, listed as “threatened” under the ing and maintaining salmon recovery. federal Endangered Species Act, depend “It’s nice when monitoring confirms on estuaries for extended rearing during what we think is happening,” Beamer said. outmigration. “But monitoring results are especially im- Monitoring is a crucial, yet often un- portant when things don’t go exactly as derfunded, aspect of the salmon recovery planned.” – K. Neumeyer effort, said Eric Beamer, SRSC’s research director. Without it, nobody knows wheth- er a restoration project did what it was sup- SRSC intends to monitor whether posed to do. chinook populations are increas- “Restoration science is rather new and ing or decreasing in response to the designs used are often untested and multiple factors including: unique by site,” Beamer said. “It is critical ● Habitat restoration that has to learn what actually happens at sites. The occurred. restoration might work better than predict- ● Existing habitat that is or is ed, worse than predicted, or just different not protected. than predicted. If we monitor, we can find ● Environmental changes such out what actually happens and often take as global climate change, corrective action.” which could alter flooding, K. Neumeyer SRSC technicians Jason Boome (left), Upper SRSC’s best example of funding to sea levels and marine Skagit, and Jeremy Cayou Jr., Swinomish, look monitor the effectiveness of a project was survival conditions for for juvenile salmon in a beach seine in the $50,000 from the U.S. Army Corps of En- salmon. Swinomish Channel. Shellfish Remain Safe Despite Dioxin in Oakland Bay Sediment Preliminary data released recently by Without continual industrial output, di- the state Department of Ecology has iden- ‘The tribe is committed to oxin levels in sediment and shellfish de- tified dioxin in sediment throughout Oak- do whatever is necessary to cline over time. “It’s not surprising that land Bay. clean up the bay.’ shellfish accumulate very little dioxin and Outside of Shelton Harbor, the dioxin are safe to eat,” Konovsky said. “This is is distributed uniformly with an aver- ANDY WHITENER, because dioxin builds up in fatty tissue and age concentration of 35 parts per trillion natural resources director, shellfish have a very low fat content.” (ppt). Dioxins are a byproduct of industrial Squaxin Island Tribe Scientists from the state Department of processes, such as papermaking or metal Health also believe that dioxin in the sedi- smelting, but are also produced naturally ment of Oakland Bay does not pose a pub- in small amounts. Dioxins can cause can- • In Similk, Fidalgo and Padilla bays, a lic health concern for shellfish consumers. cer, thyroid disorders and damage the im- 2006 study by the Swinomish Tribe iden- When discovered in sediments elsewhere mune system. tified a range of concentrations of organic around Puget Sound, dioxin in shellfish “At first glance, the distribution pattern compounds including dioxin in sediment, has never been found at levels of public suggests the dioxin may be a historical leg- but levels in shellfish from those same health concern. acy,” said John Konovsky, Squaxin Island sites were more uniform and much lower. “Oakland Bay has always been a favor- Tribe’s environmental program manager. The report also suggested that health risks ite spot for tribal members to dig clams,” Oakland Bay is a productive shellfish from sediment exposure – such as digging said Andy Whitener, the tribe’s natural re- growing area. Studies elsewhere suggest for clams – are even lower than eating sources director. “The tribe is committed there is little connection between dioxin shellfish. to working with state and federal govern- concentrations found in sediment and con- • A 2007 Humboldt Bay study conclud- ments to do whatever is necessary to clean tamination in shellfish: ed that dioxin concentrations in shellfish up the bay. We want to absolutely guaran- • In a 2008 Ecology report on neighbor- tissue were independent of dioxin levels in tee the health of our tribal members and ing Budd Inlet, sediment samples showed sediment. All the tissue directly tested and the entire community.” – E. O’Connell dioxin concentrations ranging from 3 to 60 most reported in the worldwide literature ppt, but concentrations in littleneck/manila was below concentrations considered to be clam samples averaged 0.5 ppt. a risk to human health. 10
  • 11. Donated Trees Add to Fish Habitat More than 100 trees that have fallen into “Trees that wash into the lake from the the reservoir behind Alder Dam will be river and get stuck behind the dam need put to use in engineered logjams to create to be removed before they become a nui- salmon habitat on Ohop Creek. sance,” said David Troutt, natural resourc- es manager for the Nisqually Tribe, which is spearheading the effort to gather the logs. “We’re just taking them out and put- ting them to good use.” Juvenile salmon find both food and shel- ter within logjams. The structures also slow the flow of the creek, easing adult salmon migration. “We know logjams benefit salmon be- cause we’ve been monitoring other resto- ration projects. We really see a difference in the sections of river with logjams and those without,” Troutt said. “There are a E. O’Connell lot more salmon around the logjams.” A truck carrying logs for a nearby habitat res- The lake and dam are owned by Tacoma toration project negotiates a tight turn on the Power, which is turning the trees over to Alder Lake dam. the tribe for free, to use in the restoration project. The tribe only has to pay for trans- Restoring Ohop Creek is important be- porting them to a storage site. cause it is one of only two tributaries to the To restore Ohop Creek, the tribe and Nisqually River that produce chinook. the South Puget Sound Salmon Enhance- “If some catastrophic event – for ex- ment Group will dig a new mile-long creek ample a devastating flood – were to wipe channel and build logjams. out the entire population of chinook along “Ohop right now is basically a long the mainstem, salmon from Ohop Creek straight ditch, which is not a very good would be able to repopulate the rest of the E. O’Connell place for salmon,” said Kim Gridley, proj- river,” Troutt said. “By having separate Florian Leischner, restoration biologist with the Nisqually Tribe, marks a log recently re- ect manager for the enhancement group. populations in different rivers and creeks moved from Alder Lake to be used in a resto- “The project will create a richer, more var- within the same watershed, you strengthen ration project. ied habitat for salmon.” the entire population.” – E. O’Connell Tribal Voice Hoh Tribe: A New Direction acre reservation to about 450 our tribal center and housing ited under the agreement. We acres and much of the remain- out of the path of the river. So are now waiting for approval ing land floods annually. far, we have acquired 160 acres from Congress. We, as Hoh people, had a from the state Department of In the meantime, we plan to choice: Build expensive dikes Natural Resources and 270 begin construction on a new or other structures – which acres from private landowners public safety building this can protect the riverbank but about a mile outside the res- summer on some of the newly hurt fish habitat – or move out ervation and the Hoh River’s purchased land. This will be of harm’s way. Salmon are the floodplain. But the parcels are a valuable resource for both lifeblood of our people, and separated from the reservation tribal and local public safety we didn’t want to do anything by 37 acres of former timber- officers. that would hurt them. We rely lands now owned by Olympic Our decision was difficult, on fishing both culturally and National Park (ONP). The only but we believe this is a good so- Hoh Tribal Chair Walter Ward economically on a reservation road to the reservation already lution for the people, the river A study of the Hoh River’s where unemployment exceeds crosses this sliver of land. and the salmon. migrating main channel shows 70 percent. We have decided We have worked with ONP Walter Ward is the Hoh tribal that it will be running right to move rather than hurt the to develop an agreement to chairman. through our tribal center with- salmon. transfer title of the 37 acres to in the next 25 years. The river We are encouraged by the the tribe. Logging, hunting and already has whittled our 640- help we are receiving to move construction would be prohib- 11
  • 12. Quinault indian nation Logjams Prove Their Worth on Quinault Land use practices in the upper get the job done. “Because of the success Quinault River valley removed of the pilot project, we have secured sig- most of the mature forests and nificant support from the local Quinault large wood from the river and Valley community and other stakeholders its floodplain, destabilizing the for future projects in the watershed, setting river. Side-channel salmon habi- the stage for a collaborative restoration ef- tat has been disappearing from fort,” Armstrong said. the upper Quinault as the river channel moves rapidly across its floodplain. There once were ‘It was also the first time that more than 55 miles of sockeye a net loss of sockeye salmon spawning side-channel habitat spawning habitat was avoided along the river; now there are in this watershed.’ fewer than 5 miles. The timing of the pilot project BILL ARMSTRONG, couldn’t have been better. salmon resources scientist, “The river has responded to Quinault Indian Nation Larry Workman/Quinault Indian Nation Quinault tribal member Kurtis Eckersley plants trees on the engineered logjams in the one of 13 engineered logjams on the upper Quinault River way we expected,” said Bill while a backhoe digs a hole deep enough to keep cotton- Armstrong, salmon resources QIN also is returning the forest to 12 wood roots in water through the long summer. scientist for the QIN. “The pri- miles of barren floodplain in the upper mary objectives of the project Quinault River watershed, in one of the Nearly one year after completion, the were to protect the entrance of this im- most ambitious river restoration plans in Quinault Indian Nation’s (QIN) pilot res- portant side channel used by sockeye for the lower 48 states. More than 1,000 spe- toration of the upper Quinault River is pro- spawning and to re-establish new surfaces cies of sitka spruce, Douglas fir, red alder tecting critical sockeye spawning habitat for floodplain reforestation planting. We and black cottonwood poles were planted and re-establishing river channel stability. have met those objectives. It was also the at the site this spring. Care was taken to Thirteen engineered logjams (ELJs) in- first time that a net loss of sockeye salmon ensure roots were put deep enough to re- stalled last summer in the river above Lake spawning habitat was avoided in this wa- ceive water even in the summer months. Quinault subtly deflected high river flows tershed – it is a very exciting time.” The second phase of the project involves away from an Alder Creek side channel, Protecting salmon habitat wasn’t the building more than 100 ELJs over two one of the few remaining areas used by only successful outcome of the pilot proj- years in a section of river below the first sockeye, or blueback, salmon for spawn- ect. Just as important was successfully project site. Engineers are now designing ing. Sockeye are culturally and economi- demonstrating the upper Quinault River those projects. Work should begin this cally vital to the QIN. restoration strategy and QIN’s ability to summer. – D. Preston QIN Fixes Culverts for Fish A small-scale “bridge to nowhere” on a fish access to prime habitat.” The nation is tributary to the Quinault River illustrates partnering with other agencies such as the one of the many forest road problems the Natural Resources Conservation Service Quinault Indian Nation (QIN) is trying to and Salmon Recovery Funding Board to fix. fix the highest priority blockages first. A bridge that once spanned the creek The “bridge to nowhere” is one such now sits on the streambed after several project slated for repair this summer. The years of high winter streamflows. Vehicles bridge will be relocated, and the road even- crossing the creek actually drive through tually decommissioned. A pond created by the stream, possibly damaging salmon egg a clan of beavers will be kept to provide nests (redds). over-wintering habitat for salmon, particu- QIN is halfway through a two-year sur- larly young coho. vey of more than 2,000 miles of roads on Kaiser likens the search for the culverts D. Preston its reservation, to identify, prioritize and and other problems to an odd treasure Nicole Kaiser, QIN habitat biologist, stands on fix problems. hunt, because the reservation contains ap- a “bridge to nowhere” on a tributary to the “These roads were constructed when the proximately 2,250 miles of roads, many of Quinault River. federal Bureau of Indian Affairs and their which have not been visited for more than contractors ran large, multi-decade timber 40 years. A certified surveyor and techni- and full priority list for repairing problems. sale contracts on the Quinault reservation,” cian from Lewis County Conservation Dis- “There are so many simple fixes that do big said Nicole Kaiser, tribal fish habitat biolo- trict is conducting the culvert inventory. things for fish habitat,” Kaiser said. gist. “There are a lot of undersized culverts As the survey nears completion next – D. Preston that either partially or completely block year, the nation will establish a timeline 1
  • 13. noRth of falcon Lorraine Loomis: Hard Work Brings Results C ooperative co-management continues to point the way to wild salmon recovery in western Washington. “If we didn’t truly be- lieve we can rebuild these stocks, we wouldn’t be working as hard as Born and raised on the Swinomish reservation, Lorraine we do,” said Lorraine Loomis, Swinomish tribal fisheries manager. Loomis grew up fish- ing with her brothers This year marks the 25th anniver- al court ruling that required fisheries Claude, Tandy Jr., sary of the North of Falcon (NOF) management on a river-by-river basis Vince and Marv. All cooperative salmon season setting – the tribes and state began to look of her children fish process for treaty and non-treaty fish- at meeting each other’s needs while as well. Her father, eries in western Washington. Loomis still recovering salmon. Tandy Wilbur Sr., K. Neumeyer has coordinated tribal participation Since its early days, NOF has was general man- Lorraine Loomis greets in NOF since the beginning. been driven by the need to protect ager of the tribe for NWIFC Chairman Billy “There wasn’t a lot of trust at first,” the weakest salmon stocks. “We still more than 40 years. Frank Jr. at the Swinomish she said. “The tribes and state would have those weak stocks,” Loomis Her mother, Laura, Blessing of the Fleet and develop their fisheries management said. “It’s difficult to recover them served on the tribal First Salmon Ceremony. data separately.” Loomis credits without recovering their habitat at senate for more than 50 years. Bill Wilkerson, then director of the the same time.” Her career in fisheries management started at Washington Department of Fisher- Still, Loomis is optimistic. “The the tribe’s fish processing plant. From cleaning to ies, with helping to ignite change. Skagit is doing better,” she said. “We smoking and freezing fish, she did it all, working Tribal and state biologists began are doing a lot of habitat work, as her way up to assistant manager of the plant. working together to develop a unified much as we can. We are also moni- Then, just after the 1974 Boldt decision that set of fisheries management data that toring these projects for their ben- re-affirmed tribes’ treaty-reserved fishing rights, all parties could accept. “Developing efits to salmon.” Swinomish tribal leaders asked if she would serve agreed-upon data was a real turning Much NOF work lies ahead. New as fisheries manager. “I thought it was going to be point,” she said. fishery models are needed, espe- easier, but it wasn’t,” she said. “I’m still working Another was a shift to inside-out cially in light of expanded catch and 14 hours some days, but I find it rewarding. I just fisheries management. “We began release mark-selective sport fisher- love working with fish, anything to do with fish.” to develop outside (ocean) fisheries ies, she said, adding that state budget While fish and shellfish management has filled for treaty and non-treaty fishermen cutbacks are especially troubling. her plate over the past several decades, Loomis to ensure that inside (Puget Sound) At 25, NOF remains a difficult also was called on to negotiate the tribe’s gaming rivers reach escapement. Everyone process, but there isn’t a better one, compact with the state of Washington. began sharing the burden of conser- Loomis said. She serves as U.S. chair of the bilateral Fraser vation and benefits of harvest,” she “This is our process. It is co-man- River Panel that manages sockeye under the U.S./ said. agement, sharing conservation and Canada Pacific Salmon Treaty. She is secretary Something else happened, too. sharing the benefits.” She encourages of the Skagit River System Cooperative board of “Bill asked me what my needs were anyone with an interest in fisheries to directors. The cooperative is the natural resources on the Skagit River. I was baffled,” get involved in NOF. management arm of the Swinomish and Sauk- Loomis said. “No one from the state “It is a good process, and the only Suiattle tribes. In addition, Loomis has served for had ever asked me that question.” one we have,” she said. “We have to more than 30 years as a commissioner for the Accelerated by the changes – fos- make it work.” – T. Meyer Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission, most of tered under Hoh v. Baldrige, a feder- them as vice-chair. She recently was re-elected to another term. Bee Camas Aware Camas blooms on a small prairie south of Forks. Pacific Northwest tribes have used camas culturally and for food for millennia. Stories abound regarding Lewis and Clark learning to eat camas from Northwest tribes. However, camas prairies are disappearing throughout western Washington, due to ur- banization. Some tribes are investigating ways to return camas prairies by burning and seed- ing appropriate areas to re-introduce the plant where it once grew. D. Preston 1
  • 14. Makah tRibe Deer, Elk Continue to Sustain Tribal Culture Makah tribal member Jeremiah Johnson remembers as a boy hunting with his uncle. “I started hunting when I was 12 years old,” Johnson said. “I learned from my family members. This is traditional knowledge passed on from generation to generation.” Learning from their ancestors and gaining intimate knowledge of their homelands is part of subsistence hunt- ing for all Makah tribal hunters. The Makah Tribe always has relied on elk and deer to sustain them and used all parts of the animal for tools and regalia. Only elk antlers were used to make harpoon barbs for whaling. Today, deer and elk meat help feed families in the remote village of Neah Bay while contributing to cultural and spiritual life. The tribe is conducting several research projects to bet- ter understand the numbers of elk calves and black-tail deer fawns born each year and how many of them survive Rob McCoy/Makah Tribe to maturity. An elk calf models his radio-tracking collar during a study conducted “Without this kind of specific knowledge, it can be by the Makah Tribe. easy to overestimate the expected rate of increase in a population and make mistakes in harvest management those that don’t survive, and the number of males and plans,” said Rob McCoy, wildlife division manager for females to reach adulthood in each herd. the Makah Tribe. Johnson, one of the technicians, loves being a part of Radio-tracking collars are placed on elk calves, allow- managing the resource that is so important to him and ing Makah wildlife biologists and technicians to record his tribe. how many survive the first year, the cause of death for “People in the village are always asking me questions about the research we’re doing and how it helps us,” John- D. Preston son said. “It’s important work.” This is the first year of the elk calf study and the fourth year of a black-tail deer study. “We put 20 elk calf col- lars out this spring and we have a grant pending to con- tinue this study for two more years,” McCoy said. As the calves mature, they are recaptured and fitted with larger collars. The tribe already has conducted several studies about the elk populations on and around their reservation. One of the studies looked at the quantity and quality of forage and how it affects reproduction rates. Limited and poor quality forage tends to limit elk calf births to every other year. “To make an informed decision about harvest levels, we need this information,” McCoy said. Long-term partnerships with the Washington Depart- ment of Fish and Wildlife and volunteers from KBH Ar- chers in Bremerton have assisted greatly in the effort to protect and enhance wildlife resources. “We couldn’t do this important research without the volunteers,” McCoy said. “We’re grateful for the assis- tance we’ve received over the years.” – D. Preston Jeremiah Johnson, Makah wildlife technician, helps put up a temporary net used to catch 1-year-old black-tail deer. 1
  • 15. Faster Response to Stranded Marine Mammals Makah tribal member Seraphina Pe- “Better response time improves pro- ters peers through binoculars at a rock tection of human and canine health,” he covered with seals and sea lions near said. “By getting to these sick marine Neah Bay. Her boat bobbing in the ocean mammals sooner, we can minimize the waves, she notes the type and number of potential of the spread of these diseas- each and records them. es.” As marine mammal stranding coor- Sea lions, for instance, may carry lep- dinator for the tribe, Peters’ primary tospirosis, a disease that affects the kid- duty is to monitor the tribe’s 24-hour neys and is frequently fatal. If humans hotline to dispatch rescuers to marine or dogs come into close contact with a mammals stranded on nearby beaches. sick sea lion or its feces, that infection Peters also assists with research such may spread. as marine mammal surveys within the Scordino was forced once to eutha- Makah treaty-reserved fishing areas. nize a sea otter that was clearly un- healthy. The otter carried wounds indi- cating that he’d had a fight with a dog on the beach. The otter was later found to have canine distemper, a disease often fatal to dogs. Layers of fat that insulate marine mammals from the ocean’s cold water causes them to overheat when they be- come stranded on a beach. Once a ma- rine mammal has died, the insulation of the fat also traps heat within the body, causing animal’s organs to decompose D. Preston quickly. The decomposition makes de- Two sea otters frolic near Neah Bay in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Biologists count otters and pho- termining the cause of death almost im- D. Preston Seraphina Peters, Makah marine mammal strand- tograph them when possible to identify individual possible, Scordino said. ing coordinator, uses binoculars to get a better animals by their nose scars. “Getting to these animals in a timely look at seals and sea lions. manner allows us to perform necrop- “Having Seraphina available really sies to determine the cause of death and their hair annually, as well as to breed helps improve our response time to ma- gives us clues to trends in marine mam- and give birth. Peters kept other people rine mammals on the beach,” said Jona- mal populations,” Scordino said. away until the seal ambled back into the than Scordino, marine mammal biolo- Peters, a veteran of the tribe’s fisher- water. gist for the Makah Tribe. ies program, already has responded to “It was exciting,” she said. “This is Marine mammals such as seals can a stranding. A several-hundred-pound really interesting work.” To report a ma- carry diseases fatal to humans and dogs elephant seal was on the beach to molt. rine mammal stranding in the area, call visiting local beaches. Elephant seals come ashore to shed (360) 640-0569. – D. Preston Generations In this photo from the 1920s, Makah tribal mem- ber Lighthouse Jim stands next to his whaling canoe in Neah Bay, holding a har- poon. A seal float is visible in the canoe. Courtesy of Makah Cultural and Research Center via the Washington State Historical Society 1
  • 16. Walking On Bea Charles University of North Texas. Since 1992, he worked with Charles and her aunt, Adeline Smith, 91, to help compile the tribe’s first Lower Elwha Klallam tribal elder dictionary and transcribe the tapes. Their work led to the develop- Bea Charles (Auntie Bea), passed ment of Klallam language programs in the area. Charles also was away April 20 at her home on the a source of history and language for the Jamestown S’Klallam Lower Elwha Klallam reservation, at and Port Gamble S’Klallam tribes. the age of 89. She also helped defend the tribe’s treaty fishing rights in Unit- She was born May 14, 1919 in Pysht ed States v. Washington, leading to the 1974 Boldt decision. She and was raised by her great-grandfa- spoke before Congress to support removal of the dams on the El- ther and other elders who were alive at treaty time in 1855. As a wha River. She was heavily involved in education in the Port An- direct link to the past, she helped hand down her tribe’s oral tradi- geles schools and on the reservation, serving as the chairperson tions and history, as well as the native language. for the tribe’s Indian Education program. She also served on sev- “Losing Bea was a big loss for our tribe,” said great-grandniece eral organizations, including the National Indian Health Board, Wendy Sampson. “She had a lot of knowledge left to give and she and championed domestic violence awareness. gave a lot through all her years.” In addition to Smith, Charles is survived by sister Bernice An- Charles was devoted to passing the Klallam language to future derson at Lower Elwha; son Chuck Williams in Tacoma; daugh- generations, by transcribing taped recordings made in the 1950s ter Lorna Mike in Olympia; grandchildren, great-grandchildren, and 1960s to help preserve the tribal stories, oral history and lan- nieces and nephews. She was preceded in death by husbands guage. Elmer Charles of Lower Elwha and Chuck Williams of Duncan, “We spent many, many hours hunched over tape recorders; she B.C., and by sons Carl Charles and Gordon Sampson, both of was very dedicated to reviving the language and keeping the cul- Lower Elwha. ture alive,” said Timothy Montler, professor of linguistics at the Bernie Gobin At 15, Gobin forged his birth He was an active supporter of Kai-Kai certificate and ran away to the Tulalip elders who revived Fort Lewis to enlist in the U.S. the First Salmon Ceremony in Esteemed Tulalip tribal elder Army. the mid-1970s, and remained a and leader Bernie “Kai-Kai” He married Delores Young at leader in the ceremony. He also Gobin passed away May 4 at the age of 20, and they started was a lifelong member of the the age of 78. their family of six children. Church of God. One of the original com- Gobin served on the Tulalip Gobin was preceded in missioners on the Northwest Tribes Board of Directors for death by his parents; brother Indian Fisheries Commission, 22 years, at times as chairman Thomas Gobin; sisters Harriet Gobin actively fought for the and vice chairman. He was the Erickson, Lavon Schneehagen, 1974 Boldt decision ruling, tribes’ fisheries director for Violet “Speedy” Parks and Ida which guaranteed tribes’ rights many years. In recognition of Schlosser; daughter Cherie to fish in their usual and accus- his lifetime of advocacy for Ann Gobin; and grandchild tomed areas. tribal fishing rights and fishery Joseph Albert Gobin Jr. Bernie Gobin was born in Dar- resource management, the Tul- is survived by his wife of 58 rington, to Joseph and Ruth alip fish hatchery was renamed years, Delores; numerous chil- Gobin. He learned to fish and the Bernie “Kai-Kai” Gobin dren, grandchildren and great- hunt at an early age. Hatchery in 2000. grandchildren. 1

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