Ken Curren's Steelhead Evolution & Diversity

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Ken Currens, Hatchery Genetics Manager for the Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission, gives a talk on the evolution of steelhead.

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Ken Curren's Steelhead Evolution & Diversity

  1. 1. The View <br />from 60,000 Feet<br />Evolution and Diversity<br /> of Steelhead<br />Ken Currens<br />Pacific Coast Steelhead Management Meeting 2010<br />
  2. 2. Things weren’t always as they are now<br />The present is often more interesting if we know something about the past<br />West Africa, 1930<br />
  3. 3. Eocene North America<br />55-30 Million <br />Years Ago<br />Began with rapid warming<br />Polar climates similar to Pacific Northwest today<br />Tropical forests in Pacific Northwest<br />Large lakes and inland seas; none of existing mountain ranges<br />
  4. 4. British Columbia<br />40-50 Ma <br />Salmonidae already present<br />Included<br /><ul><li>Thymallinae
  5. 5. Coregoninae
  6. 6. Salmoninae</li></ul>Start of long-term cooling trend <br />Eosalmo driftwoodensis<br />
  7. 7. Continued cooling<br />allowed dispersal<br />southward<br />Late Miocene <br />(10-5 Ma) <br />The Sabertooth Salmon<br />Oncorhynchyus (Smilodonichthys) rastrosus<br />
  8. 8. Continued cooling<br />allowed dispersal<br />southward<br />Plio-Pleistocene (5-0.1 Ma) <br />
  9. 9. Fossil O. australis<br />In Lake Chapala, <br />Mexico<br />
  10. 10. Distribution of western trouts<br />in North America <br />about 1900 <br />(from Behnke 1992)<br />
  11. 11. Diversity of extant <br />western trouts<br />Westslope cutthroat<br />Yellowstone cutthroat<br />Greenback cutthroat<br />Bonneville cutthroat<br />Coastal cutthroat<br />Colorado River cutthroat<br />Rainbow trout O. mykiss<br />Mexican golden trout<br />& undescribed trout<br />Rio Grande cutthroat<br />Whitehorse & Alvord cutthroats<br />Gila trout<br />Paiute cutthroat<br />California,& Kern golden trouts<br />Lahontan cutthroat<br />Humboldt cutthroat<br />Apache trout<br />
  12. 12. Extant distribution does not simply reflect colonization to the south<br />Extant distribution does not simply reflect southward colonization<br />Formation of mountain ranges<br />Shaping old rivers<br /> & creating new ones<br />Columbia basalts & Snake River flows<br />Faulting in Basin & Range<br />Volcanic lava floods<br />Glaciation<br />
  13. 13. Extant distribution does not simply reflect colonization to the south<br />Extant distribution does not simply reflect southward colonization<br />No O. mykissin the Columbia River as recently as 70,000-50,000 years ago<br />Formation of mountain ranges<br />Shaping old rivers<br /> & creating new ones<br />Columbia basalts & Snake River flows<br />Faulting in Basin & Range<br />Volcanic lava floods<br />Glaciation<br />
  14. 14. Species & Subpeciesof North American trout<br />Extant distribution does not simply reflect colonization to the south<br />Pleistocene<br />2.6<br />Extant distribution does not simply reflect southward colonization<br />Pliocene<br />5.3<br />Oncorhynchus<br />Salmo<br />Miocene<br />23<br />Oligocene<br />Hucho<br />Brachymystax<br />Salvelinus<br />34<br />Oncorhynchus<br />Salmo<br />Eocene<br />
  15. 15. Two Morphologically Different Forms of Steelhead Trout<br />Inland or fine-scale form with redband trout-like characteristics<br />Coastal form<br />Landlocked “redband” trout with cutthroat-like characteristics (Oncorhynchus sp.)<br />
  16. 16. Extant distribution does not simply reflect colonization to the south<br />Coastal & Inland forms thought to reflect dispersal after isolation & differentiation in glacial refuges <br />
  17. 17. Derived Traits<br />Most primitive forms of O. mykissoccur near Gulf of California<br />Coastal rainbow trout & steelhead<br />Mexican golden trout<br />& undescribed trout<br />Goose Lake, Warner,& Chewaucanredbands<br />Columbia River redbands<br />White River redband<br />McCloud redband<br />Catlow Valley redband<br />Fort Rock redband<br />Upper Klamath redband<br />California & Kern golden trouts<br />Primitive Traits<br />
  18. 18. Earliest O. mykissevolved around the Gulf of California & dispersed north<br />Reached Columbia River 32-50K years ago<br />?<br />Columbia <br />Oregon Desert Basins<br />Klamath<br />Sacramento<br />San Joaquin <br />Gulf of California<br />
  19. 19. Tahoe Glaciation<br /> 32K years ago<br />Glacial Lake Missoula<br />Upper Fraser<br />Puget Sound<br />10-15 K years ago<br />?<br />Columbia <br />Oregon Desert Basins<br />Klamath<br />Sacramento<br />San Joaquin <br />Gulf of California<br />
  20. 20. 5<br />B<br />Columbia River<br />L<br />G<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />F<br />E<br />G<br />F<br />B<br />E<br />B<br />B<br />F<br />G<br />B<br />J<br />E<br />E<br />B<br />F<br />G<br />L<br />B<br />B<br />J<br />F<br />B<br />F<br />G<br />J<br />D<br />B<br />B<br />E<br />A<br />F<br />A<br />D<br />D<br />B<br />O<br />B<br />B<br />A<br />D<br />A<br />A<br />B<br />B<br />A<br />B<br />L<br />A<br />A<br />A<br />J<br />A<br />A<br />A<br />B<br />A<br />A<br />A<br />A<br />B<br />O<br />A<br />H<br />0<br />A<br />A<br />A<br />J<br />A<br />A<br />A<br />A<br />B<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />B<br />F<br />C<br />C<br />E<br />C<br />G<br />O<br />O<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />Intermediates?<br />Harney (H), Catlow (I)<br />Fort Rock (K)<br />C<br />C<br />B<br />C<br />L<br />I<br />O<br />B<br />B<br />H<br />H<br />G<br />H<br />H<br />I<br />Sacramento:<br />Goose Lake (L), <br />Warner Lakes (O)<br />Chewaucan (J)<br />N<br />K<br />Q<br />N<br />M<br />N<br />N<br />N<br />-5<br />Q<br />Canonical Variate II<br />K<br />G<br />M<br />N<br />N<br />N<br />N<br />N<br />N<br />N<br />M<br />Klamath:<br />Upper Klamath headwater (M), <br />Upper Klamath Lake (N)<br />Coastal Klamath mountains (Q)<br />M<br />M<br />M<br />M<br />M<br />M<br />M<br />M<br />M<br />-10<br />M<br />M<br />-15<br />5<br />-30<br />-20<br />-25<br />-15<br />-10<br />-5<br />0<br />Canonical Variate I<br />
  21. 21. Are Extant Distributions Always About Geology?<br />Life-history (e.g, ability to migrate, environmental tolerance) makes a difference<br />What about biotic interactions?<br />
  22. 22. Williamson River<br />Klamath River Basin<br />Sycan River<br />Trout Creek<br />Upper Klamath Lake<br />Sprague River<br />Klamath redband<br />(O. mykissnewberrii)<br />Iron Gate Dam<br />Jenny Creek Falls<br />Coast steelhead<br />(O. mykissirideus)<br />Lower Klamath River<br />
  23. 23. Klamath Basin<br />Oncorhynchusmykiss<br />Williamson River<br />Sycan River<br />sAH*112 allele<br />sAH* alternate alleles<br />Trout Creek<br />Upper Klamath Lake<br />Sprague River<br />Iron Gate Dam<br />Jenny Creek Falls<br />Ancestral Klamath redband<br />( unnamed subspecies)<br /><ul><li> Isolated above barriers formed before dispersal</li></ul> of coastal steehead from glacial refugia<br /><ul><li> More primitive morphology</li></ul>Lower Klamath River<br />
  24. 24. Why Don’t the Ancestral Redband Still Occur Throughout Upper Klamath Lake Basin?<br />Williamson River<br />Sycan River<br />Trout Creek<br />Upper Klamath Lake<br />Sprague River<br />Iron Gate Dam<br />Jenny Creek Falls<br />Lower Klamath River<br />
  25. 25. 100% Susceptible <br />Co-evolution with Diseases & Parasites<br />Williamson River<br />Sycan River<br />Ceratomyxashasta<br />Trout Creek<br />Upper Klamath Lake<br />Sprague River<br />100% Susceptible <br />Intermediate resistance<br />Iron Gate Dam<br />Jenny Creek Falls<br />100% Resistant<br />Lower Klamath River<br />100% Resistant<br />
  26. 26. Reconnection of Upper Klamath Basin to the Pacific allowed invasion C. shastaand C. shasta resistant O. mykissdisplacing earlier form<br />Williamson River<br />Sycan River<br />Trout Creek<br />Upper Klamath Lake<br />Sprague River<br />Iron Gate Dam<br />Jenny Creek Falls<br />Lower Klamath River<br />
  27. 27. Steelhead life-history contributed to greater O. mykissdiversity <br />than often recognized<br />Glacial Lake Missoula<br />Upper Fraser<br />Puget Sound<br />?<br />Columbia <br />Oregon Desert Basins<br />Klamath<br />Sacramento<br />San Joaquin <br />
  28. 28. Basins now isolated from large river systems played key roles in the evolution of steelhead<br />Glacial Lake Missoula<br />Upper Fraser<br />Puget Sound<br />?<br />Columbia <br />Oregon Desert Basins<br />Klamath<br />Sacramento<br />San Joaquin <br />
  29. 29. Large river systems were more important than glaciation in diversity of O. mykiss<br />Glacial Lake Missoula<br />Upper Fraser<br />Puget Sound<br />?<br />Glacial refuges &<br /> dispersal<br />37%<br />Columbia <br />67%<br />Persistence in large<br /> river systems<br />Ability to Explain Differences<br />Oregon Desert Basins<br />Klamath<br />Sacramento<br />San Joaquin <br />
  30. 30. Co-evolution with diseases & parasites may help explain some unexpected distributions of trout<br />Glacial Lake Missoula<br />Upper Fraser<br />Puget Sound<br />?<br />Columbia <br />Oregon Desert Basins<br />Klamath<br />Sacramento<br />San Joaquin <br />
  31. 31. Things weren’t always as they are now<br />The present is often more interesting if we know something about the past<br />Fishing for Ancestral Steelhead in the Oregon Desert Basins, 1985<br />
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