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Bill armstrong upper quinault river restoration - tribal habitat conference november 2010
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Bill armstrong upper quinault river restoration - tribal habitat conference november 2010

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  • Repeated glaciations during the late Pleistocene affected landforms and set ecological boundaries for the succession of biological communities. The last glaciations likely had the largest influence on what this area and its ecosystem developed into. The last glaciation in the Quinault Valley is called the Chow Chow Glaciation; it advanced out of the Olympic Mountains to within about 12 km (7.5 mi) of the Pacific Ocean. (the slide is actually a glacial complex in Alaska, but is a reasonable representation of the Quinault-Queets-Humptulips complex). About 29,000 years ago the Chow Chow glacier began its gradual retreat across the coastal piedmont toward the Olympics.As the glacier retreated, the coastal plain filled with life and the dynamics of colonization, adaptation and succession progressed. While physical, erosional processes changed the landscape, stability was introduced through development of old-growth forests.
  • The glacial retreat stagnated at the foot of the Olympics about 18,000 years ago. During this pause, the terminal moraine that impounds Lake Quinault was formed. After the period of stagnation, the glacier continued its retreat up the narrow Quinault Valley and Lake Quinault formed behind the terminal moraine. As the glacier retreated, the Lake filled an expanding area until approximately 10,000 years ago the glacier had retreated to near the Forks and across the Big Creek channel and the Lake extended all the way from the moraine to the glacier base. As the glacier continued to recede and the river incising its channel through the terminal moraine, the surface elevation of the lake gradually declined and its surface area decreased. This slide shows the approximate rate of regression of the Lake down the Quinault Valley as the outlet channel was incised. As the glacier retreated and the lake receded, the exposed valley floor had a base of glacial outwash dominated by gravels and cobbles overlaid by lacustrine sediments; mostly very fine sediments like glacial flour.The down-valley progression of the lake shore was gradual, taking thousands of years and allowing channel processes and floodplain forests to develop to relative stability. Whether or not blueback were here before or during the last glaciation, once Lake Quinault formed, conditions to support sockeye and allow accumulation of adaptations to optimize survival in the local setting were available.
  • The BOR concluded this is likely what the Quinault Valley looked like in 1850. There are several physical similarities between this river and the UQR; narrow, contained valley with steep side slopes, glacial influence, glacial source along with snow and rain.(Early settlers and inhabitants of the region described the Upper Quinault River as a large stream that flowed between two rather narrow, heavily wooded banks.)Mature floodplain forests; mature forested islands.Narrow active channel.Channel containment by mature forest.Note the stable relict side and terrace channels. 3-4 hundred years old.Habitat complexity supports sub-population structure and resilience.By 1923 the manager of the Falls Creek Hatchery wrote, “In connection with observations in the territory drained by the Upper Quinault River, the constant shifting of the channels has been particularly noticed. It is worthy of note that this feature is a matter of comparatively recent years and has developed at an alarming rate during the past twenty years.”
  • Due to their sheer size and bouyancy resistance to transport down the river, the trees became hard points that formed the foundation for logjams to form
  • These logs collected smaller logs and over time grew into large logjams, some spanned the entire channel and were enormous in size.
  • This is the Upper Quinault River today.Lack of mature forest on the floodplain.Relatively wide active channel.Little evidence of containment.Lack of channel stability.We are all aware of the dynamic nature of the Upper River, and the dramatic channel changes that seem to occur every winter. We’ve observed the mainstem river inundating or destroying channels the Blueback use for spawning and the infrastructurethat continues to be at risk.There has been some debate over whether the condition of the Upper River is natural and normal for this kind of river, or if its current condition is the result of man’s activities in the Quinault Valley.We contracted with the US Bureau of Reclamation to conduct a detailed study of the condition of the Upper River and it’s salmon habitat-forming processes, and to determine whether there was evidence for historic changes in physical processes or habitats over time.
  • This figure shows the trend of historic run sizes.Run sizes in the early 1900’s were impressive. The average run size during 1908-1951 was approximately 250K.There was a 7-9 year cycle in abundance caused be ecosystem limits and processes; the result was the large runs were produced by small runs and the small runs were produced by large runs.Beginning in the early 1950’s, the cycling eroded and disappeared, and there has been a trend of continuous decline in run sizes ever since.Average production today is only about 14% of what it was prior to 1950.10 of the last 16 total run sizes (63%) have been less that the escapement goal.The 2006 and 2007total run sizes were the smallest on record (3,500 and 5,000).So, in terms of abundance and trends, the blueback population is severely depressed, and the declining trend is continuing.
  • Why blueback are so important:Five different studies of genetic differentiation using allozyme variation at polymorphic loci showed Quinault Blueback to be genetically distinct from other nearby populations; including Columbia River, Puget Sound, British Columbia, Frazer River, and Ozette stocks.
  • Magnitude of inundation during 50-100 year floods. Infrastructure inundation and maintenance issues in floodplain and on intermediate terrace surfaces…
  • Regardless of your opinions about the science of causes for current climate trends, we have some important realities staring us in the face.
  • The Anderson glacier, a remnant of the Chow Chow Glacier, has declined dramatically in the past few years. The decline has seemed to accelerate with time until finally
  • No, but if we don’t act the demise of blueback may be inevitable. The best preparation for large-scale trends is to restore diversity and resilience in the blueback population and its habitats. This will result from a focused restoration program to reverse the current trends and begin to restore stability
  • Short sited land management, trying to apply land use, forest management, and infrastructure practices that fall short and “ don’t work” in the Quinault. Hatcheries too… We’ve learned this from our own experiences and observations…stop treating the symptoms, we Must treat the disease.
  • The purpose of the plan is to provide a guiding document for restoration in the Quinault River valley; provide the restoration strategy fitting to the Quinault River valley
  • Following this strategy outlined in the Restoration plan we will incrementally restore the Quinault Valley over next century while implementing a shift from “status quo” management activities that result in cumulative impacts to incrementally restore the Quinault Valley over next century
  • Red alder conversion to black cottonwood and conifer; pasture land conversion to conifer -> especially within riparian zone along the river
  • (i.e. conservation easements, roadway setbacks,decomissioning and removal of process inhibiting structures)
  • Restoration will benefit the economies of the QIN and local stakeholders…
  • The Nation enjoys exclusive jurisdiction over fisheries resources and management within the boundaries of the Reservation and, as a Self-Regulating Tribe, also manages its own fisheries over a broad area outside the Reservation in a co-management relationship with the State of Washington.The Nation has developed an approach for management of its fisheries and natural resources that is science based and built on traditional-cultural foundations formed over millennia.
  • Pre-1850Quinault community and culture sustained by rich natural resources; blueback in particularSalmon harvested in-river at several locations using adaptive methods (nets, traps, spears and gaffs)Salmon used for subsistence, ceremony and a trade economyThe Quinault salmon (blueback) was a cultural icon and a source of reputation in the Northwest
  • EMZ is effective channel migration zone, MMZ mainstem migration zone, SMZ side channel migration zone, CMZ valley wall to valley wall, HCMZ historic channel migration zone…
  • <0.5 miles of habitat
  • The Quinault Indian Nation, Olympic National Park (CPR) Conserve, Protect, Restore. The responsibilities of both QIN and agencies are irrevocably linked by treaty and policy directives…
  • Transcript

    • 1. Upper Quinault River Restoration Bill Armstrong, Salmon Resources Scientist Quinault Department of Fisheries
    • 2. Presentation Outline  Scientific Background  Threats  Fundamental Elements  Alder Creek Demonstration Pilot Project  Questions?
    • 3. SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND
    • 4. >25,000 years ago
    • 5. Upper Quinault River Floodplain 1850
    • 6. Mature timber along the riverbanks…
    • 7. E. F. Quinault River 2009
    • 8. E. F. Quinault River 2009
    • 9. (Abbe & Montgomery 1996) Initiation and evolution of a natural logjam A “Big” Guy Scientific Foundation
    • 10. Large wood is a structural component of forest rivers that directly influences river morphology, channel dynamics and forest structure: Large snags in river Large trees in floodplain = stability Small snags in river Small trees in floodplain = instability Scientific Foundation (Fetherston 2005)
    • 11. THE QUINAULT RIVER TODAY
    • 12. Upper Quinault River Floodplain
    • 13. The Problem 1850 Today Mature conifer floodplain, anabranching river channel and extensive lateral side channel network = stability and abundant functional salmon habitat Immature red alder floodplain, shallow braided river channel and few lateral side channels remain = unstable, limited functional salmon habitat
    • 14. Current pattern of floodplain forest development Restore the natural pattern of floodplain forest development Scientific Foundation
    • 15. WHY DOES IT MATTER?
    • 16. - 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Salmon population response Quinault Blueback Runsize 1910-2010
    • 17. Why it matters…. • Blueback are genetically distinct from other sockeye populations • Run timing and spawning period are unique compared to other sockeye populations • Evolutionary Significant Unit - a unique population under federal ESA designation • In danger of “virtual extinction
    • 18. THREATS
    • 19. Side Channel Habitat - Only 5 miles remain
    • 20. Private Property and Public Safety
    • 21. NPS and the Counties have chronic maintenance issues with roads, bridges, and campgrounds from river erosion, flooding, and sediment deposition. Graves Creek Road Roads located in the floodplain and resulting emergency repairs have harmful cumulative impacts. Environmentally sensitive alternatives for access are needed to not only prevent further habitat degradation but to restore riverine-forest functions.
    • 22. Floodplain Inundation (100 year flood)
    • 23. Hopeless? CHANGE INTERVENTION FLOODPLAIN RESTORATION A CALL TO ACTION!
    • 24. FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF THE RESTORATION PLAN
    • 25. Upper Quinault River Watershed
    • 26. The Upper Quinault River Valley Restoration Reach
    • 27. Restoration will require… Change from the Status Quo: "It is common sense to take a method and try it. If it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all, try something.” — Franklin D. Roosevelt Perseverance: "It's a little like wrestling a gorilla. You don't quit when you're tired. You quit when the gorilla is tired.” — Robert Strauss Resolve to “stay the course”: "Always bear in mind that your own resolution to succeed, is more important than any other one thing.” — Abraham Lincoln
    • 28. General Restoration Approach • Natural processes based, landscape-scale ecosystem restoration • Incremental actions over the next 20 years in order to achieve desired long term goals • Cumulative benefits rather than cumulative impacts The Plan provides the alternative for 1) activities that continue to impact habitat and 2) the current regulatory framework overseeing land use and infrastructure protection in the valley
    • 29. Purpose of The Plan is to Provide Direction and Guidance for Restoration 1. Provide the scientific foundation for habitat restoration in the Quinault River Valley 2. Provide the general approach for restoration 3. Provide methods and procedures for restoration 4. Provide the framework for prioritizing, developing, and implementing projects
    • 30. Restoration Strategy “Promotes the preservation of natural resources and remaining habitat in the short- term while implementing a science based foundation that will support sustainable recovery of salmon and ecosystem function over the long-term.”
    • 31. PROCESS AND PROCEDURE
    • 32. Typical Site Plan
    • 33. Typical ELJ Design
    • 34. ELJs mimic natural logjams
    • 35. Opportunistic use of wood debris
    • 36. Created by Herrera Environmental Consultants Current condition
    • 37. Short term Future Condition 100 years Protective buffer Mature forest patches develop on ELJ hard-points Infrastructure
    • 38. Long term Future Condition 200 years
    • 39. ALDER CREEK SIDE CHANNEL PILOT PROJECT
    • 40. ELJ 6 (natural logjam) ELJ 7 ELJ 12 ELJ 11ELJ 10 ELJ 9 ELJ 8
    • 41. ELJ 1 ELJ 2 Lattice tipped into river Alder Creek Side Channel
    • 42. Restoration Planting
    • 43. QDNR Habitat Restoration Program Quinault Department of Habitat Restoration consisting of a multi-disciplined team: - Fisheries Scientists - Forest ecologist - Fluvial geomorphologist - Hydrologist - Professional engineer - Project coordinator - GIS specialist - Restoration technicians
    • 44. ELJ Construction Only = $31,500 to $50,000 each ELJ Cost (all elements included) = $137,000 each ELJs Total (400) = $54,800,000 Floodplain Restoration Planting = $ 980,000 ELJ and Restoration Planting = $57 million Infrastructure and land acquisition = $63 million GRAND TOTAL = $120 MILLION Restoration Costs
    • 45. "There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things.” — Niccolo Machiavelli The Prince (1532)
    • 46. “SUCCESS DOESN’T COME TO YOU…YOU GO TO IT!”
    • 47. Quinault Climate Change –> End of century • Similar climate to 5,000-6,000 years ago • Surface air temperature 2 degrees warmer by end of century • Winter precipitation as rain increases 4-35% • Increases in winter flooding to ratio and frequency of 20 year floods • Reduced snowpack • Olympic glaciers will be gone • Summer base flows projected to decline 3 to 35% • Stressors to salmon and forests (Littell & Mantua 2009)
    • 48. Quinault River Restoration Coalition Government – Congressman Norm Dicks, Senator Patty Murray, Senator Maria Cantwell Federal Partners – Olympic National Forest, Olympic National Park, Army Corp of Engineers, US Geological Survey, US Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service State Partners – Governor’s Salmon Recovery Office, Department of Natural Resources, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Department of Ecology, Historical Preservation Office Local Partners - Jefferson County, Grays Harbor County, Quinault Valley River Committee NGOs – Wild Salmon Center, The Nature Conservancy, Mitsubishi Corporation, Olympic National Park Associates, Washington Coast Sustainable Salmon Partnership, The Bullet Foundation, Pacific Coast Salmon Coalition
    • 49. Federal Lead Agency Designation • QIN soliciting the BIA, Army Corp or NRCS to act as lead federal agency for restoration • Satisfies federal requirements for project sponsor and serves as a liaison between QIN and federal government • “Streamlines” the bureaucratic federal process to increase efficiency • QIN achieves additional priority for restoration in the valley since a federal action
    • 50. Federal Lead Agency / Quinault Indian Nation Regulatory Agencies (Federal, State, County) Landowners (Private, Federal, State, County) Quinault Valley River Committee Quinault Valley Community
    • 51. Federal and State Designations • Wild and Scenic River Designation (pending) • Wild Salmon Stronghold Designation (Congressional 2010)
    • 52. PROCESS & PROCEDURES
    • 53. Project Prioritization Flexibility: Other factors also influence timing of projects such as local community interests and opportunity to implement restoration plan elements during “emergency declarations”.
    • 54. Project Development Project Identification -> Landowner Agreement Project Development -> Geomorphic Site Assessment -> Conceptual Design -> Hydraulic Modeling -> Risk Assessment and Benefit Analysis -> Landowner Agreement Engineering Plans and Specifications -> Landowner Approval -> Federal, State, County Permitting ESA Consultation & Permitting -> Corp-USFWS Programmatic BO/SPIF -> Corp Nationwide Permit -> Section 106 Cultural Resources -> State Historical Preservation Act -> Streamlined State HPA -> County Shoreline Exemption -> NMFS Essential Fish Habitat -> Section 404 CWA Materials Procurement -> Permitting -> Project Management -> Monitoring Materials Storage and Staging -> Landowner Agreement -> Project Management -> Permitting Construction -> Project Management -> Construction Oversight -> Final Inspection Project Monitoring -> Landowner Agreement -> Project Management
    • 55. Project Schedule (1 – 3 years) 10/31
    • 56. Emergency Action Flow Chart
    • 57. Post construction river velocity 2-D output (ELJs are red)
    • 58. NEXT STEPS
    • 59. Short term: The next 5 years • Educate the local community and other stakeholders • Formalize the QIN led coalition of restoration partners • Review and provide recommendations to existing management plans, land-use, and emergency infrastructure repair/protection methods • Develop the restoration program framework and program budget • Secure funding to implement the restoration program • Develop alternative land-use, access and infrastructure management plans • Initiate restoration actions directed to protect existing side channel habitat and reduce HCMZ expansion • Begin the reforestation process
    • 60. • 35 project areas have been identified and preliminary budgets developed • 2 of these project areas are at the permit level design and ready for final design, permitting and implementation as funding is secured • We are also working with Jefferson County and Federal Highways on a road re-route for a segment of the South Shore Road • Nature conservancy on large land purchase in JeffCo Next Steps
    • 61. Option 1: Continuous ELJ crib revetment = treats approximately 250-300’ feet Option 2: 5 flow deflector ELJs no less than 30’ x 30’ = treats approximately 700’ depending on required spacing and design needs Both options: 200’ of riverbank width in treatment zone would be restored as riparian area using conifer and other plantings.
    • 62. Economic Benefits Restoration of the Quinault River can lead to the recovery of sustainable natural resources and expansion of a tourism based economy • Restoration related jobs • Improved fisheries opportunity • Tourism • Restoration science monitoring and research • “Trickle thru dollars” for the local economy
    • 63. DISCUSSION
    • 64. NEPA, ESA Consultation and Permitting Strategy • Programmatic EA for restoration reach (10 year) • Programmatic Biological Opinion (Corp-USFWS) for ESA consultation • Expedited Nationwide Permit (Army Corp) • Essential Fish Habitat (Salmon) Consultation • Streamlined HPA permitting and county shoreline exemptions • Expedited Section 404 Consultation (Clean Water Act)
    • 65. Public Relations and Outreach Strategy • Quinault Indian Nation • Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission • Wild Salmon Center • Washington Coast Sustainable Salmon Partnership • Quinault Valley River Committee
    • 66. Land Management & Conservation Strategy • QIN and The Nature Conservancy working to develop a Land Conservation Strategy • Conservation Areas and Easements • Private forest owner conversion (DNR program) • Riparian buffer zone reestablishment • Monetary compensation for conversion of private lands for conservation purposes • Stewardship  natural resource use protected
    • 67. Wood Procurement Strategy • Material source identification • Timber sales (BIA, QIN, state, county) • USFS “free use” program • Materials storage and staging • Materials inventory management
    • 68. Restoration Monitoring Strategy • Baseline ecological monitoring • Project effectiveness monitoring • Scientific and engineering design monitoring • Required to satisfy land access agreement with State of Washington and funding sources • QIN and USGS investigating options for monitoring program development
    • 69. Funding Strategy • QIN pursuing congressional appropriation • Requires General Investigation Study by Army Corp (Land Resources Development Act) • A 3-5 year process culminating in the Army Corp recommending congressional support for the QIN restoration program • Estimated costs (current) for all restoration plan elements = $120 million
    • 70. Economics How do we “market restoration” of the Quinault River Valley?
    • 71. THREATS
    • 72. FISHERIES RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
    • 73. Quinault River Fisheries
    • 74. Conservation Area and Road Relocation Concept Road Relocation
    • 75. OLYMPIC NATIONAL PARK BRIDGE
    • 76. Conclusions (BOR 2005; UQRSHP 2005) • Constructed in 1973 • Reduced the river channel (EMZ) width from 550 m to 100 m • Forced the river to lose its meandering tendency over a 20 year period • 200% increased hydraulic radius, 8x greater sediment transport capacity, and river bed incision and scour • 300% increase in channel slope in the bridge reach • May have resulted in 2.5 miles of side channel habitat loss in the reach • Altered bank erosion and sediment transport processes from the crossing downriver for ~3.3 kilometers. Channel Response
    • 77. Alder Creek Side Channel 2002 Scientific Foundation
    • 78. Scientific Foundation
    • 79. Alder Creek Side Channel Complex 2008
    • 80. • Protect and preserve natural resources and functions of floodplains • Avoid the long- and short-term environmental effects associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains • Avoid direct and indirect support of floodplain development and actions that could adversely affect the natural resources and functions of floodplains or increase flood risks • Restore natural floodplain values affected by land use activities within floodplains The Quinault Indian Nation and Government Agencies have a common mandate to Conserve, rotect, and estore natural resources
    • 81. Project Funding Total project cost = $1.12 million Pacific Coast Salmon Recovery Fund = $466,563 Salmon Recovery Funding Board = $383,000 Washington Department of Natural Resources = $20,000 U.S. Forest Service Title 2 = $14,000 Wild Salmon Center = $15,000 Pacific Coast Salmon Coalition = $10,000 Jefferson County mitigation funds = $14,000 Quinault Indian Nation In-Kind = $ 181,437 Olympic National Forest In-Kind = $16,000 Olympic National Park Logs = $ Donation
    • 82. Over the next 20 years • Restore stable hardpoints inside and along the HCMZ boundary • Reduce erosion and HCMZ expansion • Convert the wide, braided main channel to a deeper, anabranching channel network separated by stable forested islands • Restore side channel and tributary stability • Reestablish stands of mixed floodplain forests • Restore stable islands and wildlife refugia in the HCMZ • Complete restoration planting • Carry-out land management plans and land acquisition
    • 83. Erosion of old, large timber (green squares) provides flow deflection and erosion control along the river bank. Queets RM32, 1985
    • 84. Queets RM32, 1994
    • 85. 1993 1995 new forest colonizing jam
    • 86. Restoration defined… Merriam-Webster: 1 : an act of restoring or the condition of being restored: as a : a bringing back to a former position or condition : b : a restoring to an unimpaired or improved condition 2 : something that is restored; especially : a representation or reconstruction of the original form (as of a fossil or a building)
    • 87. ELJ 7 ELJ 6 ELJ 5 ELJ 3 ELJ 4
    • 88. ELJ 2 ELJ 5 ELJ 3 ELJ 4
    • 89. OBJECTIVES MET Alder Creek Side Channel ELJ 1 Log lattice Deflection of river flow at ELJ 1
    • 90. ELJ 2 January 2009

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