2012   State of Our Watersheds                       WRIAs 1-23                      Hoh Tribe                      Jamest...
Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission           Member Tribes                  2
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Our Thanks & Acknowledgements to the following Groups and IndividualsWe would like to thank and acknowledge the participan...
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Table of ContentsLocation Map                                     2Billys Letter                                   3Acknow...
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Puget Sound Regional Report                                                                                            Pug...
Increased Effective Impervious SurfaceOutside of the federal park, forest service and recreation lands, the Puget Sound ar...
Permit-Exempt Wells in Puget SoundSince 1980, there has been an 81% increase in the number of new wells being drilled per ...
Forest Cover Loss ContinuesAbout 8.6% of the forest cover was removed between 1996 and 2006 and the trend is to see more l...
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  1. 1. 2012 State of Our Watersheds WRIAs 1-23 Hoh Tribe Jamestown SKlallam Tribe Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe Lummi Nation Makah Nation Muckleshoot Tribe Nisqually Indian Tribe Nooksack Tribe Port Gamble SKlallam Tribe 1973 Puyallup Tribe of Indians Quileute Indian Tribe Quinault Indian Nation Sauk-Suiattle Tribe Skokomish Tribe 2006 Squaxin Island Tribe Stillaguamish Tribe Suquamish Tribe Swinomish Tribe Tulalip Tribes Upper Skagit Tribe SSHIAP Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Inventory and Assessment Program nwifc.org
  2. 2. Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission Member Tribes 2
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  5. 5. Our Thanks & Acknowledgements to the following Groups and IndividualsWe would like to thank and acknowledge the participants who took time out of their regular schedulesto meet with the SSHIAP staff and to review drafts to complete this report. Their tireless work anddevotion to the Northwest Tribes and to this report shows in the final product. The following individualsare especially recognized (Commissioners in blue, project leads in red):Hoh Tribe (David Hudson Sr., Steve Allison, Bob Howell, Warren Scarlett)Jamestown S’Klallam (Scott Chitwood, Hansi Hans, Byron Rot, Randy Johnson)Lower Elwha Klallam (Russ Hepfer, Doug Morrill, Mike McHenry, Larry Ward, Matt Beirne)Lummi (Elden Hillaire, Merle Jefferson, Jeremy Freimund, LeRoy Deardorff, Gerry Gabrisch, Victor “Turtle”Johnson, Ben Starkhouse, Randy Kinley Sr., Alan Chapman, Jill Komoto, Diana Bob)Makah (Russ Svec, Kimberly Clark, Stephanie Martin, Jeremy Gilman, Ray Colby, Mike Dulik, Lyle Almond)Muckleshoot (Leo LeClair Jr., Holly Coccoli, Isabel Tinoco, Eric Warner, Glen St Amant, Paul Hage, Martin Fox,Karen Walter)Nisqually (Georgiana Kautz, David Troutt, George Walters, Jennifer Cutler, Jeanette Dorner)Nooksack (Bob Kelly, Treva Coe, Ned Currence, Llyn Doremus, Erica Capuana)Port Gamble S’Klallam (Randy Harder, Paul McCollum, Abigail Welch)Puyallup (Herman Dillon, Bill Sullivan, Russ Ladley, Char Naylor, Andrew Berger)Quileute (Anna Geyer, Frank Geyer, Garrett Rasmussen, Katie Krueger, Mel Moon, Nicole Rasmussen)Quinault (Ed Johnstone, Dave Bingaman, Larry Gilbertson, Mark Mobbs, Jim Jorgensen, Nicole Rasmussen,Tyler Jurasin, Tony Hartrich, Tom Gibbons)Sauk-Suiattle (Jason Joseph, Scott Morris, Norma Joseph, , Robert Franklin, Kevin Lenon)Skokomish (David Herrera, Joseph Pavel, Alex Gouley, Ron Figlar-Barnes, Randy Lumper)Squaxin Island (Joseph Peters, Jeff Dickison, John Konovsky, Brian McTeague, Scott Steltzner, Sarah Haque,)Stillaguamish (Shawn Yanity, John Drotts, Pat Stevenson, Don Klopfer, Charlotte Scofield, Kip Killebrew,Jennifer Sevigny, Jason Griffith, Franchesca Perez, Jody Brown, Scott Rockwell)Suquamish (Merle Hayes, Rich Brooks, Tom Ostrom, Steve Todd)Swinomish (Lorraine Loomis, Larry Wasserman, Alix Foster)Tulalip (Terry Williams, Daryl Williams, Kit Rawson, Abby Hook, Kurt Nelson, Libby Nelson, Maria Calvi, ToddZackey, Mike McHugh, Darla Boyer)Upper Skagit (Scott Schuyler, Jon-Paul Shannahan, Lauren Rich, Carolyn Dudek, Doug Couvelier, Tim Shelton,Chris Gourley)Point No Point Treaty Council (Randy Harder, Sarah Burlingame, Cynthia Rossi, Thom Johnson, Chris Weller)Skagit River System Cooperative (Devin Smith, Curt Veldhuisen, Jeff Phillips, Kate Ramsden, Tim Hyatt, MikeOlis, Eric Beamer, Steve Hinton, Stan Walsh)Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission (Billy Frank Jr., Bruce Jones, Tyson Waldo, Marilu Koschak, OsaOdum, Ron McFarlane, Katie Anderson, Christina Gonzales, Fran Wilshusen, Craig Bowhay, Mike Grayum,Gary Graves, Tony Meyer, Kari Neumeyer, Tiffany Royal, Emmett O’Connell, Debbie Ross-Preston, Jim Peters,Jim Weber, Todd Bolster, Lawrence Sullivan) 5
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  10. 10. Table of ContentsLocation Map 2Billys Letter 3Acknowledgements 5Executive Summary 6Table of Contents 10Introduction 11Regional Reports Puget Sound 13 Pacific Coast 24Tribal Chapters Hoh Tribe 32 Jamestown SKlallam Tribe 44 Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe 56 Lummi Nation 71 Makah Nation 87 Muckleshoot Tribe 103 Nisqually Indian Tribe 123 Nooksack Tribe 134 Port Gamble SKlallam Tribe 148 Puyallup Tribe of Indians 163 Quileute Indian Tribe 179 Quinault Indian Nation 194 Sauk-Suiattle Tribe 206 Skokomish Tribe 224 Squaxin Island Tribe 240 Stillaguamish Tribe 255 Suquamish Tribe 271 Swinomish Tribe 289 Tulalip Tribes 303 Upper Skagit Tribe 321Report Development Process 335 10
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  13. 13. Puget Sound Regional Report Puget Sound Land Ownership Bellingham Port Angeles Everett ¹ Seattle Bremerton Federal Tacoma 33.4% Private /Other Olympia Federal 37.5% State Tribal 26.5% WA State 0 50 Miles Local GovtTribal Private/Other0.9% Local Govt 1.7% 13
  14. 14. Increased Effective Impervious SurfaceOutside of the federal park, forest service and recreation lands, the Puget Sound area impervious surfaceincreased by 35% from 1986 to 2006. It is projected that by 2026, the impervious surface will increaseanother 41%, moving this area from an Impacting to Degrading category. The Puget Sound SalmonRecovery Plan (2007) lists "Minimize impervious surfaces" as a key strategy for protecting habitat.Impervious surface causes increases in stream temperatures; decreases in stream biodiversity, asevidenced by reduced numbers of insect and fish species; and contributes to pollutants in stormwaterrunoff, which can contaminate local aquatic systems (Schueler, 2003). As the population continues toincrease, so will the impervious surface area, causing a disruption of both the ground and surface waterecologies. This disruption will negatively impact both the freshwater and marine ecosystems dependentupon the proper function of the hydrologic cycle. Currently, the Puget Sound area has a mean level ofimpervious surface to raise it to a "Trend to impacting " condition, and when considering the futurepopulation growth the area is projected to move to an "Impacting" condition. Individual WatershedAdministrative Units (WAU) already exceed the " Trend to Impacting" condition, with a third more toexceed by the year 2026. By then 30 WAUs are forecast to exceed " Impacting" condition. The ChinookRecovery Plan has leaned heavily on local planning, land use policies, and provisions contained in thelocal Watershed Plans to protect critical habitat. However, even with critical area ordinances, planneddevelopment areas outside of the designated Urban Growth Areas will contribute to the increases inimpervious surface area.Puget Sound Impervious Surface (1986 - 2026 forecast) excluding National forest, parks and recreation areas(Table & Chart) Impervious Surface # of WAUs per Category Categories 1986 2006 2026* Little to no Impact 0-4% 181 168 155 Trend to Impacting 4-7% 17 18 20 Impacting 7-12% 12 15 16 Degrading 12-40% Degrading 12-40% 11 19 26 Severely Damaged >40% 0 1 4 *Forecast based upon WA OFM Population Projection 2006 2026 (Forecast) ¹ 0 60 MilesImpervious Surface Categories Impacting Puget Sound Boundary Sources: WSDOT Little to no Impact Degrading National Park/Forest/Rec Lands NOAA CCAP 1986 Trend to Impacting Severely Damaged Marine Waters & 2006, WAOFM 14
  15. 15. Permit-Exempt Wells in Puget SoundSince 1980, there has been an 81% increase in the number of new wells being drilled per 100 newPuget Sound residents moving into the area. This is an indication of a trend that as new population isadded to the area, they are moving into the non-developed areas, causing the new for new wells to bedrilled. Population growth leading to a high percentage of urban or rural-residential use is anidentified concern in Puget Sounds Chinook Recovery Plan.Population growth within the Puget Sound watershed, both in the past and in the near future, will haveincreased demands on groundwater resources. When the change in population is compared to thechange in installed exempt wells, a statistical increase is observed in the relationship between the twovalues. For the decade beginning in 1980, a rate of 3.1 new wells were added for every 100 new people.By the decade beginning in 2000 the rate increased to 5.5 new wells per 100 new people. This trendindicates that as new population is added, an increasing number is developing land outside of areas ofsupplied water, and the drilling new wells without regard to aquifer sensitivity and stream rechargeneeds. Unchecked growth and its concomitant increase in groundwater demand will reduce aquifervolume with all its effects.Water naturally discharges from aquifers at a rate which is controlled to a large extent by the amount ofrecharge. Natural outflow, from an aquifer, is discharged into lakes, wetlands and streams throughsprings and seeps on the surface of the land and through underwater springs to lakes, wetlands orseawater. Adequate natural outflow is essential for sustaining stream base flows, maintaining lakelevels, providing fresh water inputs to the nearshore and preventing seawater intrusion.When more water is extracted from an aquifer than is being recharged, aquifer volume is reduced andthe natural outflow from the aquifer is decreased until the outflow and aquifer level balances with theinput. This reduces the amount of fresh water availableto lakes, wetlands, streams and the Puget Soundnearshore. Reduced lake/wetland levels and stream 6.0flows can have a negative impact on all stages of the New Wells / 100 New People 5.54salmonid life cycle. Reduced fresh water inputs to the 5.0 5.21shoreline and nearshore of Puget Sound can have anegative impact on shellfish and out-migrating juvenile 4.0salmonids. Population Change ! ! !!! ! 3.0 3.07 vs Exempt Well !!! ! ! ! ! ! ! Puget Sound ! ! ! ! Change by Decade ! ! !! ! Exempt Wells ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! 2.0 ! !! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 1980-1989 1990-1999 2000-2009 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! !!!! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! !! ! ! ! Puget Sound Boundary ! ! !! ! Wells per Dot ! !! ! ! ! ! !!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 1 - 50 City/Urban Area ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! 51 - 250 National Park/Recreation Area ! !!!! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! National Forest ! ! ! ! 251 - 500 ! !! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! !!! ! !! ! ! ! 501 - 1000 Marine Waters ! ! ! !! !! ! ! ! ! ! 1001 - 4368 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ¹ ! Data Sources: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! WADNR WAU; WSDOT Natl Park, ! ! !! ! ! 0 40 Mi ! Forest, Recreation Area, City, UGA & Urban Area; WAECY Wells 2010 15
  16. 16. Forest Cover Loss ContinuesAbout 8.6% of the forest cover was removed between 1996 and 2006 and the trend is to see more loss ifprotective actions are not taken. Minimizing forest cover removal to reduce long-term impacts is a "Keystrategy for protecting habitat" component of the Puget Sound Salmon Recovery Plan (2007). Forest Cover Loss (1996-2006) ¹ 0 20 Miles 16

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