Linked Open Data for Cultural Heritage
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Linked Open Data for Cultural Heritage

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This paper surveys the landscape of linked open data projects in cultural heritage, exam- ining the work of groups from around the world. Traditionally, linked open data has been ranked using the five ...

This paper surveys the landscape of linked open data projects in cultural heritage, exam- ining the work of groups from around the world. Traditionally, linked open data has been ranked using the five star method proposed by Tim Berners-Lee. We found this ranking to be lacking when evaluating how cultural heritage groups not merely develop linked open datasets, but find ways to used linked data to augment user experience. Building on the five-star method, we developed a six-stage life cycle describing both dataset development and dataset usage. We use this framework to describe and evaluate fifteen linked open data projects in the realm of cultural heritage.

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Linked Open Data for Cultural Heritage Linked Open Data for Cultural Heritage Presentation Transcript

  • Linked Open Data Projects for Cultural Heritage:Evolution of an Information TechnologyJulia Marsden – Carolyn Li-MadeoJeff Edelstein – Noreen WhyselLola Galla– Alison RhonemusCultural Heritage: Description & AccessPratt SILS LIS 670 – Spring 2013Prof. Cristina Pattuelli
  • WHAT IS LINKED OPEN DATA?Linked Data provides a mechanismfor representing databases (RDF)and a mechanism for queryingthose databases (SPARQL)*Linked Open Data uses W3CSemantic Web standards to createrelationships between previouslyisolated data silosBehind almost every website is adatabase and although these sitesare linkable the information in theirdatabases is left unconnected*From the New York Times’ OPEN blog
  • REVIEW OF TERMINOLOGIESRDF TripleSubjectObjectPredicateURIAPIAn Application Programming InterfacesoftwareprogramsoftwareprogramAllows software programs to interactwith one anotherURL URNURIUnique Resource IdentifierURISPARQL Query• SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language• Query language for RDF / Databases• Allows users to write unambiguous queries
  • METHODOLOGY•Affiliation / Mission / Intended Audience•Knowledge Organization / Data Models & Vocabulary•Technology Platform•Usability/Interface Design•Discovery (search & navigation)•Data Shareability (ie. availability of an API)•Sustainability (ie. digital preservation, documentation or available code)•Project Leaders•Funding Sources•Level of Collaboration•Analysis•Star-Rating (ie Tim Berners-Lees coffee cup)
  • Developing DatasetsRelease one or more datasets in linkedopen format, expressed as RDF triples,that others may use.Projects: Library of Congress; Pan-Canadian Documentary HeritageNetworkLinking DataCultural heritage institutions link their datasetsto others (e.g., DBpedia, VIAF, GeoNames) toenhance discovery and reuse oftheir collections.Projects: Hungarian National Library;Civil War 150; Linking Lives;Bibliothèque national de FranceDocumenting Processes forReuseExplain linked open data and waysthat cultural heritage professionalscan use datasets.Projects: New York Times;Deutsche National BibliothekDeveloping User InterfacesInstitutional or collaborative projects usethe datasets to develop applications , includinginterfaces, visualizations, and augmented reality.Projects: Agora; Pan-Canadian Documentary HeritageNetwork; Amsterdam Mobile City App; Linked JazzPromoting ReuseInstitutions go beyond the creationof their own test projects, encouragingusers to develop innovative applications.Projects: Open Cultuur Data, EUScreenExpanding the Definitionof Cultural HeritageEfforts from outside the culturalheritage framework, such asgovernment agencies andinternational aid organizations,can serve to strengthen societiesand their cultural institutions.Project: Open Data for ResilienceInitiativeLINKED DATA LIFE CYCLES
  • Stage 1. Developing Datasets
  • Pan-Canadian Documentary Heritage Network• Formed in 2010; highly collaborative effort across a broad spectrumof LAMs.• Pilot project results published July 2012:• RDF metadata• Detailed project report• Demonstration video, “Out of the Trenches”• Project content submitted in various formats:• War songs (MARC records; BAnQ)• War posters (spreadsheets; McGill)• Newspaper articles, postcards, and wartime records (MODS XML; University of Alberta)• Portrait archives of CEF solders; WWI documents (spreadsheets; University of Calgary)• Archival material from Saskatchewan War Experience Project (DC RDF; University ofSaskatchewan)• Use of external LOD datasets:• Geonames, VIAF, LCSH, TGM, Rameau, LACSH• Metadata then mapped to ontologies (e.g., events, places,persons)• Principal findings:• Good approach for resource integration and discovery• Considered “reuse” in terms of using element sets in multiplecontexts (e.g., “role” as predicate or as object) and repurposing vocabulariesdeveloping datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • LIBRARY OF CONGRESSdeveloping datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • LIBRARY OF CONGRESSDereferenceable URIName VariantsRelated TermsPromotes existingLibrary of Congressresources to LinkedOpen Data webresources, uncoversand connectsrelated names andtermsdeveloping datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • LIBRARY OF CONGRESSMultiple formats areavailable for wider useLC Classification Numbersare related to each entryConnects with andacknowledges otherschemesdeveloping datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • Stage 2. Linking Data
  • developing datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • developing datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • CIVIL WAR DATA 150Project was designed toencourage the contribution of awide variety of data sources:from institutions to individualsPartnership between TheArchives of Michigan, TheInternet Archive and FreebaseCelebrating thesesquicentennial of theAmerican Civil Wardeveloping datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • CIVIL WAR DATA 150Project Goals:Create web apps toenable users to add to ormodify shared metadatawith strong identifiersEngage the public in the process ofinteracting with and adding value to the dataIdentify sources and mapmetadata into Freebasedeveloping datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • LOCAH and Linking Lives• Projects of Archives Hub UK (http://archiveshub.ac.uk), which represents more than 220institutions• LOCAH (Linked Open Copac& Archives Hub; 2010-2011):• Published data from Archives Hub finding aids and Copac, a union catalog of more than 70major UK libraries• Created LOD resources:1. SPARQL endpoint2. Query box for trying out SPARQL queries3. RDF dump of the dataset4. Archives HUB EAD to RDF XSLT stylesheet• Linking Lives (2011-2012) expanded on LOCAH• Test project focusing on biography• Brought in more external datasets (Dbpedia, VIAF,Freebase, OpenLibrary, BBC Programmes, Linked OpenBritish National Biography)• Developed interface model (wireframe)• Principal findings:• Even when expressed in triples, data may lack uniformity, requiring time-consuming clean-up• Difficulty of firmly establishing identity when there are variant forms of names or identifyingroles (e.g., “author” vs. “writer”) and when different people have the same namedeveloping datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • Stage 3. Documenting Processes for Reuse
  • DEUTSCHE NATIONAL BIBLIOTEK• Linked Data Service• Library scientist led• Authority names andbibliographic data• Downloadable dataset• SRU and OAI/PMH interfaces• Extensive documentationdeveloping datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • THE NEW YORK TIMESdeveloping datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • THE NEW YORK TIMESThe OPEN BlogDocuments and contextualizes the APIsPlatform for sharing Open Source CodeForum for trouble shooting and ideasDownloadable SKOS FilesThe entire dataset is downloadableDevelopers can also chose by topicUsers are invited to utilize the datasetsand APIs through downloads,documentation, support and explanationof LOD terminology, code and usesdeveloping datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • THE NEW YORK TIMESAvailable APIsDeveloper NetworkAPI Request Tool allows developers tosearch through the expansive list ofAPIs and set parameters for their searchusing a widget. The tool then formatsthe URL and request resultsdeveloping datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • Stage 4. Developing User Interfaces
  • AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL• Proof of concept• Developer led• Embedded RDF tags• Page based API• No documentation ordownloadable datasetdeveloping datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • THE AMSTERDAM MUSEUM• Mobile app parses datafrom Amsterdam museumand linked ontologies• Proposal for visualinterface that enablesuser to become tour guide• Current problem: searchand download speeddeveloping datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • Out of the Trenches Demonstration VideoSubjects can be explored across a range of dimensionsSource: http://www.canadiana.ca/sites/pub.canadiana.ca/files/LOD-Demo-ENG_0.mp4developing datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • developing datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • Stage 5. Promoting Reuse
  • OPEN CULTUUR DATA INITIATIVE• Offered workshops on how cultural heritage orgs could open theirdata• Hosted hackathons to encourage developers to turn datasets intoapps• Three award-winners:• VISTORY (using LOD Open Images dataset)• Rijksmonumenten.info• Connected Collectiondeveloping datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • OPEN CULTUUR DATA INITIATIVEScreenshot fromhttp://www.glimworm.com/vistory.shtmldeveloping datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • EUSCREEN• Linked Data Pilot• International collaboration• Open, International standards• Downloadable datasets• Fully documented• Showcase of projects in blog• Active in promoting reusedeveloping datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • Stage 6. Expanding the Definition ofCultural Heritage
  • developing datasets – linking data – documenting processes – developing user interfaces – promoting reuse – expanding definitions
  • CONCLUSIONS• (Most) LOD projects:• Proof of concept• No access to a dataset• Not highly documented• Highly curated• Experimental• Promising• The number of LOD datasets continues to increase• Actual use by cultural heritage institutions appears to remain limited• Trust remains an obstacle• Compare: “A guppy is_a_Kind_of fish” (TRUE)“A pony is_a_Kind_offish" (UNTRUE)Computers see these as equally valid.• Verifying or identifying source of a statement may become a best practice• Information added to triples?“A guppy is_a_Kind_offish [source] DBpedia”• Published datasets hold great potential for making the content of an archives collectionsknown• Researcher studying Person A finds that a collection of Person Xs letters includes lettersto or from Person A