Archiving Digital Maps By Noreen Whysel LIS 651 Information Professions
Digital Preservation “…the world has in some ways a better record of the beginning of the 20th century than of the beginning of the 21st.” -- Adam Farquhar, British Library
“Born Digital” Documents Software produces digital documents. (Photos, infographics, maps) The data often exists in databases on the computer, on the internet or otherwise “behind the screen.” The software output exists on screen and is very easy to share electronically. The knowledge output – the Information - is preserved in the saved file, or can be printed or saved to a PDF or image file.
Cataloging a Map Traditionally: Paper Maps Bound in Atlases Catalog RecordFull Title: Map of the States Of Ohio Indiana & Illinois And Part Of MichiganTerritory Compiled from the Latest Authorities. D.H. Vance Del. J.H. Young Sc.Philada. Published by A. Finley 1825.Author: Finley, AnthonyDate: 1826Source: David Rumsey Map Collectionhttp://www.davidrumsey.com/maps2325.html
Map Catalog RecordAuthor: Finley, AnthonyDate: 1826Short Title: Map of the States Of Ohio Indiana & Illinois And Part Of Michigan Territory.Publisher: Phila: Anthony FinleyType: Atlas MapObject Height cm: 45Object Width cm: 56Scale 1: 2,000,000Note: In full color by county or region of the state. Statistical information includes mileage, population broken down by White Males, White Females, Free People of Colour, Slaves and Militia.Reference: P1378-11.State / Province: Ohio ; Indiana ; Illinois ; MichiganFull Title: Map of the States Of Ohio Indiana & Illinois And Part Of Michigan Territory Compiled from the Latest Authorities. D.H. Vance Del. J.H. Young Sc. Philada. Published by A. Finley 1825.List No: 0278.011Page No: 11Series No: 14Engraver or Printer: Vance, D.H. ; Young, J.H.Published In: A New American Atlas, Designed Principally To Illustrate The Geography Of The United States Of North America; In Which Every Country In Each State And Territory Of The Union Is Accurately Delineated, As Far As At Present Known: The Whole Compiled From The Latest And Most Authentic Information. Philadelphia: Published By Anthony Finley, At The North-East Corner Of Chestnut And Fourth Streets. 1826.Publication Author: Finley, AnthonyPublication Date: 1826Publication Reference: P1378; Howes F140; NMM 485.Publication Note: This atlas was Finleys attempt to compete with Henry Tanners American Atlas - the maps are grouped in much the same arrangement as Tanner used and the cartography and engraving are equal to Tanner, although the scale and map size are smaller. There are only two issues that we have seen, both dated 1826 on the title page, but with different dates on the maps. In the first issue, the maps are dated 1824-26; in the second issue (this copy) the maps are dated 1826-27. Finley continued to publish the maps as pocket maps until 1831 when he sold his map and atlas copyrights to Mitchell, who reissued this American Atlas only once, in 1831 (see our #3884) but continued to issue the pocket maps, with updates, until about 1850. Bound in half leather marbled paper covered boards with red leather label stamped with "Finleys American Atlas" in gilt. Full color.Publication List No: 0278.000Publication Type: National AtlasPublication Maps: 15Publication Height cm: 49Publication Width cm: 35Image No: 0278011
Cataloging Digital Maps Born Digital Maps: Database input Software output Electronic format Dynamic Interactive 3-5 meter sea level rise; Population: 1,537,195 Data Source: USGS 10M NED Maps are based on LIDAR data, USGS 10m NED. Maps are illustrative; areas in blue depict various potential inundation scenarios. Map accuracy is dependent on the accuracy of the geospatial data. "Coastal Impact Study: Nation Under Siege.“ (2007), 2030, Inc. / Architecture 2030. Retrieved on November 8, 2012 from http://architecture2030.org/files/nation_under_siege.pdf
APA Citation - WebsiteNonperiodical Web Document, Web Page, or Report List as much of the following information as possible (you sometimes have to hunt around to find the information; dont be lazy. If there is a page like http://www.somesite.com/somepage.htm, and somepage.htm doesnt have the information youre looking for, move up the URL to http://www.somesite.com/): Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
APA Citation - Graphic DataGraphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representations of Data) Givethe name of the researching organization followed by the date. In brackets, provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Finally, provide the project name and retrieval information. Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. (2007). [Graph illustration the SORCE Spectral Plot May 8, 2008]. Solar Spectral Data Access from the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS Instruments. Retrieved from http://lasp.colorado.edu/cgi-bin/ion-p? page=input_data_for_ spectra.ion
APA Citation – Data SetsData Sets Pointreaders to raw data by providing a Web address (use "Retrieved from") or a general place that houses data sets on the site (use "Available from"). United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008).Indiana income limits [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08/in_fy2008.p df
National Archives Wayback Machine
International Internet PreservationConsortium (IIPC)
A Multitude of Digital Formats
The Domesday Book 1086 William the Conquerer 1986 Laserdisc format 1869 Modern Binding Commissioned for 1986 Divided/Rebound 900th anniversary
Who Uses Geographic Data? Historians use GIS data for research and teaching processes in complex, dynamic, nonlinear systems. Economists also like the ability of GIS to present clear visualizations in a familiar way. Information architect, Richard Saul Wurman, and information visualizer, Edward Tufte, are both great proponent of maps for presenting information in a way that Wurman has said helps to “make the complex clear.”
Who Archives Geographic Data? Library of Congress Geography and Map Division holds the world’s largest cartographic collection: 5.5 million maps 80,000 atlases 500 globes and globe gores 3,000 raised relief images 20,000 digital files “Traditionally, the Geography and Map Division has acquired the completed map. Today, the need to acquire the layers of data from which a map can be made takes increasing priority.” --Hebert, John, Geography and Maps Division, Library of Congress.
Data Preservation Models NYS GIS Clearinghouse Share creation, use and maintenance of GIS data GISMO Data Advocacy Policy (1999) Standards, efficiency, accessibility, sharing LOC’s National Digital Information Infrastructure & Preservation Program (2000) Preservation architecture standards North Carolina Geospatial Data Archiving Project (2000) Collaboration between university library and state municipalities, demonstration for other regions
Data Preservation Models The objectives of the the North Carolina Geospatial Data Archiving Project are: Identification of resources Acquisition of at-risk geospatial data Development of a digital repository architecture for geospatial data, using open source software tools Enhancement of existing geospatial metadata with additional preservation metadata, using Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) records as wrappers Investigation of automated identification and capture of data resources using emerging OGC specifications for client interaction with data on remote servers Development of a model for data archiving and time series development.
Broader Access to GIS Data New York City Open Data Mandate, March 2012 1. The Department of Information Technology & Telecommunications must post on its website a technical standards manual, which will help agencies make their public data available to the greatest number of users and for the greatest number of applications. 2. Within a year, each agency must convert all of its public data sets that are currently online in “locked” formats into formats that enable computer programmers to use the data to build applications. 3. Within 18 months, the Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications will work with each agency to post a compliance plan, describing all of the public data sets in each agency’s possession. The plan will be then be updated each year, and will serve as a roadmap for agencies to post these datasets to a single Web portal by 2018.
Broader Access to GIS Data
Bibliography “Born digital.” (Oct 21, 2010), The Economist. Retrieved on November 6, 2012 from http://www.economist.com/node/17306104. Boxall, J. (2003), “Geolibraries: geographers, librarians and spatial collaboration.” The Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe canadien, 47: 18–27. ESRI. (2010), “Ensuring Future Access to Digital Geospatial Data Library of Congress Takes Leadership,” ArcNews Online. Retrieved on November 6, 2012 from http://www.esri.com/news/arcnews/summer10articles/library-of-congress.html Galloway, P. (2004), “Preservation of digital objects.” Ann. Rev. Info. Sci. Tech., 38: 549–590. Goodchild, Michael F , Pinde Fu and Paul Rich. (2007), “Sharing Geographic Information: An Assessment of the Geospatial One-Stop,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 97, No. 2 (Jun., 2007), pp. 250-266 Hanson, Wayne. (February 27, 2012) “At issue: open data is cool, but is it sustainable?” Digital Communities. Retrieved on from http://www.digitalcommunities.com/articles/At-Issue-Open-Data- Is-Cool-but-Is-it-Sustainable.html International Internet Preservation Consortium (IIPC). Retrieved on November 6, 2012 from http://www.netpreserve.org. Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Retrieved on November 6, 2012 from http://www.archive.org/wayback/. Kuny, T. (1998). “The Digital Dark Ages? Challenges in the preservation of electronic information.” International Preservation News, No. 17. Laura Lang. (1992), “Mapping the Future of Map Librarianship,” American Libraries, Vol. 23, No. 10 (Nov., 1992), pp. 880-883.
Bibliography LeFurgy, W. (2005, Summer). “Building preservation partnerships: The Library of Congress National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program,” Library Trends 54 (1), 163-72. Library of Congress. (2009), Geosummit 2009: Framing a National Preservation and Access Strategy for Geospatial Data. Retrieved on November 6, 2012 from http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/meetings/geosummit09.html Herbert, John. (2009), “Geospatial Data: models for shared responsibility in collecting, serving and archiving.” (PDF, 760KB) Geography and Maps Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved November 6,2012 from http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/meetings/documents/othermeetings/lc_hebert111309.pdf North Carolina Geospatial Data Archiving Project. (2000), North Carolina State University. Retrieved on November 8, 2012 from http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/ncgdap/ Library of Congress. (2008), Geospatial Information. Retrieved on November 8, 2012 from http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/series/challenge/GISworkshop.html Owens, Jack. (2007), “What Historians Want from GIS,” ARC News Online, Summer 2007. Retrieved on November 6, 2012 from http://www.esri.com/news/arcnews/summer07articles/what- historians-want.html Warren Mills, J., Curtis, A., Pine, J. C., Kennedy, B., Jones, F., Ramani, R. and Bausch, D. (2008), “The clearinghouse concept: a model for geospatial data centralization and dissemination in a disaster.” Disasters, 32: 467–479. Weimer, Katherine H. and Pete Reehling. (2006), “A New Model of Geographic Information Librarianship: Description, Curriculum and Program Proposal,” Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Fall, 2006), pp. 291-302.