Resistance training for swimming


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An introduction to strength and conditioning and exercises to improve swim performance

Published in: Sports, Education

Resistance training for swimming

  1. 1. Resistance training for swimming An introduction to strength and conditioning and exercises to improve swim performance
  2. 2. Session Overview <ul><li>A bit about me </li></ul><ul><li>The role of a strength and conditioning coach: Case study of a tri-athlete </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to proprioception </li></ul><ul><li>The warm up </li></ul><ul><li>Exercises to improve swim performance and reduce injury </li></ul>
  3. 3. Neil Welch MSc, ASCC <ul><li>BSc Sports science and physiology </li></ul><ul><li>MSc Strength and conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Worked with snowboard-X and ski coaches in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Worked with premiership rugby teams </li></ul><ul><li>S&C coach for the the British alpine development ski team </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of nw conditioning strength and conditioning consultancy </li></ul>
  4. 4. What does a strength and conditioning coach do? <ul><li>Strength and Conditioning is the physical and physiological development of athletes for elite sport performance </li></ul><ul><li>Bridges the gap between s&c science and practice </li></ul><ul><li>Develops bespoke programs specific to the needs of each athlete and their sport </li></ul><ul><li>End goal: to make you faster and stronger </li></ul>
  5. 5. What do I need to know <ul><li>Needs analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injury history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training history and volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self perception of ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coach perception of ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional movement screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomechanics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Meet ‘John’ <ul><li>A new triathlete. </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to decrease Olympic distance swim time by 3 mins </li></ul><ul><li>No history of injury </li></ul><ul><li>Previously competed as a distance runner, has limited resistance training experience, particularly upper body </li></ul><ul><li>Swim coach says he has trouble maintaining form and technique, particularly when fatigued, limited flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>He believes his swimming is a big weakness “finds it really difficult” </li></ul><ul><li>Full timetable, limited time for extra sessions </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Shoulder <ul><li>Ball and socket joint allowing a massive range of motion </li></ul><ul><li>Make up means instability inherent in the joint, reliant on surrounding musculature for dynamic and static stability </li></ul><ul><li>Rotator cuff important for providing compressive forces to the joint </li></ul><ul><li>Important to recruit middle trapezius and rhomboids correctly to maintain alignment of scapulae and shoulder stability </li></ul><ul><li>These concerns and causes of injury should be addressed as part of the training program </li></ul>
  8. 8. Biomechanics of swimming <ul><li>Swimming can be broken into 2 phases; the pull and the recovery </li></ul><ul><li>The Pull </li></ul><ul><li>movements include internal shoulder rotation crossing into a full shoulder adduction </li></ul><ul><li>activates latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, teres major and subscapularis for the internal rotation </li></ul><ul><li>The Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>movements consists of a shoulder abduction and external rotation </li></ul><ul><li>activates the deltoids, infraspinatus, teres minor and supraspinatus </li></ul>
  9. 9. Injuries <ul><li>35% of elite swimmers reported shoulder injury that interrupted training </li></ul><ul><li>Position of abduction and external rotation can cause abnormal contact within the joint </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue to the rotator cuff musculature can lead to reduced stability which can exacerbate this </li></ul><ul><li>Imbalance of internal/external rotation strength due to demands of the sport, normal ~65%, anterior bias reduces stability </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on external rotation for prevention of injury for overhead athletes </li></ul>
  10. 10. Proprioception <ul><li>Sensory information on location in space, direction and velocity </li></ul><ul><li>This feedback helps the shoulder musculature work in synergy to maintain stability </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that proprioceptive ability is reduced when fatigued </li></ul><ul><li>Development of proprioception and strength will help reduce injury risk by enhancing stability and reducing fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Can mix with training; skills under fatigue, removal of visual feedback </li></ul>
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  12. 12. Exercises <ul><li>Band external rotations </li></ul><ul><li>Band internal rotations </li></ul><ul><li>Band swim strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Prone bar pull - progressions </li></ul><ul><li>Prone row and external rotation </li></ul>