2009 05 30 Substance Abuse And Its Deadly Consequences


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Presentation to 7th Grade school children on the deadly consequences of drug and substance abuse

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  • 2009 05 30 Substance Abuse And Its Deadly Consequences

    1. 1. Substance Abuse and its Deadly Consequences Nick van Terheyden, MD
    2. 2. Latest Info <ul><li>Binge Drinking Slows Teenage Brains </li></ul><ul><li>Less Brian Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased learning </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent destruction of White Brain Matter </li></ul>
    3. 3. Drug Myths <ul><li>I am stronger than the drug </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I can control what others cannot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drugs make me more creative/social etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Life is better stoned. </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs do no permanent harm. </li></ul><ul><li>What I do in my own time is my own business </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors/counselors/authorities are liars. </li></ul><ul><li>*** is way safer than alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>I know a guy/girl who’s been doing this for years and s/he’s fine … </li></ul>
    4. 4. Drug Stats I <ul><li>The illegal drug industry ranks in size with Mobil Oil as the U.S. second largest business-only Exxon is larger. </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs and alcohol cost taxpayers nearly $276 billion dollars a year in preventable health care costs, extra law enforcement, auto crashes, crime, and lost productivity. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Drug Stats II <ul><li>In 1999, an estimated 14.8 million Americans were current illicit drug users. </li></ul><ul><li>There is an average of 1.5 million emergency room visits per year because of drug use. </li></ul><ul><li>Five typical marijuana cigarettes have the same cancer-causing capability as 112 tobacco cigarettes. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Statistics <ul><li>America has only 5% of the world population but consumes 60% of ALL illegal drugs produced in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Each year, a typical young person in the United States is inundated with more than 1,000 commercials for beer and wine coolers in addition to several thousand fictional drinking incidents on television. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol is involved in 50% of all driving fatalities. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost half of Americans ages 12 and older reported being current drinkers of alcohol. This translates into 105 million people. </li></ul><ul><li>In the next 30 days, 17% of all 7 th graders will use alcohol. 25% of all 9-12 th graders will use enough to be defined as heavy drinkers. </li></ul><ul><li>Every 40 minutes, a kid is arrested for drunk driving </li></ul>
    7. 7. Narcotics (Opioids) <ul><li>Heroin </li></ul><ul><li>Morphine </li></ul><ul><li>Codeine </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocodone </li></ul><ul><li>Hydromorphone </li></ul><ul><li>Oxycodone </li></ul><ul><li>Methadone </li></ul><ul><li>Meperidine </li></ul><ul><li>Fentanyl </li></ul><ul><li>Propoxyphene </li></ul>
    8. 8. Roseanne – Age 29 (Heroine Addict)
    9. 9. EFFECTS <ul><li>CNS effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analgesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drowsiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Euphoria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>slows gastrointestinal motility </li></ul><ul><li>No good correlation between blood concentrations and lethality </li></ul>
    10. 10. Aortic Valve infected
    11. 11. Cocaine <ul><li>COCAINE </li></ul><ul><li>Popular recreation drug </li></ul><ul><li>brain becomes tolerant which results in the need for more and more </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaustion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blurred vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impotence </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Cocaine - Pharmacologic Effects <ul><li>CNS stimulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>euphoria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hyperactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>restlessness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>elevation of blood pressure and heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>hyperthermia </li></ul><ul><li>dilatation of pupils of eyes </li></ul><ul><li>nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac arrhythmias </li></ul>
    13. 13. Cocaine Advert
    14. 14. Cocaine affects the Brain <ul><li>… study of K. Little et al; Am J Psychiatry on post mortem brain tissue of chronic users – dopamine transporter proteins (VMAT2) reduced </li></ul>
    15. 15. Ken Caminiti <ul><li>Recovering Alcoholic </li></ul><ul><li>4 failed drug tests since 2002 for cocaine possession </li></ul><ul><li>Died from massive heart attack @ age 41, Oct. 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>“ When asked how someone so fit and disciplined in his sport could be so reckless with alcohol and drugs, Caminiti shook his head and said “I just don’t understand…” sports illustrated, October 18, 2004 </li></ul>
    16. 16. Intracerebral Hemorrhage (Cocaine)
    17. 17. Crack <ul><li>CRACK MIXTURE OF BAKING SODA AND COCAINE </li></ul><ul><li>smoked in glass water pipe </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Paranoia </li></ul><ul><li>powerful chemical dependence occurs </li></ul>
    18. 18. Melissa – Age 18 (Crack addict)
    19. 19. Psychedelics And Hallucinogens <ul><li>Peyote </li></ul><ul><li>Mescaline </li></ul><ul><li>LSD LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE “Trips” Trigger Panic, Depression, Confusion, Fear Of Insanity, Distorted Thoughts And Perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>PCP Phencyclidine “Angel Dust” Behaviorally Toxic -Psychotic Attacks Temporary Insanity </li></ul>
    20. 20. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) <ul><li>The “High”: Visual hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Serious Risks: Possible “flashbacks”; poor judgment leading to accidents (crashes, jumping off high places) </li></ul><ul><li>Dilated pupils </li></ul><ul><li>higher body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>increased heart rate and blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Sweating </li></ul><ul><li>loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeplessness </li></ul><ul><li>dry mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Tremors </li></ul><ul><li>Numbness </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Trembling </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>hallucinations </li></ul>
    21. 21. Phencyclidine - Pharmacologic Effects <ul><li>hallucinogen </li></ul><ul><li>slurred speech </li></ul><ul><li>staggering gait </li></ul><ul><li>nystagmus </li></ul><ul><li>hyperthermia </li></ul><ul><li>increased heart rate and blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>hostile and bizarre behavior </li></ul><ul><li>distorted sensory experience </li></ul>
    22. 22. “ Crystal Meth”(Methamphetamine) ( meth, crystal, ice, jib, crank, speed) <ul><li>Man made analog of amphetamine. Smokable. Made in basement labs. </li></ul><ul><li>Meth contains a lot of dangerous chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers massive release of dopamine – intense “rush” </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotoxic in animal models – destroys dopamine and serotonin neurons - Long term damage </li></ul><ul><li>Predisposition to neurodegenerative diseases later in life </li></ul><ul><li>Effects : Anxiety, rapid heart beat, sweating, energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Serious Risks : Violence/aggression, hallucinations, paranoia, heart attack, HIV and other transmittable diseases, nerve damage, chronic depression, tooth loss, gum disease. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Brain neurochemistry alteration
    24. 24. Eroding the Mind
    25. 25. Methamphetamine Effects
    26. 26. Ecstasy <ul><li>MDMA – “E” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methylenedioxyamphetamine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hallucinogen, (euphoria, depression) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effects last 4-6 hours, after effects last weeks to months </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works on serotonin system (mood) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May damage neurons permanently after 1 use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Addictive potential like very weak cocaine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malignant hyperthermia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chronic paranoid psychosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cardiac arrest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>coagulopathy </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Ecstasy <ul><li>Effects : Increased energy, nausea, hallucinations, chills, sweating, shaking, blurred vision, rapid heart beat, high blood pressure, muscle cramping. </li></ul><ul><li>Serious Risks : Heat stroke, severe dehydration, possible changes in brain functioning, memory problems, serious depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, you “run out” of Serotonin, regardless of how much you take. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Ectasy Affects on the Brain Dark indicates damage
    29. 29. Inhalants <ul><li>Chemicals that produce vapors with psychoactive effects </li></ul><ul><li>Solvents, aerosols, cleaning fluids, and petroleum products </li></ul><ul><li>Local irritation to nose and upper respiratory tract, nosebleeds, loss of coordination, loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased breathing and HR </li></ul>
    30. 30. Inhalants <ul><li>Effects : </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Sneezing </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Coughing </li></ul><ul><li>nose bleeds </li></ul><ul><li>rapid pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>involuntary release urination or feces </li></ul><ul><li>impaired judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Serious Risks: </li></ul><ul><li>Violent behavior </li></ul><ul><li>loss of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>loss of feeling in hands and feet </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney damage </li></ul><ul><li>brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>loss of smell </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of memory </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>hepatitis </li></ul>
    31. 31. Drug Abuse Related Toxicity <ul><li>HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) </li></ul><ul><li>In large cities perhaps 40-50% of IV drug users test positive for HIV. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of needles and syringes is primarily responsible. </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B - Another blood-borne disease responsible for 100s of deaths in IV drug abusers </li></ul>
    32. 32. All Drugs <ul><li>All drugs are dangerous! </li></ul><ul><li>With many of these drugs, there’s no way for the user to know: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>who made the drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what the ingredients are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how much of an ingredient the drug contains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Because of these unknowns, the drug’s effects can be very unpredictable </li></ul>
    33. 33. Alcohol
    34. 34. BAC – Blood Alcohol Concentrations. Measured in grams/100 ml blood. <ul><ul><ul><li>. 01 – marked increase in sleepiness. Impairs sleep. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.02 – decreased ability to understand commands, esp. radio. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.03 risk of fatal MVA 1.5x normal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.05 – too impaired to operate a vehicle. 24 hour suspension. Poor speed/distance perception. Poor problem solving skills. Fatal MVA 2 x normal. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.08 – “legally” impaired. Fatal MVA 4 x normal. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.1-.19 – neurologic impairment, reaction time, ataxia.. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.2-.3 – severe impairment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.4 – hypothermia, stage 1 anesthesia, aspiration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.5-.8 – onset of coma, death </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Limits
    36. 36. Ethanol (Alcohol) <ul><li>CNS depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>impaired judgement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>depressed learned social and cultural inhibitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impaired self evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>euphoria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>memory loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shortened attention span </li></ul></ul><ul><li>blurred vision </li></ul><ul><li>nystagmus </li></ul><ul><li>impaired hearing </li></ul><ul><li>reduced muscle coordination </li></ul>
    37. 37. Alcohol Brain Damage
    38. 38. Alcohol Liver Damage
    39. 39. You Don’t Need to Drink Alcohol
    40. 40. Drinking/Drugs and Driving
    41. 41. Jacqueline Saburido
    42. 42. December 1999 The car in which Jacqueline was in was hit by another car that was driven by a 17-year old male student on his way home after drinking a couple of hard packs with his friends
    43. 43. She Suffered 60% Burns Jacqueline was caught in the burning car and her body was heavily burnt during around 45 seconds. After the accident Jacqueline has needed over 40 operations
    44. 44. Three Months After the Accident
    45. 45. Lifelong Treatment Without a left eyelid Jacquie needs eye drops to keep her vision
    46. 46. 4 Years On
    47. 47. Tobacco
    48. 48. Tobacco and Lung Disease
    49. 49. Tobacco and Lung Disease
    50. 50. Tobacco and Heart Disease
    51. 51. Tobacco and Mouth Disease
    52. 52. Marijuana
    53. 53. Marihuana EFFECTS <ul><li>euphoria </li></ul><ul><li>sleepiness </li></ul><ul><li>impaired short-term memory </li></ul><ul><li>impaired balance </li></ul><ul><li>altered time perception </li></ul><ul><li>impaired multi-tasking </li></ul><ul><li>Hashish extract of cannabis 2 to 10 times more potent than marijuana </li></ul>
    54. 54. Thank You Questions?