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This session emphasizes on communicative approach of teaching English language. It stresses on- ...

This session emphasizes on communicative approach of teaching English language. It stresses on-
1. Communication
2. Basic skills of learning a language
Listening, Speaking, Reading & Writing
3. Expressions and phrases in Indian English
4. SMS language

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    ELT ELT Presentation Transcript

    • CommunicativeApproach of Teaching English Language Conducted by Dr. Nicholas Correa on 28th January 2012 Organised by Ratna Sagar P. Ltd.
    • Introduction1. Icebreaking Activity: Meet your friends and write as many names as you remember.2. Introduce your friend to the audience: Name, school, place and hobby.
    • How do we make new friends?
    • Encounter
    • Communication
    • Activity: MimingTwo volunteers will be sent out of the group.The decides to mime any one event. Example :Birthday party. The group would demonstratethe event through miming. The volunteer hasto decipher the signs made through mimingand name the event.
    • Components of communication1. Sendera. Sourceb. Encoding2. Messagea. Mediumb. Decoding3. Receiver
    • When we learn a language, we need four skills forcomplete a communication.
    • ListeningSpeakingReadingWriting
    • When we learn our nativelanguage, we usually learnto listen first,then to speak,then to read,and finally to write.
    • The four language skills are related to each other in twoways:•the direction of communication (in or out)•the method of communication (spoken or written)Input is sometimes called "reception" and output issometimes called "production".Spoken is also known as "oral".
    • Listening:
    • Listening:Listening is the language modality that is used mostfrequently.It has been estimated that adults spend almost half theircommunication time listening, and students mayreceive as much as 90% of their in-school informationthrough listening to instructors and to one another.
    • Listening Competencies
    • There are many two way links within the brain that are involved in listening.
    • Listen to the poem:Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening: By Robert Frost
    • Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening Robert Frost He gives his harness bells aWhose woods these are I think I shakeknow. To ask if there is someHis house is in the village, mistake.though; The only other sounds theHe will not see me stopping here sweepTo watch his woods fill up with Of easy wind and downysnow. flake. My little horse must think it The woods are lovely, dark,queer and deep,To stop without a farmhouse But I have promises to keep,near And miles to go before IBetween the woods and frozen sleep,lake And miles to go before IThe darkest evening of the year. sleep.
    • Listen to the Song : Life cycle of a Butterfly
    • How much do we listen?
    • Not all listening isthe same.Casual greetings,require adifferent sort oflistening capabilitythan do academiclectures.
    • Language learningrequiresintentional listeningthat employsstrategies foridentifying soundsand makingmeaning from them
    • Listening: Identifying Sounds1. Conversation : Planning a business trip.2. Song: The Sun3. Poem: The Road Not Taken
    • The Road Not Taken Robert FrostTwo roads diverged in a yellow wood, And both that morning equally layAnd sorry I could not travel both In leaves no step had trodden blackAnd be one traveler, long I stood Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way,And looked down one as far as I could I doubted if I should ever come back.To where it bent in the undergrowth; I shall be telling this with a sighThen took the other, as just as fair Somewhere ages and ages hence:And having perhaps the better claim, Two roads diverged in a wood, and IBecause it was grassy and wanted wear; I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference.Though as for that, the passing thereHad worn them really about the same,
    • Three components of listening:•Sender(a person, radio, television)•Message, and• Receiver (the listener).
    • Speaking skill
    • Speaking is theproductive skill in theoral mode.It, like the other skills, ismore complicated thanit seems at first andinvolves more than justpronouncing words.
    • Impact of Mother Tongue/Vernaculars:
    • An extract of a speech of Martin Luther King Jr.
    • I Have A DreamI have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaningof its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are createdequal.“I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slavesand the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the tableof brotherhood.I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where theywill not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the content of their character.I have a dream today!I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill andmountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crookedplaces will be made straight; "and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and allflesh shall see it together."
    • "I Have a Dream" is a17-minute publicspeech by MartinLutherKing, Jr. delivered onAugust 28, 1963, inwhich he calledfor racial equalityand an endto discrimination.
    • There are three kinds of speaking situations in which wefind ourselves: Interactive, Partially interactive, Non-interactive.
    • Activity:•Turn your the tongue in your mouth: Right to left Left to right•Do re mi pa so la si do
    • Dialogue: Telephonic ConversationListen carefully to a dialogue.A dialogue to convey a message
    • Typical Indian English Expressions
    • Read these sentencesAt the first meetingKrish: What is your good name, sir?”Steve: “Steve”Krish: “It is nice knowing you, Steve Ji!”They become fast friendsKrish: “Hey Boss, are you enjoying the movie?”Steve: Yes.Steve: And you?Krish: “Simply! Enjoying to the maximum!”Steve: How was the movie?”Krish: “First-class!”Krish is above to leave the placeSteve: When are returning?Krish: May be within a fortnight. I will give you a ringover the week-end.”
    • Advertisement in matrimonial column:Girl, 29, convent-educated, single andinnocent, wheatish complexion, softwareprofessional seeks a suitable boy. Casteand creed no bar.
    • Advertisement in matrimonial columnBoy, 31, Malayalee, foreign-returned, ITprofessional seeks a homely girl
    • The L TTE committed a Himalayan blunder ( a big mistake)by killing our former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.The Congress high command ( Top leader/President) doesnot want him to contest the general election.We suspect a foreign hand (involvement of a foreignorganization or individual) in the recent bomb blast inBangalore.I bought a new iron box for two thousand rupees.The word iron is used by native speakers of English, but inIndia we use the term iron box. I bought a new iron for twothousand rupees.
    • My cousin-brother is in Australia.There is no cousin brother or cousin sister inEnglish. Your cousin is your uncles or aunts son ordaughter. Jane is my cousin.Lets go to the station by auto.The auto is to mean auto-rickshaw. Lets go to thetrain station by auto-rickshaw.A new cinema is going to be released tomorrow.The actual meaning of the word cinema is a placewhere films / movies are screened. A new movie isgoing to be released tomorrow.
    • Ragging is a criminal offence.In Indian English expressions, the term ragging meansharassment of new students by seniors in educationalinstitutions. In Britain, the word rag means a series ofamusing events and activities organized by collegestudents once a year to collect money for charity.Give me a ring:‘Give me a call’, is a better way of saying the same, whenyou want someone to call you. It has nothing to do withring – the engagement ring, or friendship ring, or thewedding ring….
    • Tell me!:Used when answering the phone. Justsay ’how can I help you’ or ‘what can I do foryou’. In Hindi ‘bolo”Convey her my greetings:‘Give her my regards’ may convey themessage better.
    • Innocent divorcee:It refers to someone who is forced to divorce with nofault of his/her own. Both sides probably feel that thefault lies with the other side, so the usage of word‘innocent’ may not be understood.Issue-less divorce:Probably means a divorce that is finalized; everydivorce happens due to some issues.Reading: My son is reading in Class V.The word reading is used for studying.
    • Make a move: I will make a move now.It means Im leaving, not making a move on someone,or anything related to chess.Take: I dont take meat/milk/whatever.I dont eat meat/ drink milk, etc.Where do you put up? :Where are you currently staying?Throw dust in one’s eyes:To fool someone. Don’t throw dust in my eyes.Pulling one’s legsKrish is a smart guy. He likes pulling others legs.
    • Rubber :- Pencil erasercent per cent :- 100 per centshirt-pant or pant-shirt :- Shirt and Trouserstight slap :- hard slap:Out of station :- out of town.Pin-drop silence :- Extreme silence (quiet enough to hear apin drop).Railway Station :- Train station.
    • loose motion :- diarrheaprepone :- To bring something forward in time.The opposite of postpone.cousin-brother (male-cousin)eve-teasing (harassment of women)godown (warehouse)tiffin: Light midday meal.Solid: Indian team
    • Reading
    • eonvrye that can raed this rsaie your hnad.
    • I cdnuolt blveiee that I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrdwhat I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of thehmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch atCmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dsenot mtaetr in whatoerdr the ltteres in a word are, the olny iproamtnttihng is that the frsit and last ltteer be in the rghitpclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can stillraed it whotuit a pboerlm. This is bcuseae thehuamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef,but the word as a wlohe. Azanmig huh? Yaeh and Iawlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt!
    • Types of reading• Loud reading: It also • Reading for comes under the entertainment public speaking skills • Reading for learning• Silent reading: the language• Reading for • Critical reading comprehension • Seen and unseen• Reading for content for reading information
    • Seen passages• Loud reading / silent • Questions on thinking reading out of the box• Comprehension: • Extended questions• Short answers, • Reason and application• long answers • Syntax• Questions on Higher • Composition order thinking skills • Vocabulary
    • Unseen passages:•Comprehension•Vocabulary•Spellings of the words isn’t main focus•Meaning of the word must be•understood in context. Exact meaningisn’t essential.
    • Techniques of reading unseen passages:•Fist read the questions and understand•Skim: quick reading, scan, float, etc.•Try to co relate what you are reading with thequestions which have already read.•Don’t waste time on understanding the meaning of thewords•Try to understand the meaning of the words throughthe complete sentence or paragraph or context.•If you cannot answer the questions asked read themagain and read the passage.•If you are unable to get the answer of any question donot waste time. Leave the question and answer it laterwhen you get time.
    • Steps for reading seen passages/language textbook:When we help our students to read the lessons wemust focus on the following steps to energise thewhole brain.•Connect•Reflect•Imagine•Read•Consolidate•Create•Extend•Relate
    • Testing vocabularyHomophonesHomographsHomonymsAntonymsSynonymsGenderNumberCollocationPalindromeAcronymAcrostic poems
    • Homophone:Words with similar or same pronunciation but withdifferent spellings and meanings. 1 can cane 2 man mane 3 fair fare 4 mar Mare 5 fat Fate 6 See* Sea* 7 Meet* Meat* 8 Feet* Feat*
    • Homograph: Words with varying pronunciation and meaning but with the retention same spelling .1 Blessed: /blɛsɨd/ Adj: having ɛst/ vb: past tense of Blessed: /ˈbl divine aid blessed2 Bow: /boʊ/: n: a weapon ʊ Bow: /ˈba/ vb: to bend Conduct: /ˈ kɒndəkt/: n: Action ʌ Conduct: /kənˈdkt/: vb: to lead ɪ Buffet: /bəˈfe/ ~ /ˈ bʊfeɪ/:n: ʌ Buffet: /ˈbfɨt/: vb: to strike sideboard meal Wind: /ˈ wɪnd/ n: air movement ɪ Wind: /ˈwand/: vb: to tighten a spring Use: /ˈ /: n: benefit, function juˈs Use: /ˈjuˈz/ utilise, employ : vb: Tear: /ˈ tɪər/: n: rolling of tears ɛər/: to separate , split, destroy Tear: /ˈt Resume: /ˈ rɛzjʉmeɪ/: n: curriculum Resume: /rɨˈzjuˈm to start again /vb: vitae Read: /ˈ / riˈd Read: /ˈrɛd/ Minute: /maɪˈnjuˈt/ n: Minute: /ˈmɪnət/adj: small
    • Homonym: Words with the retention of same pronunciation and spellings but varying meanings.1 Address: Location Address: Speech, lecture, etc2 Attribute : Quality, Attribute: characteristics3 Close: adj: nearby Close: vb: to shut4 Delta: n: land at the mouth Delta: n: fourth letter of Greek of the river alphabet5 Novel: n: fiction Novel: adj: new, original, fresh6 Pen: marker Pen: n: enclosure7 Patient: n: sick person Patient: vb: tolerant, enduring8 Desert: arid/barren region Desert: ice cream
    • Writing Skills
    • StoryA story has characters: A prince, a dragon, a farmer,a tree, fox and crow, etc.Has descriptions: Character must have names andmust be described. Eg: How does it look? Is he tall,short etc. What kind of person is he? Kind, nervous,happy, etc.•Has actions: Main actions in the story•A story has be a problem.•A story has a solution.•A story has three clear parts•A Beginning: How did it begin•A Middle: Main actions: A problem.•An End: Main actions: A solution.
    • •When you write a story remember....•To write simple but completesentences.•To use paragraphs when the actionchanges.•To make three parts for your story••To check your spellings
    • Story Planning GridParticulars CinderellaPlot Cinderella is ill treated by step mother and sisters. Helped by magic fairy godmother. Goes to the Ball. Dances with Prince. Loses glass slipper. Marries prince.Characters Cinderella, step mother, two step sisters. Fairy Godmother, Prince.Description/Vocabulary Enchanting, palatial, crystal, shrewish, incompetent, anxious, green with envy, etc.Setting Cinderella’s kitchen, palace hall and steps.Beginning Cinderella had beautiful brown eyes and even among the cinders she looked pretty.Problem/Middle Cinderella is ill treated and needs to be rescued. Prince doesn’t know where to find Cinderella after the Ball.Resolution/End The glass slipper must fit the one the prince marries. Cinderella is found and marries the prince.
    • SMS languageAcronyms are used most often to abbreviate namesof organizations and long or frequently referencedterms.The use of acronyms has been further popularized withthe emergence of Short Message Systems (SMS).To fit messages into the 160-Character limit of SMS theacronyms have been popularized into the mainstream.SMS language is common on the internet like Email,instant messaging.
    • SMS language does not always obey or follow standardgrammar, and the words used are not usually found instandard dictionaries or recognized by languageacademies.The objective of SMS language is to use the leastnumber of characters needed to convey a comprehensiblemessage, also as many telecommunication companieshave an SMS character limit, another benefit of SMSlanguage is to reduce the character count of a message,hence, punctuation, grammar, and capitalization arelargely ignored.
    • Examples:1.(e.g LOL ( laughing out loud) "GF" (girl friend), DL(download)2. (e.g. "i <3 u" which uses the pictogram of a heart for love, andthe letter u replaces you).3. (e.g. dictionary becomes dctnry and keyboard becomes kybrd).4. ttyl: talk to you later, omg: o my god,Single letters can replace words•be becomes b•see or sea becomes c•okay becomes k or kk•are becomes r•you becomes u•why becomes y•oh becomes o
    • Single digits can replace words•won or one becomes 1•to or too becomes 2•for becomes 4•ate becomes 8
    • A single letter or digit can replace a syllable or phoneme•to or too becomes 2, so: tomorrow becomes 2mro or 2moro today becomes 2day•for or fore becomes 4, so: before becomes b4 forget becomes 4get•ate becomes 8, so: great becomes gr8 late becomes l8 mate becomes m8 wait becomes w8 hate becomes h8 date becomes d8 later becomes l8r or l8a crate becomes cr8 skate becomes sk8 skater becomes sk8r•and becomes &•thank you becomes 10q, thnq, ty
    • Combinations of the above can shorten asingle or multiple words•your and youre become ur•wonderful becomes 1drfl•someone becomes sum1•no one becomes no1•any one become any1 or ne1•see you becomes cu or cya•for you becomes 4u•easy becomes ez•enjoy becomes njoy•adieu becomes +u