Biography<br /><ul><li>Born on March 13,1919 in New York City.
She graduated magna cum laude from Fitkin Memorial Hospital School of Nursing in Neptune, New Jersey in 1942 (now Ann May School of Nursing).
She obtained her Bachelor of Science in 1945, her Master of Arts in 1947, her Doctor of Education in 1955 from the Teachers Colleges at Columbia.
She was appointed Chief Nurse Officer of the U.S Public Health Service (USPHS) in 1970 and serve that position in 17 years.
First woman to serve as Deputy Surgeon General of the United States.
She was inducted into the US National Women’s Hall of Fame in 2000 due to her contributions in the field of Education and Nursing Research</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>She has been a staff nurse, a head nurse, a faculty member at Yale University and Columbia University.
A public health nurse, and an author of more than 150 articles and books.
She has been a research consultant to the World Health Organization.
She is a recipient of more than 79 academic honors and professional awards in her excellence in Nursing.
She developed a list of 21 unique nursing problems related to human needs.</li></li></ul><li>"Although Abdellah spoke of the patient-centered approaches, she wrote nurses identifying and solving specific problems. This identification and classification of problems was called the typology of 21 nursing problems. Abdellah's typology was divided into three areas:<br /> (1) the physical, sociological, and emotional needs of the patient;<br /> (2) the types of interpersonal relationships between the nurse and the patient; and <br /> (3) the common elements of patient care. Adbellah and her colleagues thought the typology would provide a method to evaluate a student's experiences and also a method to evaluate a nurse's competency based on outcome measures.“<br />
Twenty-One Nursing Problems<br /> (Categorized according to needs)<br />
Basic to all patients<br />1.To promote good hygiene and physical comfort<br />2.To promote optimal activity, exercise, rest, and sleep<br />3.To promote safety through prevention of accidents, injury, or other trauma and through the prevention of the spread of infection<br />4.To maintain good body mechanics and prevent and correct deformities<br />Sustenal care needs<br />5.To facilitate the maintenance of a supply of oxygen to all body cells<br />6.To facilitate the maintenance of nutrition of all body cells<br />7.To facilitate the maintenance of elimination<br />8.To facilitate the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance<br />9.To recognize the physiologic responses of the body to disease conditions<br />10.To facilitate the maintenance of regulatory mechanisms and functions<br />11.To facilitate the maintenance of sensory function<br />
Remedial care needs<br />12.To identify and accept positive and negative expressions, feelings, and reactions<br />13.To identify and accept the interrelatedness of emotions and organic illness<br />14.To facilitate the maintenance of effective verbal and nonverbal communication<br />15.To promote the development of productive interpersonal relationships<br />16.To facilitate progress toward achievement of personal spiritual goals<br />17.To create and maintain a therapeutic environment<br />18.To facilitate awareness of self as an individual with varying physical, emotional, and developmental needs<br />19.To accept the optimum possible goals in light of physical and emotional limitations <br />Restorative care needs<br />20.To use community resources as an aid in resolving problems arising from illness<br />21.To understand the role of social problems as influencing factors in the cause of illness<br />
ABDELLAH’S THEORY AND NURSING <br /> Although Abdellah’s writings are not specific as to a theoretical statement, such a statement can be derived by using her three major concepts of health, nursing problems, and problem solving.<br />Abdellah’s theory would state that nursing is the use of the problem solving approach with key nursing problems related to health needs of people. Such a statement maintains problem solving as the vehicle for the nursing problems as the client is moved toward health – the outcome<br />
metaparadigm<br /> Person-the beneficiary of care as individuals.<br /> -one who has physical, emotional or social care needs. <br />Health- Although Abdellah does not give a definition of health, she speaks to“total health needs” and “a healthy state of mind and body”.<br />
Environment- “planning for optimum health on local, state, national, and international levels. Includes room, home and community.<br />Nursing- helping profession<br />-comprehensive service to meet patients needs<br />-increases or restores self-help activity<br />-uses 21 problems to guide nursing care.<br />