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  • Figure 6-9 Enzyme Action Each enzyme facilitates a specific chemical reaction. In this diagram, an enzyme enables two compounds to make a more complex structure, but the enzyme itself remains unchanged.

Chapter62013 Chapter62013 Presentation Transcript

  • Protein: AminoProtein: Amino AcidsAcids Chapter 6Chapter 6
  • The ChemistThe Chemist’s View of Proteins’s View of Proteins • Atoms • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen • Amino acids • Carbon • Hydrogen • Amino group • Acid group • Side group or side chain
  • The ChemistThe Chemist’s View of Proteins’s View of Proteins • More complex than carbohydrates or fats • Twenty amino acids • Different characteristics • Essential amino acids • Nonessential amino acids • Conditionally essential
  • Amino AcidsAmino Acids
  • Examples of Amino AcidsExamples of Amino Acids
  • The ChemistThe Chemist’s View of Proteins’s View of Proteins • Proteins • Peptide bonds link amino acids • Condensation reactions • Amino acid sequencing • Primary structure – chemical bonds • Secondary structure – electrical attractions • Tertiary structure – hydrophilic & hydrophobic • Quaternary structure – two or more polypeptides
  • Amino Acid Sequence ofAmino Acid Sequence of Human InsulinHuman Insulin
  • The Structure of HemoglobinThe Structure of Hemoglobin
  • The ChemistThe Chemist’s View of Proteins’s View of Proteins • Protein • Denaturation • Disruption of stability • Uncoil and lose shape • Stomach acid
  • Protein DigestionProtein Digestion • Mouth • Stomach • Hydrochloric acid denatures proteins • Pepsinogen to pepsin • Small intestine • Hydrolysis reactions • Peptidase enzymes
  • Protein Digestion in the GIProtein Digestion in the GI TractTract
  • Protein AbsorptionProtein Absorption • Transport into intestinal cells • Uses of amino acids by intestinal cells • Unused amino acids transported to liver • Enzyme digestion • Predigested proteins
  • Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis • Uniqueness of each person • Amino acid sequences of proteins • Genes – DNA • Diet • Adequate protein • Essential amino acids
  • Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis • DNA template to make mRNA • Transcription • mRNA carries code to ribosome • Ribosomes are protein factories • mRNA specifies sequence of amino acids • Translation • tRNA • Sequencing errors
  • Sickle Cell Compared withSickle Cell Compared with Normal Red Blood CellNormal Red Blood Cell
  • Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis • Gene expression and protein synthesis • Capability of body cells • Protein needs • Dietary influence on gene expression • Disease development
  • Roles of ProteinsRoles of Proteins • Structural materials • Building blocks for most body structures • Collagen • Replacement of dead or damaged cells • Enzymes • Break down, build up, and transform substances • Catalysts
  • Stepped Art Enzyme Enzyme Enzyme A B BA BA New compound The separate compounds, A and B, are attracted to the enzyme’s active site, making a reaction likely. The enzyme forms a complex with A and B. The enzyme is unchanged, but A and B have formed a new compound, AB. Figure 6-9 p175
  • Roles of ProteinsRoles of Proteins • Hormones • Messenger molecules • Transported in blood to target tissues • Regulators of fluid balance • Edema • Acid-base regulators • Attract hydrogen ions • Transporters – specificity
  • Examples of Hormones andExamples of Hormones and Their ActionsTheir Actions
  • An Example of TransportAn Example of Transport ProteinProtein
  • Roles of ProteinsRoles of Proteins • Antibodies • Defend body against disease • Specificity • Immunity – memory • Energy and glucose • Starvation and insufficient carbohydrate intake • Other roles
  • Preview of Protein MetabolismPreview of Protein Metabolism • Protein turnover & amino acid pool • Continual production and destruction • Amino acid pool pattern is fairly constant • Used for protein production • Used for energy – if stripped of nitrogen • Nitrogen balance • Zero nitrogen balance • Positive and negative nitrogen balance
  • Preview of Protein MetabolismPreview of Protein Metabolism • Making other compounds • Neurotransmitters • Melanin • Thyroxin • Niacin • Energy and glucose • Wasting of lean body tissue • Adequate intake of carbohydrates and fats
  • Preview of Protein MetabolismPreview of Protein Metabolism • Making fat • Energy and protein exceed needs • Carbohydrate intake is adequate • Can contribute to weight gain • Deaminating amino acids • Stripped of nitrogen-containing amino group • Ammonia • Keto acid
  • Preview of Protein MetabolismPreview of Protein Metabolism • Make proteins & nonessential amino acids • Breakdown of proteins • Keto-acids • Liver cells and nonessential amino acids • Converting ammonia to urea • Liver – ammonia and carbon dioxide • Dietary protein
  • Transamination and SynthesisTransamination and Synthesis of a Nonessential Amino Acidof a Nonessential Amino Acid
  • Urea SynthesisUrea Synthesis
  • Preview of Protein MetabolismPreview of Protein Metabolism • Excreting urea • Liver releases urea into blood • Kidneys filter urea out of blood • Liver disease • Kidney disease • Protein intake and urea production • Water consumption
  • Urea ExcretionUrea Excretion
  • Protein Functions in the BodyProtein Functions in the Body
  • Protein QualityProtein Quality • Two factors • Digestibility • Other foods consumed • Animal versus plant proteins • Amino acid composition • Essential amino acid consumption • Nitrogen-containing amino groups • Limiting amino acid
  • Protein QualityProtein Quality • Reference protein • Preschool-age children • High-quality proteins • Animal proteins • Plant proteins • Complementary proteins • Low-quality proteins combined to provide adequate levels of essential amino acids
  • Complementary ProteinsComplementary Proteins
  • Health Effects of ProteinHealth Effects of Protein • Protein deficiency • Consequences • Protein-energy malnutrition • Marasmus and kwashiorkor • Heart disease • Animal-protein intake • Homocysteine levels • Arginine levels
  • Health Effects of ProteinHealth Effects of Protein • Cancer • Protein-rich foods; not protein content of diet • Osteoporosis • Increase in calcium excretion • Animal proteins • Weight control • Kidney disease • Acceleration of kidney deterioration
  • Recommended Intakes ofRecommended Intakes of ProteinProtein • Need for dietary protein • Source of essential amino acids • Practical source of nitrogen • 10 to 35 percent of daily energy intake • RDA • Adults = 0.8 grams / kg of body weight / day • Groups with higher recommended intakes • Assumptions • Adequate energy
  • From Guidelines to GroceriesFrom Guidelines to Groceries • Protein foods • One ounce equals 7 grams of protein • USDA Food Patterns • Recommended sources • Milk and milk products • Fruits, vegetables, and grains • Read food labels • Current US and Canada intakes • Moderation
  • Protein and Amino AcidProtein and Amino Acid SupplementsSupplements • Protein powders • Muscle work vs. protein supplements • Athletic performance • Whey protein • Impact on kidneys • Amino acid supplements • Potential risks associated with intake • Lysine & tryptophan