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Chapter62013

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  • Figure 6-9 Enzyme Action Each enzyme facilitates a specific chemical reaction. In this diagram, an enzyme enables two compounds to make a more complex structure, but the enzyme itself remains unchanged.
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    • 1. Protein: AminoProtein: Amino AcidsAcids Chapter 6Chapter 6
    • 2. The ChemistThe Chemist’s View of Proteins’s View of Proteins • Atoms • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen • Amino acids • Carbon • Hydrogen • Amino group • Acid group • Side group or side chain
    • 3. The ChemistThe Chemist’s View of Proteins’s View of Proteins • More complex than carbohydrates or fats • Twenty amino acids • Different characteristics • Essential amino acids • Nonessential amino acids • Conditionally essential
    • 4. Amino AcidsAmino Acids
    • 5. Examples of Amino AcidsExamples of Amino Acids
    • 6. The ChemistThe Chemist’s View of Proteins’s View of Proteins • Proteins • Peptide bonds link amino acids • Condensation reactions • Amino acid sequencing • Primary structure – chemical bonds • Secondary structure – electrical attractions • Tertiary structure – hydrophilic & hydrophobic • Quaternary structure – two or more polypeptides
    • 7. Amino Acid Sequence ofAmino Acid Sequence of Human InsulinHuman Insulin
    • 8. The Structure of HemoglobinThe Structure of Hemoglobin
    • 9. The ChemistThe Chemist’s View of Proteins’s View of Proteins • Protein • Denaturation • Disruption of stability • Uncoil and lose shape • Stomach acid
    • 10. Protein DigestionProtein Digestion • Mouth • Stomach • Hydrochloric acid denatures proteins • Pepsinogen to pepsin • Small intestine • Hydrolysis reactions • Peptidase enzymes
    • 11. Protein Digestion in the GIProtein Digestion in the GI TractTract
    • 12. Protein AbsorptionProtein Absorption • Transport into intestinal cells • Uses of amino acids by intestinal cells • Unused amino acids transported to liver • Enzyme digestion • Predigested proteins
    • 13. Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis • Uniqueness of each person • Amino acid sequences of proteins • Genes – DNA • Diet • Adequate protein • Essential amino acids
    • 14. Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis • DNA template to make mRNA • Transcription • mRNA carries code to ribosome • Ribosomes are protein factories • mRNA specifies sequence of amino acids • Translation • tRNA • Sequencing errors
    • 15. Sickle Cell Compared withSickle Cell Compared with Normal Red Blood CellNormal Red Blood Cell
    • 16. Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis • Gene expression and protein synthesis • Capability of body cells • Protein needs • Dietary influence on gene expression • Disease development
    • 17. Roles of ProteinsRoles of Proteins • Structural materials • Building blocks for most body structures • Collagen • Replacement of dead or damaged cells • Enzymes • Break down, build up, and transform substances • Catalysts
    • 18. Stepped Art Enzyme Enzyme Enzyme A B BA BA New compound The separate compounds, A and B, are attracted to the enzyme’s active site, making a reaction likely. The enzyme forms a complex with A and B. The enzyme is unchanged, but A and B have formed a new compound, AB. Figure 6-9 p175
    • 19. Roles of ProteinsRoles of Proteins • Hormones • Messenger molecules • Transported in blood to target tissues • Regulators of fluid balance • Edema • Acid-base regulators • Attract hydrogen ions • Transporters – specificity
    • 20. Examples of Hormones andExamples of Hormones and Their ActionsTheir Actions
    • 21. An Example of TransportAn Example of Transport ProteinProtein
    • 22. Roles of ProteinsRoles of Proteins • Antibodies • Defend body against disease • Specificity • Immunity – memory • Energy and glucose • Starvation and insufficient carbohydrate intake • Other roles
    • 23. Preview of Protein MetabolismPreview of Protein Metabolism • Protein turnover & amino acid pool • Continual production and destruction • Amino acid pool pattern is fairly constant • Used for protein production • Used for energy – if stripped of nitrogen • Nitrogen balance • Zero nitrogen balance • Positive and negative nitrogen balance
    • 24. Preview of Protein MetabolismPreview of Protein Metabolism • Making other compounds • Neurotransmitters • Melanin • Thyroxin • Niacin • Energy and glucose • Wasting of lean body tissue • Adequate intake of carbohydrates and fats
    • 25. Preview of Protein MetabolismPreview of Protein Metabolism • Making fat • Energy and protein exceed needs • Carbohydrate intake is adequate • Can contribute to weight gain • Deaminating amino acids • Stripped of nitrogen-containing amino group • Ammonia • Keto acid
    • 26. Preview of Protein MetabolismPreview of Protein Metabolism • Make proteins & nonessential amino acids • Breakdown of proteins • Keto-acids • Liver cells and nonessential amino acids • Converting ammonia to urea • Liver – ammonia and carbon dioxide • Dietary protein
    • 27. Transamination and SynthesisTransamination and Synthesis of a Nonessential Amino Acidof a Nonessential Amino Acid
    • 28. Urea SynthesisUrea Synthesis
    • 29. Preview of Protein MetabolismPreview of Protein Metabolism • Excreting urea • Liver releases urea into blood • Kidneys filter urea out of blood • Liver disease • Kidney disease • Protein intake and urea production • Water consumption
    • 30. Urea ExcretionUrea Excretion
    • 31. Protein Functions in the BodyProtein Functions in the Body
    • 32. Protein QualityProtein Quality • Two factors • Digestibility • Other foods consumed • Animal versus plant proteins • Amino acid composition • Essential amino acid consumption • Nitrogen-containing amino groups • Limiting amino acid
    • 33. Protein QualityProtein Quality • Reference protein • Preschool-age children • High-quality proteins • Animal proteins • Plant proteins • Complementary proteins • Low-quality proteins combined to provide adequate levels of essential amino acids
    • 34. Complementary ProteinsComplementary Proteins
    • 35. Health Effects of ProteinHealth Effects of Protein • Protein deficiency • Consequences • Protein-energy malnutrition • Marasmus and kwashiorkor • Heart disease • Animal-protein intake • Homocysteine levels • Arginine levels
    • 36. Health Effects of ProteinHealth Effects of Protein • Cancer • Protein-rich foods; not protein content of diet • Osteoporosis • Increase in calcium excretion • Animal proteins • Weight control • Kidney disease • Acceleration of kidney deterioration
    • 37. Recommended Intakes ofRecommended Intakes of ProteinProtein • Need for dietary protein • Source of essential amino acids • Practical source of nitrogen • 10 to 35 percent of daily energy intake • RDA • Adults = 0.8 grams / kg of body weight / day • Groups with higher recommended intakes • Assumptions • Adequate energy
    • 38. From Guidelines to GroceriesFrom Guidelines to Groceries • Protein foods • One ounce equals 7 grams of protein • USDA Food Patterns • Recommended sources • Milk and milk products • Fruits, vegetables, and grains • Read food labels • Current US and Canada intakes • Moderation
    • 39. Protein and Amino AcidProtein and Amino Acid SupplementsSupplements • Protein powders • Muscle work vs. protein supplements • Athletic performance • Whey protein • Impact on kidneys • Amino acid supplements • Potential risks associated with intake • Lysine & tryptophan

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