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  • Figure 1-3 The Scientific Method Research scientists follow the scientific method. Note that most research generates new questions, not final answers. Thus the sequence begins anew, and research continues in a somewhat cyclical way.
  • Chapter1 powerpoint

    1. 1. An Overview ofAn Overview of NutritionNutrition Chapter 1Chapter 1
    2. 2. IntroductionIntroduction • Daily food choices • Benefit health • Harm health • Chronic disease • Diet • Foods and beverages
    3. 3. Food ChoicesFood Choices • Choices are highly personal • Social or behavioral motives • Personal preference • Taste • Sweet and salty • Genetics • Habit • Ethnic heritage or tradition
    4. 4. Food ChoicesFood Choices • Social interactions • Availability, convenience, and economy • Benefits of home-cooked meals • Positive and negative associations • Emotions • Boredom, depression, anxiety • Stress
    5. 5. Food ChoicesFood Choices • Values • Religious beliefs, political views, environmental concerns • Body weight and image • Nutrition and health benefits • Functional foods • Examples
    6. 6. The NutrientsThe Nutrients • Water • Hydrogen & oxygen • Inorganic • Minerals • Simplest nutrient • Inorganic • Vitamins • Organic • Carbohydrates • Organic • Proteins • Organic • Contains nitrogen • Lipids (fats) • Organic
    7. 7. Elements in the Six Classes ofElements in the Six Classes of NutrientsNutrients
    8. 8. Energy-Yielding NutrientsEnergy-Yielding Nutrients • Amount of energy in food • Depends on macronutrient composition • Using nutrients for energy • Breaking of bonds • Storage of excess energy • Metabolism • Materials for building body tissues • Regulation of bodily activities
    9. 9. Energy-Yielding NutrientsEnergy-Yielding Nutrients • Provide kcalories • Carbohydrate = 4 kcal/g • Protein = 4 kcal/g • Fat = 9 kcal/g • Alcohol • Not a nutrient • Yields energy – 7 kcal/g • Macronutrients vs. micronutrients
    10. 10. The VitaminsThe Vitamins • Thirteen organic vitamins • Water-soluble vitamins • Fat-soluble vitamins • Facilitate energy release • Almost every bodily action requires assistance from vitamins • Vulnerable to destruction • Examples
    11. 11. The Minerals & WaterThe Minerals & Water • Minerals • Do not yield energy • Sixteen essential minerals • Indestructible • Causes of mineral losses from foods • Water • Medium for nearly all body activities
    12. 12. The Science of NutritionThe Science of Nutrition • Foundation in several other sciences • Biology, biochemistry, physiology • Tremendous growth
    13. 13. Conducting ResearchConducting Research • Use of scientific method • Systematic process for conducting research • Research studies • Controls • Randomization • Sample size • Placebos • Double-blind experiments
    14. 14. The Scientific MethodThe Scientific Method
    15. 15. NEW OBSERVATIONS & QUESTIONS THEORY Develop a theory that integrates conclusions with those from numerous other studies. HYPOTHESIS SUPPORTED HYPOTHESIS NOT SUPPORTED HYPOTHESIS & PREDICTION Formulate a hypothesis—a tentative solution to the problem or answer to the question—and make a prediction that can be tested. Identify a problem to be solved or ask a specific question to be answered. OBSERVATION & QUESTION RESULTS & INTERPRETATIONS Summarize, analyze, and interpret the data; draw conclusions. EXPERIMENT Design a study and conduct the research to collect relevant data. Stepped Art Figure 1-3 p13
    16. 16. Conducting ResearchConducting Research • Epidemiological studies • Cross-sectional studies • Case-control studies • Cohort studies • Experimental studies • Laboratory-based animal studies • Laboratory-base in vitro studies • Clinical trials
    17. 17. Examples of Research Designs
    18. 18. Examples of Research Designs
    19. 19. Analyzing Research FindingsAnalyzing Research Findings • Correlations – only show association • Positive correlation • Not necessarily a desired outcome • Negative correlation • No correlation • Cautious interpretations and conclusions • Accumulation of evidence
    20. 20. Publishing ResearchPublishing Research • Peer review • Research has validity • Findings are preliminary when published • Not meaningful by themselves • Findings need to be replicated
    21. 21. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes • Standards defined for: • Energy • Nutrients • Other dietary components • Physical activity • Collaborative effort of U.S. and Canada • Recommendations apply to healthy people • May be different for specific groups
    22. 22. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes • Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) • Average amount sufficient for half of population • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) • Recommendations to meet needs of most healthy people • About 98% of population
    23. 23. EAR and RDA ComparedEAR and RDA Compared
    24. 24. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes • Adequate Intakes (AI) • Insufficient scientific evidence • AI value set instead of RDA • Expected to exceed average requirements • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) • Point where nutrient is likely to be toxic • Helps protect against overconsumption
    25. 25. Inaccurate vs. Accurate ViewInaccurate vs. Accurate View of Nutrient Intakesof Nutrient Intakes
    26. 26. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes • Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) • Average dietary energy intake to maintain energy balance • Healthy body weight • Physical activity • No upper level
    27. 27. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) • Adequate energy and nutrients • Reduce risk of chronic diseases • Range • 45-65% kcalories from carbohydrate • 20-35% kcalories from fat • 10-35% kcalories from protein
    28. 28. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes • Estimates apply to healthy people • Needed adjustments • Recommendations – not minimum levels nor optimal levels • Goals intended to be met through diet • Apply to average daily intakes • Each DRI category serves a unique purpose
    29. 29. Nutrition Assessment –Nutrition Assessment – Population LevelPopulation Level • National nutrition surveys • National nutrition monitoring program • Coordinates two major national surveys • Oversample high-risk groups • National health goals • Healthy People • National trends
    30. 30. Healthy People 2020 Nutrition & Weight Status Objectives
    31. 31. Healthy People 2020 Nutrition & Weight Status Objectives
    32. 32. Diet and HealthDiet and Health • Food plays vital role in supporting health • Chronic disease – epidemic levels • Multiple factors over multiple years • Leading causes of death
    33. 33. Diet and Health • Risk factors • Persist over time • Cluster • Prominence of risk factors • Tobacco • Diet & activity patterns • Others
    34. 34. NutritionNutrition Information &Information & MisinformationMisinformation Highlight 1
    35. 35. Nutrition Information &Nutrition Information & MisinformationMisinformation • Validity of information • Who is providing information? • Qualifications • Internet • Anyone can publish anything • No guarantees of accuracy • Evaluate websites • Who, When, Where, Why, and What?
    36. 36. • News • Often tell lopsided story • Testimonials • Tight deadlines • Limited understanding • Current and controversial Nutrition Information &Nutrition Information & MisinformationMisinformation
    37. 37. • Identifying nutrition experts • Physicians & other health-care professionals • Training in nutrition is limited • Registered Dietitian (RD) • Degree and clinical internship • National exam • Maintain up-to-date knowledge • Dietetic Technician Registered (DTR) Nutrition Information &Nutrition Information & MisinformationMisinformation
    38. 38. • Identifying fake credentials • Accreditation • Diploma mills • Fraudulent businesses • Red flags of nutrition quackery • Misinformation Nutrition Information &Nutrition Information & MisinformationMisinformation
    39. 39. Nutrition Information &Nutrition Information & MisinformationMisinformation

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