Nutrient interaction


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Nutrient interaction

  2. 2. What is nutrient interaction?  Nutrient interaction means , the impact of the nutrient on other nutrient’s bioavailability.  Nutrient bioavailability includes two important components, absorption and utilization.  Absorption is the process by which a nutrient moves from the intestinal lumen into the body  Utilization of the absorbed nutrients includes transport to various parts of the body, assimilation by cells, and conversion to biologically active forms.
  3. 3. Nutrient-nutrient interactions may affect – -Bioavailability in either in positive or negative way. -May either enhance or inhibit nutrient absorption or utilization. -High or low levels of one or more nutrients may affects bioavailability of other nutrient. -Interaction can affect all the major categories of nutrients; protein, carbohydrates,fats,vitamins and minerals. -Interactions of nutrients with non-nutrient components of foods can alter availability.
  4. 4. Protein Interaction of protein with other nutrient  Various proteins bind and carry certain vitamins and minerals including iron, copper, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, fat.  Inadequate protein intake may impair the function of these nutrients.
  5. 5. Carbohydrate Interaction of Carbohydrate with other nutrient  Carbohydrates present in the body require thiamine for their metabolism, as thiamine pyrophosphate is a coenzyme for the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid, the main breakdown product of carbohydrate.  Presence of excess carbohydrate in diet increase thiamine requirement also helps in functioning of fat and protein
  6. 6. Dietary fiber Interaction of dietary fiber with other nutrient  It reduce the absorption and/or increase the excretion of several minerals, including calcium and iron.
  7. 7. Fat Interaction of fat with other nutrient  The presence of excess fat in diet decreases thiamine requirement addition of essential fatty acid to a low pyridoxine diet offers protection against the development of deficiency sign due to pyridoxine deficiency.
  8. 8. Lipoic acid  Interaction of Lipoic acid with other nutrient  Vitamins C and E, coenzyme Q, glutathione, and NADH all require lipoic acid for their efficient recycling in the body. Deficiency of these antioxidant nutrients will reduce synthesis of lipoic acid in the body.  Lipoic acid gets its two sulfur atoms primarily from the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine. For this reason, methionine deficiency can reduce the body's ability to make lipoic acid.  Deficiency of other sulfur-containing amino acids, like cysteine and taurine, can also prevent lipoic acid synthesis in our cells.
  9. 9. Choline  Interaction of Choline with other nutrient  SAM cycle (s-adenosyl-methionine cycle), choline adequacy is closely related to the adequacy of many other nutrients.  These nutrients include vitamins B-6, B-12, and folate; the amino acids serine and glycine; and the molecules betaine, sarcosine, and ethanolamine.  Throughout the SAM cycle, all of these molecules are actively exchanging chemical components - and especially chemical structures called methyl groups - in order to keep the body supplied with adequate amounts of SAM. In the context of the SAM cycle, one of choline's jobs is to keep methyl groups cycling around for eventual donation to SAM.  The movement of methyl groups around the SAM cycle is particularly dependent on folic acid, which is particularly good at accepting methyl groups from other molecules. For this reason, folate deficiency is especially likely to disrupt SAM cycle balance, and in the process, choline status as well.
  10. 10.  Interaction of omega-3 fatty acid with other nutrient  Vitamin E, the primary fat-soluble antioxidant, protects omega-3 fats from oxidation.  Oxidation is a chemical process that produces free radical.
  11. 11. VITAMINS
  12. 12.  Interaction of Vitamin A with other nutrient  The transport and utilization of vitamin A is dependent upon several vitamin A binding proteins.  Sufficient dietary intake of protein is required for the manufacture of these binding proteins, inadequate protein intake may result in vitamin A deficiency.  Adequate intake of dietary fat and zinc is necessary for the absorption and utilization of vitamin A. Because vitamin A deficiency causes anemia, it is believed that vitamin A impacts the metabolism of iron.  Excess vitamin A interferes with the absorption of vitamin K, a fat-soluble vitamin necessary for blood clotting.
  13. 13.  Interaction of Vitamin B2 with other nutrient  Vitamin B2 status is strongly affected by intake of vitamin B1.  Adequate supplies of vitamin B1 can help increase levels of vitamin B2.  However, very high levels of vitamin B1 intake can increase the loss of vitamin B2 in the urine.  Other nutrients, especially iron, zinc, folate, vitamin B3 and vitamin B12 are not fully available in the body without adequate supplies of riboflavin
  14. 14. Niacin-B3  Interaction of vitamin B3 with other nutrient  B3 supply comes from conversion of the amino acid tryptophan.  Tryptophan deficiency can therefore increase risk of vitamin B3 deficiency. (Tryptophan deficiency is likely to occur in any individual with poor overall protein intake.)  Conversion also requires the presence of vitamins B1 and B6, and when B1 and/or B6 are deficient, B3 can also become deficient.  Vitamin B3 deficiency also appears to be related to vitamin B12 status, since even mild deficiencies in vitamin B12 can increase loss of vitamin B3 in the urine.
  15. 15.  Pantothenic acid - B5  Interaction of pantothenic acid with other nutrient  In animal studies, vitamins B12, folate, and biotin are required for proper use of vitamin B5 in the body's biochemical pathways.  In addition, vitamin C appears to help prevent B5 deficiency.
  16. 16.  Folate:  Interaction of folate with other nutrient  Vitamins B1, B2, and B3 must be present in adequate amounts to enable folic acid to undergo metabolic recycling in the body.  Excessive amounts of folic acid, however, can hide a vitamin B12 deficiency, by masking bloodrelated symptoms.
  17. 17.  Vitamin B12  Interaction of vitamin B12 with other nutrient  Vitamin B6 is required for proper absorption of vitamin B12, and deficiency of vitamin B6 has been shown to impair B12 absorption in animal studies.  Conversion of vitamin B12 from its non-active into its biologically active form requires the presence of vitamin E.  Vitamin E deficiency may show signs of vitamin B12 deficiency as well.  Excessive intake of folic acid can mask B12 deficiencies
  18. 18.   Vitamin C:  Interaction of Vitamin C with other nutrient  Vitamin C has significant interactions with several key      minerals in the body. Supplemental intake of vitamin C at gram-level doses can interfere with copper metabolism. Conversely, vitamin C can significantly enhance iron uptake and metabolism, even at food-level amounts. Vitamin C also has important interactions with other vitamins. Excessive intake of vitamin A is less toxic to the body when vitamin C is readily available. Vitamin C is involved in the regeneration of vitamin E, and these two vitamins appear to work together in their antioxidant effect.
  19. 19.  Vitamin D  Interaction of vitamin D with other nutrient  It plays a role in maintaining normal blood levels of     calcium. It impacts the absorption and storage of calcium. It also stimulates the absorption of phosphorus. Vitamin D is believed to regulate the production of certain calcium-binding proteins that function in the bones and kidneys. Because these binding proteins are dependent on vitamin K.----------It has also been theorized that iron deficiency results in decreased vitamin D absorption.
  20. 20. Vitamin E  The recycling of vitamin E in the body is intricately connected to     four other nutrients: vitamin C, glutathione, selenium, and vitamin B3. Vitamin C is required to keep vitamin E in its metabolically active form. glutathione (a very small protein molecule called a tripeptide and consisting of three amino acid building blocks) is required to keep vitamin C in its active form and selenium (a micromineral) and vitamin B3 (in a special form called NADPH) are required to keep glutathione in its active form. At moderately high levels of 1,000 milligrams or more, vitamin E can interfere with the bodily activities of vitamin K. The potential injury to vitamin K metabolism was largely the reason why the National Academy of Sciences, in the year 2000, set a Tolerable Upper Limit (UL) of 1,000 milligrams per day for vitamin E.
  21. 21. Vitamin K  Research on nutrient-nutrient interactions with vitamin K has traditionally focused on the major fat-soluble vitamins-A, E, and D.  Persons undergoing treatment with anticoagulant drugs have clearly been shown to have their anticoagulant therapy and their vitamin K status impacted by high doses of vitamin E. For this reason, intake of both vitamin K and vitamin E for persons undergoing treatment with anticoagulant medications needs to be determined with the help of a healthcare provider.  In healthy persons, no food intake of vitamin E has been shown to compromise vitamin K status. However, under some circumstances, higher supplement intake of vitamin E (above 1,000 milligrams) has been shown to interfere with vitamin K function and, in some cases, to promote hemorrhaging.  Since calcium metabolism can be greatly affected by both vitamin D and vitamin K, researchers suspect some key interactions between these two fat-soluble vitamins. However, the exact nature of this interaction has yet to be determined.
  22. 22.  Similar to the research on vitamin E in food, no food intake of vitamin A has been show to compromise vitamin K status.  Excess supplemental intake of vitamin A (in its retinol form) has been shown to interfere with the vitamin K-related clotting ability of the blood and cause hypothrombinemia.  The amount of vitamin A triggering this potential problem with vitamin K status in adults is typically 10,000 IU (3,000 micrograms) or higher.
  23. 23. Coenzyme Q  Coenzyme Q plays a critical role in maintaining our supply of vitamin E.  When vitamin E gets "used up" in the performance of its duty as an antioxidant protector of our cell membranes, coenzyme Q can "recharge" it, and restore its antioxidant capability.
  24. 24. MINERALS
  25. 25. Calcium The following nutrients impact the absorption, utilization and/or excretion of calcium:  Vitamin D accelerates the absorption of calcium from the gastrointestinal tract.  High consumption of potassium reduces the urinary excretion of calcium.  High intakes of sodium, caffeine, or protein cause an increase in the urinary excretion of calcium.  Certain types of dietary fiber like the fiber found in wheat and oat bran, may interfere with calcium absorption by decreasing transit time, limiting the amount of time during digestion for calcium to be absorbed.  Dietary fiber also stimulates the proliferation of "friendly" bacteria in the gut, which bind calcium and make it less available for absorption.  Phytic acid, found in whole grains, nuts, and legumes, can bind to calcium to form and insoluble complex, decreasing the absorption of calcium.  Oxalic acid, found in spinach, beets, celery, pecans, peanuts, tea and cocoa, can bind to calcium and form an insoluble complex that is excreted in the feces. Calcium impacts the absorption of the following nutrients:  It decreases the absorption of heme and nonheme iron.  Magnesium and calcium compete with each other for intestinal absorption. Consequently, calcium supplements should not be taken at the same time as magnesium supplements.
  26. 26. Copper • • • • Copper is known to react with a variety of other nutrients like iron, zinc, molybdenum, sulfur, selenium, and vitamin C. Iron and zinc—interfere with absorption of copper. Zinc supplements, when taken at 50 milligrams or more on a daily basis over an extended period of time, can lower availability of copper. High supplemental doses of vitamin C—in a range approaching 1,000 milligrams or more—may decrease copper availability. While not applicable to adults, There is also some evidence that in the formula feeding of infants, too much iron in a formula can lower absorption of copper from that formula.
  27. 27. Iron  The most advantageous nutrient for helping to increase the absorption of plant-food iron is vitamin C, 25 milligrams of vitamin C may as much as double the absorption of plant food iron from that meal.  Copper is another key nutrient for supporting iron metabolism. In this case, it is transport of iron around the body that relies in many ways on the presence of copper. So important is this relationship that iron-deficiency anemia may sometimes reflect the more basic underlying problem of copper deficiency. Vitamin A may also help improve iron status, and perhaps because of their relationship to stomach acidity levels, so might amino acids and organic acids (like citric acid or malic acid). There might also be better absorption of some plant iron from a meal when animal foods containing heme iron (the primary form of iron in animals) are present.
  28. 28.  Research is less clear on the relationship between iron and calcium, although most studies show problems with iron absorption when too much calcium is present. Since too much calcium in this case usually means 300 milligrams or more, this iron-calcium interaction is not likely to cause practical problems in most food situations. But it might come into play if a person had high iron requirements and was drinking a full glass of cow's milk (containing about 300 milligrams of calcium) along with an iron-rich meal. In this kind of circumstance, it might make sense to cut meal-time consumption of the milk in half and hold the other half for a between-meal snack. The ability of calcium to block iron absorption has led some researchers to recommend that individuals with high iron requirements avoid taking calcium supplements alongside of meals. Other nutrients that can lower absorption of plant iron include phytic acid (found in grains and legumes), certain plant food polyphenols (like tannins), and soy proteins. However, we are still able to absorb helpful amounts of iron from plant foods that contain any or several of these nutrients, and foods like whole wheat, whole grain rice, soybeans or other legumes are still very much worth including in the diet, even when iron absorption from these foods is moderate to lo
  29. 29.  Potassium  Use of certain diuretics  Interaction of potassium with other nutrient  Through a mechanism known as the "sodium-potassium" pump, sodium and potassium work together closely to initiate muscle contraction and nerve transmission, and to maintain the body's normal distribution of fluid. Most of the potassium in body is stored inside of cells, while most of the sodium in body is stored in the fluid that surrounds cells.  During muscle contraction and nerve transmission, potassium leaves the cell and sodium enters the cell via the "sodium-potassium pump." This transfer causes a change in electrical charge within the cell, which initiates the muscle contraction or the nerve impulse. Because sodium attracts water, once the muscle contraction or nerve impulse is initiated, the sodium is immediately pumped out of the cell to prevent water from entering the cell and causing the cell to swell or burst, and potassium is pumped back into the cell.  Potassium is known to decrease the excretion of calcium. As a result, increasing the amount of potassium-containing foods in diet may be helpful in maintaining the density and strength
  30. 30.  Zinc  Interaction of zinc with other nutrient  A Tolerable Upper Limit (UL) for zinc of 40 milligrams per day was set by the National Academy of Sciences in 2000 for all adults 19 years and older. The establishment of this limit was largely related to the ability of zinc - particularly supplemental zinc - to impair the status of other nutrients.  The most important of these nutrients are copper and calcium. Even at moderate doses of 18-20 milligrams that can easily be obtained from food, zinc can compromise the body's supply of copper unless foods rich in copper are also included in the diet. When few foods high in calcium are included in the diet, high levels of zinc intake (usually obtained from supplements) can also decrease absorption of calcium from the intestine into the body.  Although zinc is associated with these potential detrimental effects on copper and calcium, it is also supportive of other nutrients. The best studied of these nutrients in vitamin A. Without zinc, vitamin A cannot be effectively transported around the body, and cannot efficiently be mobilized when it is needed.
  31. 31.  Iodine  Interaction of iodine with other nutrient  The conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodthyronine (T3) requires the removal of an iodine molecule from T4. This reaction requires the mineral selenium. The iodine molecule that is removed gets returned to the body's pool of iodine and can be reused to make additional thyroid hormones.  If body is deficient in selenium, the conversion of T4 to T3 is slowed, and less iodine is available for the thryoid to use in making new hormones.  Animal studies have shown that arsenic interferes with the uptake of iodine by the thyroid, leading to goiter. In addition, dietary deficiency of vitamin A, vitamin E, zinc and/or iron can exaggerate the effects of iodine deficiency.
  32. 32.  Selenium  Interaction of selenium with other nutrient  Selenium is indirectly responsible for keeping the body's supply of at least three other nutrients intact: these three other nutrients are vitamin C, glutathione, and vitamin E. Although the chemistry of these relationships is complicated, it centers around an enzyme (protein molecule in the body that helps "jump start" a chemical reaction) called glutathione peroxidase. This enzyme cannot function without selenium. Both iron deficiency and copper deficiency appear to increase the risk of selenium deficiency.
  33. 33.  Manganese  Interaction of manganese with other nutrient  High doses of manganese may inhibit the absorption of iron, copper, and zinc. Alternatively, high intakes of magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper and zinc may inhibit the absorption of manganese.
  34. 34.  Interaction of magnesium with other nutrient  The relationship between magnesium and calcium is one of the most actively researched, and yet not fully understood mineral-to-mineral relationships. On one hand, magnesium is required in order for calcium to maintain a balanced role in the body's metabolism. On the other hand, magnesium can compete with calcium and prevent calcium from trigger certain events, like the relay of a nerve message or the contraction of a muscle.  Because of the complex relationship between calcium and magnesium, healthy diets almost always need to contain foods rich in both minerals. Magnesium also has an important relationship with potassium, and helps regulate the movement of potassium in and out of our cells. Finally, because magnesium can be attached to certain building blocks of protein (called amino acids), increased intake of protein can sometimes help improve the body's magnesium status.
  35. 35.  Chromium  Interaction of chromium with other nutrient  Diets high in simple sugars increase the urinary excretion of chromium and rob the body of some of the chromium it needs. Diets rich in whole grains can also decrease absorption of chromium, since whole grains contain a compound called phytic acid, which can bind to chromium, form an insoluble complex, and prevent it from being absorbed.  Whole grains, however, contain significant amounts of chromium, and the activity of phytic acid in grains does not prevent us from getting chromium from whole grain foods. As a result, a diet rich in whole grains is still unlikely to increase our risk of chromium deficiency.Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) increases the absorption of chromium.