Nourish to Flourish:
all people have a
Ritika Grover, Prateek Puri, Aastha Trehan
Ruchika Khaitan, Neha Singh
right to food &
India, today is one of the most malnourished countries in the World.
More than 40% of the World’s under weight children below five years live in India
(Global Hunger Index 2007)
The latest NFHS 3 asserts that not much progress has been achieved in improving
Poverty is a major, but not the only cause of malnutrition
Percentage of population suffering from various forms of malnutrition, far
exceeds the percentage below poverty line
After National Nutrition Policy 1993 and National Plan of Action, 1995 no
national programs or policies for eradicating malnutrition have appeared.
Today, India has no national programme to combat malnutrition
Girls & women are
productive & stable
and develop strong
strong bodies &
bodies & minds
The world is a
emerge out of
better & achieve
Young adults are
work & earn more
The causes of malnutrition are
Lack of good
Insufficient access to
for mothers & children
& support for mothers
on appropriate child
throughout the year
Inadequate access to
sanitation & clean
Political & Cultural
Analysis of current situation
(i) India has no comprehensive National Program for the eradication of
Malnutrition. The ICDS programme in governmental and general perception is
seen as a programme to address malnutrition. However, ICDS is not a
programme for the eradication of malnutrition, but for Integrated Child
(ii) Other Nutrition and related programmes such as the Mid Day Meal Programme,
Kishori Shakti Yojana, Vitamin A supplementation programme, National
Nutritional Anaemia Control Programme, and the National Iodine Deficiency
Disorder Control Progreamme address some of the causes of Malnutrition but
not all of them.
(iii) Malnutrition in India is deeply rooted in the inter-generational cycle. However,
the current policies and programmes do not address the issue intergenerationally, as depicted in the diagram.
(iv) The population of India suffers from a high Protein Calorie deficit. Studies reveal
that 30% of the households in India consume less than 70% of the energy
requirement and calorie intake(NNMB repeat surveys 1988-1990 and 1996-97).
(v) There is inadequate awareness and information regarding proper nutritional
practices amongst the population.
(vi) Crucial prescriptions of the National Nutrition Policy, 1993, were not translated
into National Programmes, viz., popularization of low cost nutritious foods,
reaching the adolescent girl, fortification of essential foods and control of
(vii) Most importantly, eradication of malnutrition should be articulated as high
priority in the National Development Agenda.
Nutrition-sensitive strategies increase the impact of
specific actions for nutrition
Specific Actions for Nutrition
Feeding Practices & Behaviors:
Encouraging exclusive breastfeeding
up to 6 months of age and continued
breastfeeding together with
appropriate and nutritious food up to
2 years of age and beyond
Agriculture: Making nutritious food more
accessible to everyone, and supporting
small farms as a source of income for
women and families
Clean Water & Sanitation: Improving
access to reduce infection and disease
Fortification of foods: Enabling access
to nutrients through incorporating
them into foods
Education & Employment: Making sure
children have the nutrition needed to
learn and earn a decent income as adults
Direct provision of extra nutrients
Health Care: Access to services that
enable women & children to be healthy
Treatment of acute malnutrition:
Enabling persons with moderate and
severe malnutrition to access
Support for Resilience: Establishing a
stronger, healthier population and
sustained prosperity to better endure
emergencies and conflicts
Essential Interventions to Combat Malnutrition
1. Weighment of child within 6 hours of birth and thereafter at monthly intervals.
2. Timely initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, and feeding of colostrum to the
3. Exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life.
4. Timely introduction of complementary foods at six months and adequate intake of the
same, in terms of quantity, quality and frequency for children between 6-24 months.
5. Dietary supplements of all children between 6 months – 72 months through energy dense
foods made by SHGs from locally available food material to bridge the protein calorie gap.
6. Safe handling of complementary foods and hygienic complementary feeding practices.
7. Complete immunization and Vitamin A supplementation.
8. De-worming of all family members bi-annually.
Frequent, appropriate, and active feeding for children during and after illness, including oral rehydration
with Zinc supplementation during diarrhea.
10. Timely and quality therapeutic feeding and care for all children with severe and acute malnutrition.
11. Dietary supplements of iron – rich, energy dense foods made from locally available food material
prepared by women SHGs for adolescent girls and women, especially during growth periods and
pregnancy to fill the protein calorie gap and ensure optimal weight gain during pregnancy.
12. Anaemia screening for children, adolescent girls and women.
13. Weight monitoring of all adolescent girls and pregnant women.
14. Prevention and management of Micro-Nutrient deficiencies, especially through IFA supplementation to
prevent anaemia in adolescent girls and women.
15. Making available low cost energy foods for the general population.
16. Fortification of common foods.
Nutrition Monitoring and Surveillance
• A computerized Central and Block level monitoring systems should be
devised with deliverable targets and time frames.
• An effective concurrent monitoring system through an external agency
can also be established for measuring outcomes, and for effecting changes
and mid course corrections.
• At the AW level, community based nutrition monitoring and surveillance
through ICDS infrastructure could include growth monitoring of infants
and children and weight monitoring of adolescent girls and women
• Creating a data base on the nutritional status of children, adolescents
we can achieve
what no single effort could,
and make India a
place for us all.
Our goal is a better
India for all
• HUNGER AND MALNUTRITION IN INDIA:
• STATUS, CAUSES AND CURES :
• NUTRITION STRATEGY OVERVIEW