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latest about iodine

  1. 1. IODINE...Why you cant live without it???? Aneesha rao
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONIodine is a trace mineral and an essential nutrient found naturally in the body.FunctionMetabolism - converting food into energy.Normal thyroid function,Production of thyroid hormonesFood SourcesIodized saltSeafood is naturally rich in iodine. Cod, sea bass, haddock, and perch are good sources. Kelp is the most common vegetable seafood that is a rich source of iodine.Dairy products.Other good sources are plants grown in iodine-rich soil
  3. 3. Lack of enough iodine (deficiency) may occur in places that have iodine-poor soil. Many months of iodine deficiency in a persons diet may cause goiter or HT. Without enough iodine, the thyroid cells and the thyroid gland become enlarged.Deficiency happens more often in women than in men, and is more common in pregnant women and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and mental retardation called cretinism. Cretinism is very rare in the U.S. because iodine deficiency is generally not a problem.Iodine poisoning is rare in the U.S. Very high intake of iodine can reduce the function of the thyroid gland.
  4. 4. RDA Infants • 0 - 6 months: 110 micrograms per day (mcg/day) • 7 - 12 months: 130 mcg/dayChildren • 1 - 3 years: 90 mcg/day • 4 - 8 years: 90 mcg/day • 9 - 13 years: 120 mcg/dayAdolescents and Adults • Males age 14 and older: 150 mcg/day • Females age 14 and older: 150 mcg/daySpecific recommendations depend on age, gender, and other factors (such as pregnancy).Women who are pregnant or producing breast milk (lactating) need higher amounts. Ask yourhealth care provider which amount is best for you.
  5. 5. HISTORYIodine was found to treat goiter (swelling of the thyroid) by Coindet(1774-1834). This was the first time a single item (iodine) was used to treat aspecific illness (goiter).Iodine is a rarity in many soils, due to initial low abundance as a crust-element, andalso leaching of soluble iodide by rainwater, has led to many deficiency problems inland animals and inland human populations. iodine deficiency affects about twobillion people and is the leading preventable cause of intellectual disabilties.
  6. 6. Study 1In Akron, Ohio, Dr. Marine conducted the first large-scale study on using iodine as a therapy to reduce goiter in people. Dr. Marine chose Akron due to the high rate of goiter that was occurring in school aged girls. In the early 1900’s, approximately 56% of school-aged girls had goiter in Akron.There was a 600% increase in goiter in adolescent girls versus boys. Why would there be such a large difference in girls versus boys?
  7. 7. Why????The first tissue to grow during puberty is breast tissue. Breast tissue contains the second largest concentration of iodine (next to the thyroid gland). Therefore, at puberty, as a girl begins to grow breast tissue her iodine requirements become larger as compared to a boy.
  8. 8. Study 21. A control group of 2305 students where no iodine was given .2. A treatment group of 2190 students who were given 9mg/day of sodium iodide (averaged daily) for 2.5 years. This dose of iodine is nearly 100x the RDA for iodine.The results were stunning. The control group (no iodine) showed a 22% increase of goiter. The treatment group had a significantly lowered 0.2% incidence of goiter.Dr. Marine reported these results and the U.S. quickly implemented the iodization of salt in the Great Lakes. The rest of the country adopted the policy of adding iodine to salt shortly thereafter. Today, the World Health Organization actively promotes the use of iodized salt to prevent goiter.
  9. 9. Myth 1: WE GET ENOUGH IODINE FROM SALTIodine is added to table salt at 100ppm as potassium iodide, which amounts to 77μg iodide/gm of salt.The RDA for iodine is set at 150μg/day for adults and slightly more during pregnancy and lactation [predominantly to reduce incidences of goiter]The average American takes in 4-10gm/day of refined salt/day. If we do the math (77μg/gm x 4-10gm/day=308-770μg/day)The research is crystal clear that we DON’T get enough iodine from salt. An interesting study completed in 1969 showed that only 10% of iodine in salt is bioavailable. Therefore, if we go back to our original calculations, we can now see that iodized salt provides somewhere between 30-77μg/day—which is markedly below the RDA for iodine.
  10. 10. Myth 2: Iodine supplementation will cause/worsen thyroid disordersthe declining iodine levels would be a good thing for preventing thyroid disease. However, this has not been the case. As iodine levels have been falling over the last 30 years, thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism, Hashimoto’s disease, Graves’ disease and thyroid cancer have been increasing at near epidemic rates.We would expect the opposite to occur—thyroid illnesses declining-- if iodine were the cause of these disorders.
  11. 11. Consequences????Not only is iodized salt a poor source of iodine, we have been conditioned to avoid salt by the media and mainstream medicine. Presently, less than 50% of U.S. households use salt. What is the consequence of this? Iodine levels have fallen over 50% over the last 30 years according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
  12. 12. OTHER REASONS...Diets lacking in sea food can predispose to iodine deficiency.Also, diets high in refined bakery products, such as breads, pastas, and cereals can cause/worsen an iodine deficiency problem.Oxidization if iodine from table salt may also lead to deficiency
  13. 13. Bakery products and bromine...The food industry has given us refined, devitalized food that has left us, as a population, nutrient deficient, obese and fatigued.Up until the early 1970’s, iodine was added to bakery products as a dough conditioner. In the early 1970’s, the food industry changed its practice and began substituting bromine for iodine.Bromine vs iodineBromine - goitrogen
  14. 14. Cause and effect...The receptors that are supposed to bind iodine will now bind bromine. The hormones that are supposed to contain iodine will now contain bromine. For example, the thyroid gland produces thyroxine, or T4. The ‘4’ refers to the number of iodine molecules on the thyroxine molecule. In the case of T4, there are four iodine molecules attached to it. If we ingest too much bromine and too little iodine, there is a good chance that our thyroid hormone will not contain iodine, but instead be brominated with bromine. Regular thyroid blood tests cannot distinguish between the two.
  15. 15. bromine toxicity?Bromine has been shown to causedelirium, psycho- motor retardation,schizophreniaHallucinationfeel dull and apatheticdifficulty concentrating.Bromine can also cause depression, headaches and irritability.There are multiple sources of bromine exposure in our toxic environment: hot tubs and pools, as a fumigant for agriculture, fire retardant in carpets, clothing, curtains, etc., brominated vegetable oil (in many sodas), and a constituent of most computer and electronic equipment.
  16. 16. Tests and supplementsUrine testiodine + iodide
  17. 17. MEDIAN URINARY CORRESPONDING IODINE NUTRITION IODINE IODINE INTAKE CONCENTRATION (μg/day) (μg/L)<30 <20 Severe deficiency 20-49 30-74 Moderate deficiency 50-99 75-149 Mild deficiency 100-199 150-299 Optimal 200-299 300-449 More than adequate ) >299 >449 Possible excess
  18. 18. Thank you