OBJECTIVES:-By the end of the session participants will be able to:• Define and classify the diabetic retinopathy• Identify the diagnostic criteria for different categories• List the signs and symptoms of diabetic retinopathy• State why the signs and symptoms occur• Describe the role of genetic and environment factors in the prevention and management of diabetic retinopathy
What is diabetic eye disease..?• Diabetic eye disease refers to a group of eye problems that people with diabetes may face as a complication of diabetes. All can cause severe vision loss or even blindness.Diabetic eye disease may include:• Diabetic retinopathy—damage to the blood vessels in the retina.• Cataract—clouding of the eyes lens. Cataracts develop at an earlier age in people with diabetes.• Glaucoma—increase in fluid pressure inside the eye that leads to optic nerve damage and loss of vision. A person with diabetes is nearly twice as likely to get glaucoma as other adults.
What are the stages of diabetic retinopathy?Diabetic retinopathy has four stages:1. Mild Nonproliferative Retinopathy2. Moderate Nonproliferative Retinopathy3. Severe Nonproliferative Retinopathy4. Proliferative Retinopathy.
Normal Vision and the same scene viewed by a person with diabetic retinopathy
Symptoms• Most often, diabetic retinopathy has no symptoms until the damage to your eyes is severe.Symptoms of diabetic retinopathy include:• Blurred vision and gradual vision loss• Shadows or missing areas of vision• Difficulty seeing at nighttime
Prevention• Tight control of blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol is very important for preventing diabetic retinopathy.• Do not smoke. If you need help quitting, ask your doctor or counselor.
Begin having eye examinations as follows by an eye doctor skilled in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy:• Children older than 10 years who have had diabetes for 3 - 5 years or more• Adults and adolescents with type 2 diabetes soon after diagnosis• Adolescents and adults with type 1 diabetes within 5 years of diagnosis• After the first exam, most patients should have a yearly eye exam.
• If you are beginning a new exercise program or are planning to get pregnant, have your eyes examined. Avoid resistance or high- impact exercises, which can strain already weakened blood vessels in the eyes.• If you are at low risk, you may need follow-up exams only every 2 - 3 years. The eye exam should include dilation to check for signs of retinal disease (retinopathy).
Signs and tests• In nearly all cases, the health care provider can diagnose diabetic retinopathy by dilating the pupils with eye drops and then carefully examining the retina.• A retinal photography or fluorescein angiography test may also be used.