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Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
Designer Milk Fat Production
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Designer Milk Fat Production

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  • 1. Swati Saxena, Mayank Tandon, J.P. Sehgal & S.N. Rai Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India-132001 Email: mayanktandon1@gmail.com DESIGNER MILK FAT PRODUCTION- Effective Animal Nutrition for Human Nutrition
  • 2. IntroductionIntroduction Milk fat - Important functionsMilk fat - Important functions Major energy componentMajor energy component Account for many physical propertiesAccount for many physical properties Manufacturing characteristicsManufacturing characteristics Organoleptic qualitiesOrganoleptic qualities Economic value of dairy productsEconomic value of dairy products Recent Interest – functional aspectRecent Interest – functional aspect Designing milk fatDesigning milk fat Improve healthfulness and functional propertiesImprove healthfulness and functional properties
  • 3. Comparison of Fatty Acid ProfilesComparison of Fatty Acid Profiles Fatty AcidsFatty Acids Ideal Milk FatIdeal Milk Fat Typical MilkTypical Milk FatFat PUFAPUFA (including(including ωω-- 3)3) 10 %10 % 5 %5 % MUFAMUFA 82 %82 % 25 %25 % SFASFA 8 %8 % 70 %70 % (Grummer, 1991)
  • 4. Health AspectsHealth Aspects   FA content of lauric, myristic & palmitic ---FA content of lauric, myristic & palmitic --- Hypercholesterolemic effectHypercholesterolemic effect   content of CLA, butyric acids &content of CLA, butyric acids & sphingolipids –sphingolipids – Anti-carcinogenic props.Anti-carcinogenic props.   ωω -3 fatty acids-3 fatty acids  EPA & DHAEPA & DHA  Prevention of secondary coronary diseasePrevention of secondary coronary disease  Mono-unsaturated fatty acids –plasmaMono-unsaturated fatty acids –plasma lipoprotein indicators of coronary disease risklipoprotein indicators of coronary disease risk
  • 5. CONJUGATEDCONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACIDLINOLEIC ACID Mixture of positional & geometric isomers ofMixture of positional & geometric isomers of linoleic acid (C 18:2), contain conjugatedlinoleic acid (C 18:2), contain conjugated unsaturated double bondsunsaturated double bonds Produced in rumenProduced in rumen -- biohydrogenation process-- biohydrogenation process as an intermediate productas an intermediate product Most biologically active isomer– cis-9, trans-Most biologically active isomer– cis-9, trans- 11- octadecadienoic acid11- octadecadienoic acid (Kewalramani, 2002)(Kewalramani, 2002)
  • 6. Lipases, Galactosidases, Phospholipases Unsaturated Free Fatty Acids eg : cis-9, cis- 12, C 18:2 Cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (CLA) Isomerase Trans-11 C18:1 C 18:0 Reductase (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvence) Reductase Esterified Plant LipidsEsterified Plant Lipids Conversion of Esterified Plant Lipids to SFA In Rumen (Kewalramani, 2002)(Kewalramani, 2002)
  • 7. CLA - Key FeaturesCLA - Key Features  AnticarcinogenicAnticarcinogenic  AntidiabeticAntidiabetic  AntiobesityAntiobesity  AntiatheroscleroticAntiatherosclerotic (Bauman(Bauman et al.,et al., 2000)2000)  CLA leads to lean meat productionCLA leads to lean meat production
  • 8. ωω-3 Fatty Acids-3 Fatty Acids Mother subs. ForMother subs. For ProstaglandinProstaglandin productionproduction Beneficial effect on CHDBeneficial effect on CHD 3 separate phenomena3 separate phenomena AtherosclerosisAtherosclerosis ThrombosisThrombosis Vascular spasmVascular spasm (Sen,1991)(Sen,1991) Therapeutic impactTherapeutic impact  neurological abnormalitiesneurological abnormalities (45 mg /kg/d)(45 mg /kg/d)
  • 9. Main SourcesMain Sources  ωω -3 &-3 & ωω -6 FA contents of feed and oil seeds-6 FA contents of feed and oil seeds (Sen,1991)(Sen,1991) %% ωω-3 fatty acids-3 fatty acids %% ωω -6 fatty acids-6 fatty acids Sunflower seedSunflower seed 0.30.3 5252 Safflower seedSafflower seed 0.50.5 7575 MaizeMaize 1.61.6 5050 RapeseedRapeseed 10.010.0 20.020.0 Linseed oilLinseed oil 55.055.0 17.017.0
  • 10. LNALNA C18:3(n-3)C18:3(n-3) EPAEPA C20:5(n-3)C20:5(n-3) C24:5 (n-3) C24:6 (n-3) DHA C22:6 (n-3) C18:4(n-3)C18:4(n-3) C20:4(n-3)C20:4(n-3) DPA C22:5 (n-3) Biochemical Conversion Of LNA To EPA & DHA ∆ 6 desaturase elongase elongase ∆ 5 desaturase elongase ∆ 6 desaturase 2C chain shortening (Allman, 1995)
  • 11. Milk Fat SynthesisMilk Fat Synthesis Consists of (g/ Kg milk fat)Consists of (g/ Kg milk fat)  Triacylglycerols 960-980gTriacylglycerols 960-980g  1,2 Diacylglycerols 20-25g1,2 Diacylglycerols 20-25g  Phospholipids 10gPhospholipids 10g  Cholesterol 5gCholesterol 5g Small quantities of FFA & monoacylglycerolsSmall quantities of FFA & monoacylglycerols (Ashes(Ashes et alet al., 1997)., 1997)
  • 12. 3 Stages In Milk Fat Biosynthesis3 Stages In Milk Fat Biosynthesis  Accumulation of FA in the mammary cellsAccumulation of FA in the mammary cells  de-novo synthesisde-novo synthesis  absorption from the blood streamabsorption from the blood stream  Triacylglycerols construction and fat globuleTriacylglycerols construction and fat globule assemblyassembly  SecretionSecretion (Murphy, 2002)(Murphy, 2002) Contd…
  • 13. Contd…Contd…  FA having 4-14 C- atoms synthesized de-novoFA having 4-14 C- atoms synthesized de-novo  FA having 18 C- atoms (dietary origin) –FA having 18 C- atoms (dietary origin) – absorbed from the blood streamabsorbed from the blood stream  Principle sources of C for FA synthesis –Principle sources of C for FA synthesis – acetate &acetate & ββ – hydroxy butyrate– hydroxy butyrate (Murphy, 2002)(Murphy, 2002)
  • 14. Nutritional Manipulation of Milk FatNutritional Manipulation of Milk Fat ConcentrationConcentration  Change in milk fat concentration achieved byChange in milk fat concentration achieved by  Altering level of de-novo synthesis in theAltering level of de-novo synthesis in the mammary glandmammary gland  Supply of long chain FA in dietSupply of long chain FA in diet  Most effects on milk fat concentration areMost effects on milk fat concentration are mediated through rumen fermentationmediated through rumen fermentation
  • 15. Dietary Factors Affect Supply of AceticDietary Factors Affect Supply of Acetic Acid from the Rumen for De-NovoAcid from the Rumen for De-Novo SynthesisSynthesis Fiber quantity & qualityFiber quantity & quality Forage : Concentrate ratioForage : Concentrate ratio Buffer inclusionBuffer inclusion Concentrate CompositionConcentrate Composition Concentrate feeding frequencyConcentrate feeding frequency (Chilliard(Chilliard et alet al., 2001)., 2001)
  • 16. HighHigh roughage-50%roughage-50% LowLow roughage-30%roughage-30% Low roughageLow roughage + tallow(3 %)+ tallow(3 %) Yield, g/dYield, g/d CC6:06:0 to Cto C14:014:0 178178 7676 7979 CC16:016:0 262262 9696 159159 CC18: 018: 0 6161 2222 4343 CC18:118:1 126126 108108 257257 CC18:218:2 1414 1818 2424 Profile, g/100gProfile, g/100g CC6:06:0 to Cto C14:014:0 2424 2020 1212 CC16:016:0 3434 2525 2424 CC18: 018: 0 8.28.2 5.65.6 6.46.4 CC18:118:1 1717 2929 4646 Effects of roughage level and supplemental lipid on milk fatty acid composition and yield (Grummer,1991)
  • 17. Properties of fat supplementsProperties of fat supplements  Lipid composition: Relative conc. ofLipid composition: Relative conc. of TAG/FFATAG/FFA  Fatty AcidsFatty Acids  Degree of inertnessDegree of inertness  DigestibilityDigestibility  Transfer into milkTransfer into milk  Mammary gland lipogenesisMammary gland lipogenesis
  • 18. FattyFatty AcidAcid CanolaCanola SafSaf flowerflower SunSun flowerflower CornCorn SoybeanSoybean CottonCotton seedseed BeefBeef TallowTallow 4:04:0 -- -- -- -- -- -- 14:014:0 0.10.1 0.10.1 0.10.1 -- 0.10.1 0.80.8 3.33.3 16:016:0 3.93.9 6.66.6 6.06.0 9.99.9 10.310.3 22.922.9 24.724.7 16:116:1 0.30.3 0.10.1 0.10.1 0.20.2 0.10.1 0.60.6 4.04.0 16:216:2 -- 0.70.7 18:018:0 1.81.8 2.52.5 4.64.6 2.02.0 3.93.9 2.52.5 17.017.0 18:118:1 58.058.0 13.913.9 15.715.7 28.728.7 22.122.1 17.817.8 42.242.2 18:218:2 21.021.0 75.575.5 71.471.4 56.956.9 54.154.1 54.254.2 2.02.0 18:318:3 11.111.1 0.10.1 0.60.6 1.11.1 8.38.3 0.50.5 0.50.5 20:120:1 1.71.7 0.20.2 0.20.2 0.40.4 0.30.3 0.10.1 0.40.4 20:220:2 0.10.1 -- -- -- -- -- 22:022:0 0.40.4 0.30.3 0.80.8 0.20.2 0.40.4 0.20.2 22:122:1 0.50.5 -- -- -- -- -- 24:024:0 0.20.2 0.10.1 0.20.2 0.20.2 0.10.1 0.10.1 24:124:1 0.30.3 0.20.2 -- -- -- -- Per cent Fatty Acid Composition of Some Fats & Oils (Robart Ackman, 1996)
  • 19. Fatty acid groupFatty acid group Control. noControl. no added oiladded oil FreeFree ProtectedProtected OilOil Fatty acidFatty acid OilOil Fatty acidFatty acid 4:04:0 265265 357357 276276 337337 303303 MCFAMCFA 828828 668668 591591 719719 668668 CC 795795 594594 595595 618618 646646 18:018:0 132132 268268 221221 270270 231231 18:118:1ciscis 274274 428428 386386 448448 410410 18:118:1transtrans 4141 121121 129129 5050 6666 18:2+18:2+ 6565 9797 9797 272272 8080  in output of Cin output of C1818 acids relative toacids relative to controlcontrol 402402 321321 528528 275275 PropPropnn of Cof C1818 acids*acids* 0.270.27 0.200.20 0.350.35 0.180.18 PropPropnn ofof 18:2+18:3*18:2+18:3* 0.030.03 0.030.03 0.180.18 0.010.01 * transferred from dietary Supplement to milk Yields.mmol/d The Yields (Mmol/D) of the Major Groups of Fatty Acids & Derived Parameters when Cows Consumed Diets Containing Soya Oil or Soya Oil Fatty Acids in Various Forms (William et al., 1990)
  • 20. Fatty acidFatty acid Control dietControl diet Sunflower oil dietSunflower oil diet C4:0C4:0 3.993.99 5.365.36 C6:0C6:0 2.332.33 1.401.40 C8:0C8:0 1.381.38 0.710.71 C10:0C10:0 3.153.15 1.451.45 C12:0C12:0 3.613.61 1.691.69 C14:0C14:0 11.4411.44 7.377.37 C14:1C14:1 1.221.22 0.940.94 C15:0C15:0 1.081.08 0.590.59 C16:0C16:0 30.9330.93 17.8417.84 C16:1C16:1 1.491.49 1.721.72 C17:0C17:0 0.480.48 0.340.34 C18:0C18:0 9.329.32 11.2711.27 cis-9C18:1cis-9C18:1 18.1118.11 24.1724.17 trans C18:1trans C18:1 5.045.04 15.0415.04 cis-9, cis-12, C18:2cis-9, cis-12, C18:2 2.592.59 2.852.85 C18:3C18:3 0.360.36 0.210.21 CLA (all isomers)CLA (all isomers) 0.530.53 4.074.07 OthersOthers 2.952.95 2.982.98 Fatty acid composition (g/100g of fatty acidsg/100g of fatty acids) of butter, made from cows fed on diets supplemented with or without sunflower oil (5.2% dm) ( Bauman et al., 2000)
  • 21. Fatty acidFatty acid Milk CompositionMilk Composition Control (0 %)Control (0 %) CDG (31 %)CDG (31 %) 4:04:0 3.53.5 4.04.0 10:010:0 3.53.5 2.82.8 12:012:0 4.04.0 3.03.0 14:014:0 11.711.7 9.29.2 14:114:1 1.61.6 1.41.4 15:015:0 1.21.2 0.80.8 15:115:1 0.30.3 0.30.3 16:016:0 28.828.8 23.223.2 16:116:1 2.82.8 2.82.8 17:017:0 0.70.7 0.60.6 17:117:1 0.40.4 0.30.3 18:018:0 11.511.5 14.714.7 18:118:1 19.819.8 25.625.6 SaturatedSaturated 68.768.7 61.961.9 UnsaturatedUnsaturated 27.527.5 34.134.1 Fatty Acid Composition of Milk Fat of Cows Fed on Diets Supplemented with or without Corn Distillers Grains (Schingoethe et al., 1999)
  • 22. Fatty acidFatty acid ContentContent YieldYield ControlControl PCSPCS ControlControl PCSPCS (% Total)(% Total) (g/d)(g/d) CC12:012:0 4.34.3 3.63.6 39.939.9 39.039.0 CC14:014:0 11.811.8 9.59.5 107.8107.8 102.1102.1 CC16:016:0(( 13%)13%) 26.726.7 19.919.9 247.4247.4 216.4216.4 CC16:116:1 4.54.5 3.33.3 40.140.1 36.336.3 CC18:018:0 7.17.1 9.29.2 66.466.4 99.799.7 CC18:118:1(( 69%)69%) 23.823.8 29.229.2 217.3217.3 315.8315.8 CC18:218:2 2.22.2 4.94.9 20.520.5 52.452.4 CC18:318:3 1.61.6 2.62.6 14.814.8 27.827.8 Effect of feeding protected canola supplement (PCS) on the fatty acid composition of cow milk (Ashes et al., 1999) Transfer efficiency
  • 23. FattyFatty acidacid ControlControl Fish oilFish oil ConcentrateConcentrate 150 g/kg150 g/kg 300 g/kg300 g/kg 450 g/kg450 g/kg 5kg/d5kg/d 10kg/d10kg/d 4:04:0 4444 5757 5050 4949 5555 4747 14:114:1 1515 1515 1313 1111 1313 1313 16:016:0 342342 313313 305305 300300 317317 314314 18:018:0 8181 8080 7676 7070 7373 7878 T 18:1T 18:1 44 33 2020 5050 1919 2424 C18:1C18:1 206206 212212 219219 199199 207207 200200 18:218:2 1.91.9 3.33.3 5.35.3 6.56.5 4.74.7 3.83.8 18:218:2 1414 1515 1818 1919 1616 1818 20:5n-320:5n-3 0.70.7 1.01.0 1.51.5 5.35.3 1.61.6 2.12.1 22:6n-322:6n-3 0.50.5 0.60.6 1.21.2 1.71.7 0.10.1 0.10.1 Effects of Supplementation of Different Levels of Concentrate as Well as Fish Oil on Fatty Acid Composition of Cows Milk (Keady et al.2000)
  • 24. Diets andDiets and TreatmentTreatment Fatty acids reported (%)Fatty acids reported (%) TotalTotal fattyfatty acidsacids CC14:014:0 CC16:016:0 CC16:116:1 CC18:018:0 CC18:118:1 CC18:218:2 CC18:318:3 g/100gDg/100gD ExperimentExperiment NCNC 0.650.65 21.121.1 0.860.86 2.672.67 17.617.6 43.843.8 12.912.9 3.433.43 HOCHOC 0.650.65 20.220.2 0.810.81 3.003.00 19.919.9 41.241.2 12.712.7 4.384.38 FATTY ACID PROFILE AND AMOUNT OF TOTAL FATTY ACID IN DIET (Dhiman et al. , 1999)
  • 25. Item NC HOC SEM P Feed intake,kg/d 27.7 28.4 1.1 0.7 Milk yield, kg/d 40.4 43.5 2.4 0.5 3.5% FCM Yield, kg/d 40.7 40.7 2.3 0.4 Milk fat% 3.60 3.10 0.26 0.7 Milk protein % 3.07 2. 90 0.08 0.8 Milk fat yield, kg/d 1.44 1.34 0.08 0.5 Fatty acid composition,mg/g C10:0 30.7 27.1 1.3 0.4 C12:0 41.0 35.2 1.6 0.4 C14:0 130 120 3.0 0.6 C16:0 325 301 9.0 0.7 C16:1 16.8 14.3 0.6 0.2 C18:0 93 119 4.0 0.2 C18:1 206 228 6.0 0.5 C18:2 35.6 36.4 1.3 0.5 CLA 3.8 3.9 0.3 0.6 C18:3 7.6 6.6 0.3 0.7 SFA 620 602 11.0 0.6 UFA 269 290 7.0 0.6 Others 111 109 4.0 0.6 Supplementation of Corn Oil on Feed Intake, Milk Yield & Fatty Acid Composition of Milk Dhiman etal., 1999
  • 26. CONCLUSIONSCONCLUSIONS  The fatty acid concentration and composition ofThe fatty acid concentration and composition of milk fat can be altered by nutritionalmilk fat can be altered by nutritional manipulationmanipulation  CLA,CLA, ωω- 3 and MUFA have therapeutic impact.- 3 and MUFA have therapeutic impact.  Low roughage with supplemented tallowLow roughage with supplemented tallow enhance the C 18:1 concentration.enhance the C 18:1 concentration.  Soya oil and canola seeds in protected formSoya oil and canola seeds in protected form enhance CLA conc. in milk fat.enhance CLA conc. in milk fat.
  • 27. Cont.Cont.  CDG and sunflower oil enhance unsaturatedCDG and sunflower oil enhance unsaturated fatty acid content of milk fat.fatty acid content of milk fat.   conc. Of fish oil in diet ,conc. Of fish oil in diet ,  ωω-3 FA in milk-3 FA in milk fat.fat.  For public health and well-being theFor public health and well-being the consumption of dairy products need to beconsumption of dairy products need to be increased.increased.

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