SUPLEMENTOS:DESPERDÍCIO OU NECESSIDADE?        Pedro Carrera Bastos
EUA                                                         Carne,                                                        ...
GASTO ENERGÉTICO DOS HOMINÍDEOS                           Taxa Metabólica Basal                   Gasto Enérgetico Total  ...
HÁBITOS MODERNOS DE SONO
Todos osESTILO                                Humanos nosMODERNO                               países                     ...
EXPOSIÇÃO SOLAR
Liu H, et al. Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Aug;79(2):230-7!
TABACO!
OVERTRAINING                                       DIETA INADEQUADA                                       SONO            ...
SUPLEMENTOS???!
Minerais       Vitaminas     AntioxidantesÁcidos Gordos essenciais
ESTAMOS A INGERIR O SUFICIENTE?!            INE, Dezembro 2006
DEFICIÊNCIAS DE MICRONUTRIENTES 
                      (POPULAÇÃO GERAL - EUA)                                            ...
DEFICIÊNCIAS DE MICRONUTRIENTES 
                        (POPULAÇÃO GERAL - EUA)                                          ...
FONTES DE MAGNÉSIOAlimentos de      Qtd de Magnésio   Alimentos de     Qtd de Magnésioorigem animal           mg          ...
RR comparing the highest quintile to non-supplement users was 0.77 (95% CI 0.56 –1.06, p for                              ...
MAGNÉSIO E INFLAMAÇÃOSong Y, Li TY, van Dam RM, Manson JE, Hu FB. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1068-74.
1024                  Magnesium Deficiency Produces                      Insulin Resistance and                     Magnes...
that magnesium intake may have beneficial effects on indi-                                       insulin sensitivit vidual...
Oral Magnesium supplementation improves                               insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects        ...
source of the low serum magnesium levels. However, be-      cause the studied population was eligible from the same       ...
DEFICIÊNCIAS DE MICRONUTRIENTES EM ATLETAS                               % DE GINASTAS < 2/3 DA DDR   75   50   25    0   ...
DEFICIÊNCIAS DE MICRONUTRIENTES EM ATLETAS             Nutriente                     % atletas que não                    ...
DEFICIÊNCIAS DE MICRONUTRIENTES EM ATLETASNutriente    % DDR     DDR     % DDR      DDR            (Homens) (Japão) (Mulhe...
DEFICIÊNCIAS DE MAGNÉSIO EM ATLETAS                                        !Modalidades             % DDR                 ...
DEFICIÊNCIAS DE ZINCO EM ATLETAS                                        !Modalidades             % DDR                    ...
ESCOLHAS                                                  !      Alimentos                               Dose             ...
ESCOLHAS                                                   !      Alimentos                                 Dose          ...
TOTAL ANTIOXIDANTES EM ALIMENTOS VEGETAIS                                   (Redução de Fe3+ para Fe2+)                   ...
DENSIDADE DE NUTRIENTES POR GRUPOS DE ALIMENTOS                                           (POR 100 KCAL)                  ...
FONTES DE CALCIO NÃO LÁCTEAS!                                                                                             ...
CA E COMPOSIÇÃO CORPORALhttp://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/calcium/capth.html
ADIPOSITY AND CALCIUM INTAKE I                         CÁLCIO E CONTROLO DE PESO!                                         ...
Role of Dairy Foods in Weight Management                                                                                  ...
DIETA FORNECE TODOS OS MICRONUTRIENTES ?!
TÉCNICAS AGRÍCOLAS E FACTORES                  !         AMBIENTAIS                                !
SOLOS EMPOBRECIDOS EM SELÉNIO, IODO,         ZINCO E MAGNÉSIO.                         !                          Kohrle J...
TRANSPORTE E ARMAZENAMENTO DOS           ALIMENTOS
               !
PERDA DE 40 % DE VITAMINA C EM VEGETAIS     DESDE O MOMENTO DA COLHEITA      Carlson BL, Tabacchi MH. J Am Diet Assoc. 198...
COUVES DE BRUXELAS CONGELADAS DURANTE 6 MESESAPRESENTAM MENOS 14 A 32% DE VITAMINA C EM RELAÇÃO AO                MOMENTO ...
CONFECÇÃO DOS ALIMENTOS                      !
PERDA DE 40 A 50% DE TIAMINA (B1) NACONFECÇÃO DO ARROZ E VEGETAIS DE FOLHA               VERDEKimura M, Itokawa Y, Fujiwar...
bic acid content when it is affected by different pressure levels. They determinedthat after low pressures the Ascorbic ac...
J. Nutr.   Sci.   Vitaminol.,   36, S7-S15,   1990        Comparison     of Vitamin     Losses     in Vegetables          ...
Each value is mean±SD of three replicate samples. Values                          580                                     ...
Nursal/Yucecan: Vitamin C losses in frozen vegetables                                                                     ...
Mean values were significantly different from those of the raw food (paired t test: ***P, 0·005, ****P, 0·0001.† ‘Typical’ ...
British Journal of Nutrition (2002), 88, 681–688                                                                DOI: 10.10...
British Journal of Nutrition (2002), 88, 681–688                                                                DOI: 10.10...
Vitamin C c                           60                           580                                            Yuan et ...
PERDA DE 30 A 35% DE β-CAROTENO NA        CONFECÇÃO DE VEGETAIS    Sweeney JP, Marsh AC. J Am Diet Assoc. 1971;59:238-43.
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Suplementos: Desperdício ou Necessidade?

  1. 1. SUPLEMENTOS:DESPERDÍCIO OU NECESSIDADE? Pedro Carrera Bastos
  2. 2. EUA Carne, Peixe 1,4 Ovos 18,6 15,7 Oleaginosas, Açúcares 3,1 Leguminosas, Óleos 3,3 Fruta Vegetais Cereais Lácteos Hortaliças/17,8 4,8 Tubérculos 0,8 Outros 23,9 10,6 Cordain L et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):341-54!
  3. 3. GASTO ENERGÉTICO DOS HOMINÍDEOS Taxa Metabólica Basal Gasto Enérgetico Total 60 50Kcal/kg/day 40 30 20 10 0 Homo habilis Homo erectus Homo sapiens Ache CR Homo sapiens 2.2 MYA 1.7 MYA (arcaico) sedentário 0.6 MYA Moderno Moderno Cordain L, et al. Int J Sport Med 1998;19:328-335.
  4. 4. HÁBITOS MODERNOS DE SONO
  5. 5. Todos osESTILO Humanos nosMODERNO países industrializados é exposto à luz de formaESTILO biologicamenteANTIGO atípica ! ! Disrupção do ritmo circadiano normal! % SIGNIFICATIVA DA POPULAÇÃO OCIDENTAL DORME! < 6 HORAS POR NOITE. !
  6. 6. EXPOSIÇÃO SOLAR
  7. 7. Liu H, et al. Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Aug;79(2):230-7!
  8. 8. TABACO!
  9. 9. OVERTRAINING DIETA INADEQUADA SONO fffffff INSUFICIENTE !PERFORMANCE REDUZIDA EXPOSIÇÃO SOLAR STRESS CRÓNICO LIMIAR PARA APARECIMENTO DE SINTOMAS FENÓTIPO “PATOLÓGICO”11
  10. 10. SUPLEMENTOS???!
  11. 11. Minerais Vitaminas AntioxidantesÁcidos Gordos essenciais
  12. 12. ESTAMOS A INGERIR O SUFICIENTE?! INE, Dezembro 2006
  13. 13. DEFICIÊNCIAS DE MICRONUTRIENTES 
 (POPULAÇÃO GERAL - EUA) ! Nutriente % norte-americanos que não atinge DDR Vit E 93 Magnésio 56 Vit A 44 Vit C 31 Vit B6 14 Zinco 12 Folato 8 Cobre 5 Ferro 5 Tiamina 5 USDA What we Eat in America (NHANES 2001-2002) Sept. 2005 Disponível em:http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12355000/pdf/usualintaketables2001-02.pdf
  14. 14. DEFICIÊNCIAS DE MICRONUTRIENTES 
 (POPULAÇÃO GERAL - EUA) !Nutriente %H %H %H %M %M %M 14-18 a 19-30 a 31-50 a 14-18 a 19-30 a 31-50 aVit E 97 89 90 97 97 97Magnésio 78 55 61 91 64 65Vit C 26 37 40 42 40 41Zinco 4 6 4 26 13 11Folato 4 6 <3 19 14 16Ferro <3 <3 <3 16 15 17 USDA What we Eat in America (NHANES 2001-2002) Sept. 2005 Disponível em: http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12355000/pdf/usualintaketables2001-02.pdf
  15. 15. FONTES DE MAGNÉSIOAlimentos de Qtd de Magnésio Alimentos de Qtd de Magnésioorigem animal mg origem vegetal 100 grsc 100 grs Fígado 21,0 Grão 122,0Carne magra 22,0 Nozes 358,0 Sardinha 25,1 Amêndoas 270 Atum 28 Avelãs 163 Linguado 25,1 Pescada 29,0 Amendoim 166 Mexilhão 23 Pão Trigo 25,1 Gambas 42 Massa Trigo 53,0 Ovo 12,0 Batata 19,9Iogurte natural 14,3 Leite inteiro 11,6 Espinafres 58,0
  16. 16. RR comparing the highest quintile to non-supplement users was 0.77 (95% CI 0.56 –1.06, p for Conclusions: These results suggest that intake of magnesium may have a modest inverse as Magnesium and Risk of Coronary Heart Disea risk of CHD among men. INTRODUCTION cohort no association was seen b CHD, but the number of cases wa Inadequate magnesium intake in the US population may be The primary aim of this ana a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases [1]. There is still association between intake of m controversy on the use of magnesium to prevent CHD because (fatal CHD and non-fatal myoca most of the published data on the protective effects of magne- men participating in the Health P sium involve CHD patients [2–5] and there are limited studies (HPFS). We also assessed the as on prevention among healthy adults. Higher magnesium intake the other minerals, potassium and through water supplies rich in this and other minerals (hard because potassium is metaboli water) has been associated with decreased prevalence of car- [14,15] and zinc deficiency is a su diac mortality in several ecological studies [6 – 8], but these studies did not adjust for possible confounders and the inverse association was not seen in other studies [9 –10]. Magnesium MATERIALS AND M deficiency has been related to coronary spasm and various arrhythmias through the loss of cellular potassium [11]. In a The Health Professionals Fo controlled clinical trial, higher magnesium intake was associated prospective cohort initiated in 1 with a significant antiarrhythmic effect [12]. In the Caerphilly nantly white men 40 to 75 yearig. 1. Magnesium levels and multivariate adjusted* to: Wael K Al-Delaimy, MD, heart Department of Nutrition,according to diabetes status. *(Covariat Address correspondence relative risk of coronary PhD, disease among men Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntinge, time period, energy intake, wael@hsph.harvard.edu. history of diabetes, history of high cholesterol, family history of MI, smoking history, aspirin intake, BMI, alcoh take, physical activity, vitamin E intake, trans fatty acids, total protein intake, cereal fiber, folate, omega 3 fatty acid, potassium.) Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 23, No. 1, 63–70 (2004) Published by the American College of Nutrition
  17. 17. MAGNÉSIO E INFLAMAÇÃOSong Y, Li TY, van Dam RM, Manson JE, Hu FB. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1068-74.
  18. 18. 1024 Magnesium Deficiency Produces Insulin Resistance and Magnesium Deficiency Produces Increased Thromboxane Synthesis Insulin Resistance and Increased Thromboxane Synthesis Jerry L. Nadler, Thomas Buchanan, Rama Natarajan, Indra Antonipillai, Jerry L. Nadler, Thomas Buchanan, Rama Natarajan, Indra Antonipillai, Richard Bergman, and Robert Rude Richard Bergman, and Robert RudeEvidence suggestssuggestsmagnesium deficiency may play an an important cardiovascular disease. In disease. In Evidence that that magnesium deficiency may play important role in role in cardiovascularthis study,this study, we evaluated effects ofof amagnesium infusion dietary-induced isolated magnesium magnesium we evaluated the the effects a magnesium infusion and and dietary-induced isolateddeficiency deficiency production Becausethromboxane and may beangiotensin Il-mediated aldosterone synthesis in on the on the production thromboxane andonon associated with altered blood pressure, we also normal human subjects. of of insulin resistance angiotensin Il-mediated aldosterone synthesis innormal human subjects. sensitivity using an intravenous glucose tolerance test withwith altered blood pressure, we also measured insulin Because insulin resistance may be associated minimal model analysis inmeasured six subjects. The magnesium infusion reduced urinary thromboxane concentration minimal model analysis in insulin sensitivity using an intravenous glucose tolerance test with and angiotensinsix subjects. The plasma aldosterone levels. Thecells as urinary thromboxane concentration and II-induced magnesium infusion reducedmagnesium diet reduced both serum magnesium and angiotensin intracellular free magnesium in red blood low determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (186±10II-induced[SEM] to 127±9 mM, p<0.01). Urinary thromboxane concentration measured byboth serum magnesium and plasma aldosterone levels. The low magnesium diet reduced radioimmunoassayintracellular free magnesium indeficiency. Similarly, angiotensin II-induced nuclear magnetic resonance (186±10 increased after magnesium red blood cells as determined by plasma aldosterone concentra-[SEM] to tion increased afterafter magnesium deficiency (3.69±0.6 toconcentration per microunit decrease in 127±9 mM, p<0.01). Urinary thromboxane that all subjects studied had a by millili- insulin sensitivity magnesium deficiency. Analysis showed 2.75±0.5 min~ measured per radioimmunoassayincreased after magnesium deficiency. Similarly, angiotensin II-induced increases thromboxane concentra- terXlO"4, p<0.03). We conclude that dietary-induced magnesium deficiency 1) plasma aldosteronetion increased after magnesium 2) enhances angiotensin-induced aldosterone synthesis. These effects are a decrease in urinary concentration and deficiency. Analysis showed that all subjects studied hadinsulin sensitivity with a decrease in insulin action, suggesting that to 2.75±0.5 min~ per microunit per millili- associated after magnesium deficiency (3.69±0.6 magnesium deficiency may be a commonterXlO"4, factor associated with insulin resistance and vascular disease. (Hypertension 1993;21:1024-1029) p<0.03). We conclude that dietary-induced magnesium deficiency 1) increases thromboxaneurinary concentration • and 2) enhances angiotensin-induced aldosterone synthesis. These effects are KEY WORDS magnesium • angiotensin II • insulin • thromboxanes • aldosteroneassociated with a decrease in insulin action, suggesting that magnesium deficiency may be a common
  19. 19. that magnesium intake may have beneficial effects on indi- insulin sensitivit vidual components of the metabolic syndrome. dietary magnesiu Magnesium Intake andthat magnesium may directly Syndrome populatio Experimental data suggest Incidence of Metabolic various Among Young Adults regulate cellular glucose metabolism through its role as a Evidence that cofactor for ScD; Kiang Liu, PhD; Martha L.enzymesMD, PhD; Steven J. Morris,weight regulation Ka He, MD, a number of relevant Daviglus, 28,29 and may PhD; influenceM. Loria, PhD; Linda Van Horn, PhD; Davidwith cellular cal- J. Savage, MD Catherine insulin secretion by interacting R. Jacobs, Jr, PhD; Peter association betw cium homeostasis.6 In addition, epidemiological studies and and sity2 diabetesBackground—Studies suggest that magnesium intake may be inversely related to risk of hypertension type are unclear. have an antiobes clinical trials indicate magnesium may decrease blood triglycerides improve high-density lipoprotein mellitus and that higher intake of that magnesium intake may and increase (HDL) cholesterol levels. However, the longitudinal association of magnesium intake and incidence of metabolic syndrome has not been investigated.Methods and Results—We prospectively examined the relations between magnesium intake and incident metabolic syndrome and its components among 4637 Americans, aged 18 to 30 years, who were free from metabolic syndrome and diabetes at baseline. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Diet was assessed by an interviewer-administered quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and magnesium intake was derived from the nutrient database developed by the Minnesota Nutrition Coordinating Center. During the 15 years of follow-up, 608 incident cases of the metabolic syndrome were identified. Magnesium intake was inversely associated with incidence of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for major Haza lifestyle and dietary variables and baseline status of each component of the metabolic syndrome. Compared with those total in the lowest quartile of magnesium intake, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of metabolic syndrome for participants race in the highest quartile was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.91; P for trend Ͻ0.01). The inverse associations Tabl were not materially modified by gender and race. Magnesium intake was also inversely related to individual component of the metabolic syndrome and fasting insulin levels.Conclusions—Our findings suggest that young adults with higher magnesium intake have lower risk of development of metabolic syndrome. (Circulation. 2006;113:1675-1682.) Key Words follow-up studies Ⅲ magnesium Ⅲ nutrition Ⅲ risk factors Ⅲ syndrome X Downloaded from the pathogenesis of hypertension. on July role for magnesium in circ.ahajournals.org byP eople with metabolic syndrome, characterized by a group 10,11 of metabolic risk factors, have been widely found to be at Although the mechanisms are poorly understood, studieselevated risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes demonstrate that increased intake of dietary magnesium may 1,2
  20. 20. Oral Magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trialF Guerrero-Romero1, 2 3 A 3 , HE Tamez-Perez , G González-González , AM Salinas-Martínez , 3J Montes-Villarreal3, JH Treviño-Ortiz3, M Rodríguez-Morán1, 2 10S UMMARY R ESUMu u EObjective: Although hypomagnesemia reduces insulin sensitivity, La supplémentation orale en magnésium améliore % 0benefits of magnesium supplementation to non-diabetic insulin resis- 1 la sensibilité à l’insuline chez des sujets non 2 3tant subjects has not been established. Our purpose was to determine diabétiques insulino-résistants. Un essaiwhether oral magnesium supplementation with magnesium chloride randomisé en double insu contrôlé par placebo -10(MgCl2) 2.5 g daily modify insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects.Material and Methods: This study was a 3 months randomized Objectifs : Bien que l’hypomagnésémie réduise la sensibilité à l’insu- line, les bénéfices de la supplémentation en magnésium chez desdouble-blind placebo-controlled trial. Apparently healthy subjects sujets non diabétiques insulino-résistants n’ont pas été établis. Notrewere eligible to participate if they had insulin resistance (HOMA-IR -20index equal or greater than 3.0) and hypomagnesemia (Serum magne- objectif était de déterminer si la supplémentation orale en magnésium avec du chlorure de magnésium (MCl2) 2,5 g par jour modifie la sensi-sium levels equal or lower than 0.74 mmol/l). Subjects were random- bilité à l’insuline chez des sujets non diabétiques.ized to receive either, MgCl2 2.5 g daily or placebo by 3-months. Matériel et méthodes : Nous avons conduit un essai randomisé en -30Results: At baseline there were not significant anthropometric or labo- double insu contrôlé par placeblo pendant 3 mois. Des sujets appa-ratory differences between both groups. At ending of the study, remment sains étaient éligibles pour l’étude s’ils étaient insulinorésis-magnesium-supplemented subjects significantly increased their se- tants (index HOMA-IR supérieur ou égal à 3,0) et hypomagnésémi- -40rum magnesium levels (0.61 ± 0.08 to 0.81 ± 0.08 mmol/l,p < 0.0001) and reduced HOMA-IR index (4.6 ± 2.8 to 2.6 ± 1.1, ques (taux sériques de magnésium inférieurs ou égaux à 0,74 mmol/ l). Les sujets étaient randomisés pour recevoir soit du MgCl2 2,5 g parp < 0.0001), whereas control subjects did not (0.62 ± 0.08 to jour ou un placebo pendant 3 mois.0.61 ± 0.08 mmol/l, p = 0.063 and 5.2 ± 1.9 to 5.3 ± 2.9, p = 0.087). -50Conclusions: Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sen- Résultats : Au départ, il n’y avait pas de différence anthropométrique Glucosesitivity in hypomagnesemic non-diabetic subjects. Clinical implica- In suli n HOMA -I R ni biologique signficative entre les deux groupes. À la fin de l’étude, les sujets supplémentés en magnésium ont significativement augmentétions of this finding have to be established. Branco – Magnésio (300 mg) leurs taux sériques de magnésium (0,61 ± 0,08 à 0,81 ± 0,08 mmol/l, Figure 2 Negro - PlaceboKey-words: Magnesium supplementation z Magnesium Chloride z p < 0,0001) et réduit leur index HOMA-IR (4,6 ± 2,8 à 2,6 ± 1,1, p < 0,0001), à la différence des sujets contrôles (0,62 ± 0,08 àInsulin sensitivity z Hypomagnesemia z Insulin resistance. 0,61 ± 0,08 mmol/l, p = 0,063 et 5,2 ± 1,9 à 5,3 ± 2,9, p = 0,087).
  21. 21. source of the low serum magnesium levels. However, be- cause the studied population was eligible from the same Oral Magnesium supplementation improves community and were randomize allocated, the source of hy- insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial F Guerrero-Romero1, 2, HE Tamez-Perez3, G González-González3, AM Salinas-Martínez3, J Montes-Villarreal3, JH Treviño-Ortiz3, M Rodríguez-Morán1, 2 B S UMMARY 40 R ESUMu u E 30 Objective: Although hypomagnesemia reduces insulin sensitivity, La supplémentation orale en magnésium améliore benefits of magnesium supplementation to non-diabetic insulin resis- la sensibilité à l’insuline chez des sujets non 20 tant subjects has not been established. Our purpose was to determine diabétiques insulino-résistants. Un essai whether oral magnesium supplementation with magnesium chloride randomisé en double insu contrôlé par placebo 10 (MgCl2) 2.5 g daily modify insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects. Objectifs : Bien que l’hypomagnésémie réduise la sensibilité à l’insu- Material and Methods: This study was a 3 months randomized 0 line, les bénéfices de la supplémentation en magnésium chez des double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Apparently healthy subjects were eligible to % 1 2 3 4 sujets non diabétiques insulino-résistants n’ont pas été établis. Notre participate if they had insulin resistance (HOMA-IR -10 index equal or greater than 3.0) and hypomagnesemia (Serum magne- objectif était de déterminer si la supplémentation orale en magnésium avec du chlorure de magnésium (MCl2) 2,5 g par jour modifie la sensi- sium levels equal or lower than 0.74 mmol/l). Subjects were random- -20 ized to receive either, MgCl2 2.5 g daily or placebo by 3-months. bilité à l’insuline chez des sujets non diabétiques. Matériel et méthodes : Nous avons conduit un essai randomisé en Results: At baseline there were not significant anthropometric or labo- -30 ratory differences between both groups. At ending of the study, double insu contrôlé par placeblo pendant 3 mois. Des sujets appa- remment sains étaient éligibles pour l’étude s’ils étaient insulinorésis- -40 magnesium-supplemented subjects significantly increased their se- tants (index HOMA-IR supérieur ou égal à 3,0) et hypomagnésémi- rum magnesium levels (0.61 ± 0.08 to 0.81 ± 0.08 mmol/l, ques (taux sériques de magnésium inférieurs ou égaux à 0,74 mmol/ -50 p < 0.0001) and reduced HOMA-IR index (4.6 ± 2.8 to 2.6 ± 1.1, l). Les sujets étaient randomisés pour recevoir soit du MgCl2 2,5 g par p < 0.0001), whereas control subjects did not (0.62 ± 0.08 to jour ou un placebo pendant 3 mois. 0.61 ± 0.08 mmol/l, p = 0.063 and 5.2 ± 1.9 to 5.3 ± 2.9, p = 0.087). Cholesterol HDL Conclusions: Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sen- RésultatsDAu départ, il n’y rig lycerdifférence anthropométrique L:L T avait pas de ides ni biologique signficative entre les deux groupes. À la fin de l’étude, les sitivity in hypomagnesemic non-diabetic subjects. Clinical implica- sujets supplémentés en magnésium ont significativement augmenté tions of this finding have to be (300 mg) Branco – Magnésio established. leurs taux sériques de magnésium (0,61 ± 0,08 à 0,81 ± 0,08 mmol/l, Negro - Placebo p < 0,0001) et réduit leur index HOMA-IR (4,6 ± 2,8 à 2,6 ± 1,1, p <1.8%), insulin levelsHypomagnesemia z InsulinMagnesium Chloride z and HOMA-IR index (– 43.5% Insulin sensitivity z (– 32.0% versus – 1.0%), Key-words: Magnesium supplementation z resistance. 0,0001), à la différence des sujets contrôles (0,62 ± 0,08 à 0,61 ± 0,08 mmol/l, p = 0,063 et 5,2 ± 1,9 à 5,3 ± 2,9, p = 0,087).
  22. 22. DEFICIÊNCIAS DE MICRONUTRIENTES EM ATLETAS % DE GINASTAS < 2/3 DA DDR 75 50 25 0 B2 B1 B12 C A P Ca Mg E Fe Ác. F. B6 Zn MICRONUTRIENTES 97 Adolescentes 11-14 Anos Loosli AR, Benson J. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1990 Oct;37(5):1143-52.
  23. 23. DEFICIÊNCIAS DE MICRONUTRIENTES EM ATLETAS Nutriente % atletas que não atinge DDR Fósforo 33 Vit A 18 Zinco 13 39 atletas de:ü  Ginástica Rítmicaü  Ginástica artísticaü  Ballet Soric M, Misigoj-Durakovic M, Pedisic Z. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Jun;18(3):343-54.
  24. 24. DEFICIÊNCIAS DE MICRONUTRIENTES EM ATLETASNutriente % DDR DDR % DDR DDR (Homens) (Japão) (Mulheres) (Japão)Cálcio 64,5 600 mg 76,9 600 mgFerro 97,6 12 mg 68,1 12 mgFósforo 96,8 1300 mg 72,3 1300 mgMagnésio 51,5 300 mg 37,7 300 mgVit B2 78,1 0,55 85,7 0,55 mg/1000 kcal mg/1000 kcal KARATECAS JAPONESES: 29 H 16 M Teshima K, et al. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2002 Jul;21(4):205-11
  25. 25. DEFICIÊNCIAS DE MAGNÉSIO EM ATLETAS !Modalidades % DDR ReferênciasBasquetebol 66 Hickson JF Jr, Schrader J, Trischler LC.(Mulheres) J Am Diet Assoc 1986;86: 251–3Ginástica 66 Hickson JF Jr, Schrader J, Trischler LC. J Am Diet Assoc 1986;86: 251–3(Mulheres)Futebol Americano 69 Hickson JF, et al. Nutr Res 1987;7:27–34.Futebol 90 Hickson JF, et al. Nutr Rep Int 1986;34:85–91Atletismo 53 Zierath J, Kaiserauer S, Snyder AC.(Mulheres com Med Sci Sports Exerc 1986; 18(suppl):S55–6amenorreia)Atletismo 89 Zierath J, Kaiserauer S, Snyder AC.(Mulheres sem Med Sci Sports Exerc 1986; 18(suppl):S55–6amenorreia)Triatlo (Homens) 91 Worme JD, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;51:690–7 Adaptado de Lukaski HC. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Aug;72(2 Suppl):585S-93S
  26. 26. DEFICIÊNCIAS DE ZINCO EM ATLETAS !Modalidades % DDR ReferênciasAtletismo 86 Deuster PA, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49:1295–301(Mulheres)Maratonistas 73 Lukaski HC. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Aug;72(2 Suppl): 585S-93S(Mulheres)Velocistas 81 Lukaski HC. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Aug;72(2 Suppl): 585S-93S(Mulheres)Triatlo 88 Worme JD, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;51:690–7(Mulheres)Triatlo (Homens) 91 Worme JD, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;51:690–7 Adaptado de Lukaski HC. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Aug;72(2 Suppl):585S-93S
  27. 27. ESCOLHAS ! Alimentos Dose Qtd de Zinco (mg) Ostras 6 médias (cozidas) 43,4 Bife de vaca 90 g (cozido) 5,8 Caranguejo 90 g (cozido) 4,6 Perú (coxa e asa) 90 g (cozido) 3,5 Galinha (coxa e asa) 90 g (cozido) 2,4 Carne de porco 90 g (cozido) 2,2 Feijão cozido ½ chávena 1,8! Grão de bico ½ chávena 1,3 Leite 240 ml 1 Amêndoas 30 g 1 Queijo 30 g 0,9 Amendoins 30 g 0,9 Bland et al. Clinical Nutrition: A functional approach. The Institute for Functional Medicine, 2004
  28. 28. ESCOLHAS ! Alimentos Dose Qtd de Selénio (mcg) Castanha do 30 g (6 a 8 unidades) 839 Maranhão Caranguejo 90 g 40 Salmão 90 g 40 Camarão pequeno 90 g (10 a 12 unidades) 34 Bife de porco 90 g 33 Peito de galinha 90 g 20! Arroz integral cozido 1 chávena 19 Bife de vaca 90 g 17 Pão de trigo integral 2 fatias 15 Leite 240 ml 5 Nozes 30 g 5 Bland et al. Clinical Nutrition: A functional approach. The Institute for Functional Medicine, 2004
  29. 29. TOTAL ANTIOXIDANTES EM ALIMENTOS VEGETAIS (Redução de Fe3+ para Fe2+) ! 0,8 0,75 7 6,3 0,7 0,64 6 0,6 0,560,58 5Mmol/100 g Mmol/100 g 0,5 4 3,67 0,38 0,4 3 0,3 0,19 2 0,2 n=4 n=11 0,1 n=8 n=17 n=4 n=9 n=22 n=31 1 0 0 Raízes/Tubérculos Cereais Oleaginosas/Sementes Bagas Bagas selvagens Leguminosas Fruta Hortaliças Halvorsen BL et al. J Nutr 2002;132:461-71
  30. 30. DENSIDADE DE NUTRIENTES POR GRUPOS DE ALIMENTOS (POR 100 KCAL) Cereais Leite Integrais Inteiro Fruta Vegetais Peixe Carne Oleaginosas Vitamina B12 (µg) 0.004 0.585 0.004 0.004 7.427 0.636 0.004 Vitamina B3 (mg) 1.124 0.141 0.893 2.735 3.196 4.737 0.352 Fósforo (mg) 903 1525 331 1576 2197 1514 802 Vitamina B2 (mg) 0.052 0.266 0.093 0.337 0.094 0.145 0.041 Vitamina B1 (mg) 0.125 0.061 0.113 0.267 0.082 0.186 0.124 Folato (µg) 10.34 8.12 25.06 208.37 10.83 3.81 11.05 Vitamina C (mg) 0.01 1.54 74.26 93.67 1.95 0.12 0.43 Ferro (mg) 0.904 0.081 0.692 2.597 2.076 1.105 0.863 Vitamina B6 (mg) 0.093 0.071 0.205 0.427 0.194 0.326 0.082 Vitamina A (RE) 22 505 946 6877 324 11 23 Magnésio (mg) 32.64 21.92 24.63 54.57 36.16 18.01 35.85 Calcio (mg) 7.62 194.37 43.04 116.86 43.15 6.11 17.53 Zinco (mg) 0.674 0.623 0.251 1.045 7.67 1.96 0.62 Pontuação 42 43 47 82 66 51 39 Cordain L et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):341-54.
  31. 31. FONTES DE CALCIO NÃO LÁCTEAS! Nº de doses necessárias Alimento Dose Cálcio para = Cálcio absorvido a (mg) partir de 225 ml de leite Leite 225 ml 300 1 Feijão vermelho ½ chávena 41 9,7 Feijão branco ½ chávena 113 3,9 Couve chinesa * ½ chávena 239 1,3 Brócolo * ½ chávena 35 4,5 Couve Galega * 65 g 47 3,5 Repolho chinês * 55 g 79 2,3 Espinafre ½ chávena 115 16,3 Ruibarbo ½ chávena 174 9,5* As Brássicas são uma anomalia entre as plantas, pois não acumulam oxalatos como mecanismo para desentoxicar excesso de cálcio, de modo a prevenir a morte celular Institute for Functional Medicine. Clinical Nutrition – A functional approach. IFM, 2004Shils M.E., Shike M., Ross A.C. et al. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, US; 10Rev Ed edition, 2005
  32. 32. CA E COMPOSIÇÃO CORPORALhttp://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/calcium/capth.html
  33. 33. ADIPOSITY AND CALCIUM INTAKE I CÁLCIO E CONTROLO DE PESO! source for t•  .! ! tion increas ! ! 72-h fecal co ! also signific ! terol by 13% compared w controlled tr (as calcium HDL-LDL r gests that th long lasting plementatio 24 subjects c was supplem cium carbon dependent f of total fat i with 2 g Ca Parikh SJ, Yanovski JA. Calcium intake and adiposity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;77(2):281-7 Increased fa FIGURE 6. Proposed mechanisms through which decreased dietary excretion o
  34. 34. Role of Dairy Foods in Weight Management MARRS protein: membrane- associated rapid response to steroid Fig. 1. An integrated summary of mechanisms. Zemel MB. The role of dairy foods in weight management. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Dec;24(6 Suppl):537S-46Sion in energy balance, it required a larger level of cal- chain amino acid content of dairy protein and specific bioactive
  35. 35. DIETA FORNECE TODOS OS MICRONUTRIENTES ?!
  36. 36. TÉCNICAS AGRÍCOLAS E FACTORES ! AMBIENTAIS !
  37. 37. SOLOS EMPOBRECIDOS EM SELÉNIO, IODO, ZINCO E MAGNÉSIO. ! Kohrle J. Biochimie. 1999;81(5):527-33. Maksimovic Z, et al. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1998;17(3-4):221-7. Clark LC, Cantor KP, Allaway WH. Arch Environ Health. 1991;46(1):37-42 Shambaugh GE Jr. Am J Otol. 1989;10(2):156-60. Miron W, Sobaniec-Lotowska M, Sulkowski S. Wiad Lek. 1989;42(19-21):1033-7
  38. 38. TRANSPORTE E ARMAZENAMENTO DOS ALIMENTOS
 !
  39. 39. PERDA DE 40 % DE VITAMINA C EM VEGETAIS DESDE O MOMENTO DA COLHEITA Carlson BL, Tabacchi MH. J Am Diet Assoc. 1988;88:65-67.
  40. 40. COUVES DE BRUXELAS CONGELADAS DURANTE 6 MESESAPRESENTAM MENOS 14 A 32% DE VITAMINA C EM RELAÇÃO AO MOMENTO DA COLHEITA.! ! ! Kmiecik W, Lisiewska Z. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 1989;40(3):215-22.
  41. 41. CONFECÇÃO DOS ALIMENTOS !
  42. 42. PERDA DE 40 A 50% DE TIAMINA (B1) NACONFECÇÃO DO ARROZ E VEGETAIS DE FOLHA VERDEKimura M, Itokawa Y, Fujiwara M. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1990;36(Suppl 1):S17-24.
  43. 43. bic acid content when it is affected by different pressure levels. They determinedthat after low pressures the Ascorbic acid content was greater than after highpressures. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 36, S7-S15, 1990 Of course, cooking duration and the type of foodstuff play an important role asshown by some of our unpublished tests. Products, which need a long cookingperiod, like cabbage and Vitamin soup, showed a higher Ascorbic acid content after Comparison of bean Losses in Vegetables Due to Variouspressure cooking than after steaming. On the other hand, products, which require Cooking Methodsonly a short cooking period, like spinach and kohlrabi in slices, contained a higherconcentration of Ascorbic acid after steaming rather than after pressure cooking D. RUMM-KREUTER and I. DEMMEL(Rumm-Kreuter, 1986). Alfa Institut Eltville (FDG) Further interesting cooking methods are stirfrying and microwave cooking. Summary Preparing vegetables with heat the contents of their con Table 1.stituents will acid contents (mg/100g) in fresh spinach and in spinach after Ascorbic change to a various extend. Particularly the water-soluble different and the heat-sensitive vitamins are affected. At an early stage the vitamin cooking methods. C losses were investigated, because of vitamin Cs indicating function for oxidations and leaching-out processes (1, 2, 7, 11-13, 15, 17). The degree of vitamin losses is influenced by various factors, for example the type of food, variety of vegetables, the way of cutting, preparation, duration and method of cooking. The influence of the various cooking methods with regard to the losses of certain water-soluble vitamins will be discussed. Key Words cooking methods, ascorbic acid, folic acid, thiamine, ribo flavin, niacin, pyridoxine Blumenthal (1980). J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. Foods are prepared in order to become edible and enjoyable. The choice of the cooking method depends on the individual or cultural dietary habits. By preparing food with heat, not only alterations in carbohydrates, fats and
  44. 44. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 36, S7-S15, 1990 Comparison of Vitamin Losses in Vegetables Due to Various Cooking Methods D. RUMM-KREUTER and I. DEMMEL Alfa Institut Eltville (FDG) COMPARISON OF VITAMIN LOSSES IN VEGETABLES S9 Summary Preparing vegetables with heat the contents of their conTable 2. Ascorbic change contents (%)extend. Particularly green beans after different stituents will acid to a various in broccoli and the water-soluble and the heat-sensitive vitamins are affected. At an early stage the vitamincooking methods. C losses were investigated, because of vitamin Cs indicating function for oxidations and leaching-out processes (1, 2, 7, 11-13, 15, 17). The degree of vitamin losses is influenced by various factors, for example the type of food, variety of vegetables, the way of cutting, preparation, duration and method of cooking. The influence of the various cooking methods with regard to the losses of certain water-soluble vitamins will be discussed. Key Words cooking methods, ascorbic acid, folic acid, thiamine, ribo flavin, niacin, pyridoxine Eheart (1965).Table 3. Foods are prepared in order to acid and edible and enjoyable. Thespinach. of the Mean reduced Ascorbic become Folic acid content of choice cooking method depends on the individual or cultural dietary habits. By preparing food with heat, not only alterations in carbohydrates, fats and
  45. 45. Each value is mean±SD of three replicate samples. Values 580 Yuan et al. / J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2009 10(8):580-588not sharing a common letter are significantly different at Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B ISSN 1673-1581 (Print); ISSN 1862-1783 (Online) www.zju.edu.cn/jzus; www.springerlink.com E-mail: jzus@zju.edu.cnP<0.05. Cooking methods: 1. Raw; 2. Boiled; 3. Streamed; Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting4. Microwaved; 5. Stir-fried;of6. Stir-fried/boiled compounds broccoli * Gao-feng YUAN1, Bo SUN1, Jing YUAN1, Qiao-mei WANG†‡1,2 120 (1Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China) a 2 ( Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture, Hangzhou 310029, China) Crú † a E-mail: qmwang@zju.edu.cn Vapor Received Feb. 24, 2009; Revision accepted Apr. 20, 2009; Crosschecked July 14, 2009 Micro- 100 b Abstract: The effects of five domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwaving, boiling, stir-frying, and stir-frying Ondas followed by boiling (stir-frying/boiling), on the nutrients and health-promoting compounds of broccoli were investigated. The c results show that all cooking treatments, except steaming, caused significant losses of chlorophyll and vitamin C and significant Frito decreases of total soluble proteins and soluble sugars. Total aliphatic and indole glucosinolates were significantly modified by allVitamin C content 80 d cooking treatments but not by steaming. In general, the steaming led to the lowest loss of total glucosinolates, while stir-frying and Cozido (mg/100 g FW) Cozido stir-frying/boiling presented the highest loss. Stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling, the two most popular methods for most homemade dishes in China, cause great losses of chlorophyll, soluble protein, soluble sugar, vitamin C, and glucosinolates, but the steaming method appears the best in retention of the nutrients in cooking broccoli. e e frito Key words: Broccoli, Cooking, Glucosinolates, Vitamin C, Chlorophyll, Soluble sugar 60 doi:10.1631/jzus.B0920051 Document code: A CLC number: S635 INTRODUCTION ferent compartments of the plant cells to separate 40 Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) con- from glucosinolates. When plant tissues are damaged, myrosinase rapidly hydrolyzes the glucosinolates to tains high levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and anti- glucose and other unstable intermediates, which carcinogenic compounds and has been described as a spontaneously rearrange to a variety of biologically vegetable with high nutritional value. Glucosinolates, active products, including isothiocyanates, thiocy- 20 a diverse class of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing anates, epithionitriles, or nitriles depending on secondary metabolites, are found in Brassica vegeta- chemical conditions (Jia et al., 2009). The hydrolysis bles including broccoli. These compounds have products vary depending largely upon the level and gained renewed interest in recent years due to the activity of myrosinase, presence of specifier protein, 0 chemoprotective properties of their major hydrolysis e.g., epithiospecifier protein, and hydrolysis condi- products, isothiocyanates. Glucosinolates are chemi- tions, e.g., pH, metal ions and temperature, and these 14 cally stable until they come in contact J Zhejiang Univ can be 2009 10(8):580-588 cultivar, and cooking Yuan et al. with the deg- Sci B influenced by species, cohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.147), which is stored in dif- a radation enzyme myrosinase ( -thioglucoside glu- time and conditions (Verkerk et al., 2008). Epidemi- ological studies and experimental researches with cell
  46. 46. Nursal/Yucecan: Vitamin C losses in frozen vegetables ¨ Vitamin C losses in some frozen vegetables due to various cooking methods zen vegetables B. Nursal and S. Yucecan ¨ eading from the first one. The Frozen spinach,2. Vitamin and okra were commercially 42.1, and 28.2% vitaminfrozen vegetables the losses in Table peas, green beans C levels (dry weight basis) of C loss, respectively. Besides,oducibility between standards cooked in three differentto cookingbased stainless steel, teflon, cooking processes were accelerated in thawed vegetables with the according stewpans (double pans and methods. tendency; that is more destruction occurred in samples boiled in pyrex) with and without thawing. The vitamin C levels were effected same tructed by plotting absorbance both by cooking methods and stewpans. Frozen peas were found to be pyrex pan (60.3% loss in spinach, 40.8% loss in peas, 48.4% loss in rsus concentration of standard the least (3.5% loss), and frozen green beans were foundlto be the green beans,Thawedcooking is uselessLossthe results,vitamin Frozen Unthawed (x Loss and 41.6% loss in okra). According to most (19.6% loss) effected vegetables by thawing. In all of the stew- found that thawing before (x l and causes more it was same manner; their ascorbic pans, vegetables spinach,SEM) [mg/100 g] than[%]loss. Therefore,prevent vegetablesg] not[%] using double double based stainless steel pan retained more vitamin C the others. While boiling C SEM)frozen vitamin must be thawed before cook- peas, green beans, and okra without ing. In order to [mg/100 C from destruction, ording to standard curve plot- thawing resulted 46.5, 25.2, 18.2, and 21.6% vitamin C loss in double based stainless steel pan, minimum amount of water and cooking of based stainless steel pan, boiling them in pyrex pan resulted 58.5, 36.0, frozen vegetables are recommended.%). Spinach 362.1 l 101.7 0.0 305.4 l 50.9 15.7 DBSS 193.4 l 58.2 46.5 182.5 l 54.8 50.0 Teflon 177.1 l 66.8 51.1 160.2 l 79.2 55.8 1 Introduction Table 1. The types and characteristics of stewpans used for cooking Pyrex 150.4 l 47.3 58.5 vegetables. l 43.7 frozen 143.6 60.3 each sample, and vitamin C In recent years, throughout the catering systems like hotels, weight bases. We thought that restaurants, hospitals, schools, army corps lquality foods hygi- 0.0 types 58.5[cm]6.3 [cm] Peas enic, standardized, inexpensive and good 60.6 and factories, have Pan 7.9 meter l Bottom dia- Top diameter 3.5 Thickness Height [cm] [mm] DBSS 45.3 l 7.9a accurate when discussing the become very important. Changes in food consumption patterns25.2 DBSS 36.6 l 5.4a 19.3 39.6 16.4 10.0 4.0 zen samples were measured resulted in[1]. For these reasons, in order demanda, b ready to32.5 eat foods Teflon variability and 40.9 l 5.1 for quality Teflon product a great to keep best Pyrex 36.7 l 4.2a 18.7 39.4 17.4 13.4 8.5 4.0 a 17.8 7.5 5.0 Pyrex 38.8 l 5.6 b els which were found before and extend shelf life, different food protection technics are36.0 35.9 l 6.2 40.8 being applied [2]. It is obvious that cooling and freezing are one of the best methods available in the food industry for pre- Green beans 139.1 l serving food products of high quality [3 – 5]. 3.9 116.5 l 52.0 0.0 Cooking procedures 2.1 19.6 Vitamin C, which is found in 113.8 l 36.0 fruits in DBSS most vegetables and 90.9 l 25.9 18.2A kitchen oven working with natural gas 34.7 during cooking was used detectable levels, is often used as an indicator vitamin, because the samples. The smallest fireplace was chosen in order to cook 100 g it is veryTeflon to air contact,96.7 l of water, cooking of each sample. The samples were dropped into boiling water (150 ml sensitive amount 28.2 30.5 88.8 l 27.0 36.2 time and Pyrextype of stewpans80.5 l 26.3 lid is open distilled water), and boiled for 5 min, and then fire was held in mild method, and whether the 42.1 71.8 l 20.4 48.4 tightly cov- ge of triplicate experiments. or closed during cooking [6, 7]. These effects are also valid for condition till the end of cooking (30 min). The pans werefor unthawed ered during boiling process. This procedure was repeated frozen vegetables. Vitamin losses can increase by cooking and and erformed on the data in order leaching effects, unless no losses152.5 l 21.0 storage. 0.0 thawed 138.7Thawingfor spinach, green beans, peas and okra Okra occur during frozen samples. l 25.1 was done at room temperature (22.3 l 2 8C). Thawing times process 9.6 es. 119.6 l 7.7 21.6The cooked sampleslwere immediately 33.1 in ice-water and It is well known that, generally, losses during cooking depends were 5, 4, 3, and 3 h, respectively. DBSS on variety, species, initial vitamin C level before freezing, pH, 102.0 11.9 cooled surface to mass ratio, cooking time and l 7.0 of cooking homogenized in a Waring 11.4 for 1 min 36.7 ml of 3% meta- Teflon 113.8 amount 25.4 96.5 l Blender with 100 water [8 – 10]. phosphoric acid (HPO3) solution and analysed without waiting. This The purpose of the present study was tol 9.5 Pyrex 89.0 l times 109.5 determine the vita-28.2 was repeated three9.1 for each sample. process 41.6 min C losses of some commercially frozen vegetables after ion cooking (with and without thawing) in three different stewpans 2.2 Ascorbic acid analyses S. 451 – a (double based stainless values are significantly different C levels were measured all2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol Vitamin C steel (DBSS), teflon, and pyrex). Nr. 6,Vitamin (p453 0.05) in by kinds of Nahrung 44 (2000) method (50 mg dye/100 ml distilled water) [11, 12], using a 8700 vegetables, except bearing the same superscripts (a, b) within the same Model Spectrophotometer. process showed that some In order to determine the ascorbic acid levels, 10 g of each homoge- column.
  47. 47. Mean values were significantly different from those of the raw food (paired t test: ***P, 0·005, ****P, 0·0001.† ‘Typical’ cooking procedures were established from the results of a consumer questionnaire (for details see p. 682).‡ Times shown reflect the duration required to cook the food item (determined from preliminary experiments, i.e. not ‘undercooked’ or ‘overcooked’; for details,Journal of Nutrition (2002), 88, 681–688 British see p. 683). q The Authors 2002 DOI: 10.1079/BJN2002733§ To avoid differences in moisture content as a result of different cooking procedures, spinach, broccoli and beef were weighed raw before cooking and values therefore given per 100 g raw weight. Values for potatoes relate to whole potatoes (skin and flesh) and are given per 100 g raw or cooked weight as appropriate (for details of procedures see p. 682). The effect of different cooking methods on folate retention in various foods that are amongst the major contributors to folate intake in the UK diet Derek J. McKillop, Kristina Pentieva*, Donna Daly, Joseph M. McPartlin, Joan Hughes, J. J. Strain, John M. Scott and Helene McNulty Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), University of Ulster, Coleraine BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, UK (Received 14 January 2002 – Revised 04 July 2002 – Accepted 15 August 2002) COZIDO A VAPOR Folate intake is strongly influenced by various methods of cooking that can degrade the natural forms of the vitamin in foods. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different cooking methods on folate retention in various foods that contribute to folate intake in the UK diet. Typical purchasing and cooking practices of representative food folate sources were determined from a questionnaire survey of local shoppers (n 100). Total folate was deter- mined by microbiological assay (Lactobacillus casei NCIMB 10463) following thermal extrac- tion and tri-enzyme (a-amylase, protease and conjugase) treatment in raw foods and after typical methods of cooking. Boiling for typical time periods resulted in only 49 % retention of folate in spinach (191·8 and 94·4 mg/100 g for raw and boiled spinach respectively; P, 0·005), and only 44 % in broccoli (177·1 and 77·0 mg/100 g for raw and boiled broccoli respectively, P, 0·0001). Steaming of spinach or broccoli, in contrast, resulted in no significant decrease in folate content, even for the maximum steaming periods of 4·5 min (spinach) and COZIDO EM ÁGUA 15·0 min (broccoli). Prolonged grilling of beef for the maximum period of 16·0 min did not result in a significant decrease in folate content (54·3 and 51·5 mg/100 g for raw and grilled beef respectively). Compared with raw values, boiling of whole potatoes (skin and flesh) for 60·0 min did not result in a significant change in folate content (125·1 and 102·8 mg/100 g for raw and boiled potato respectively), nor was there any effect on folate retention whether or not skin was retained during boiling. These current results show that the retention of folate in various foods is highly dependent both on the food in question and the method of cook- ing. Thus, public health efforts to increase folate intake in order to improve folate status should incorporate practical advice on cooking. Food folate retention: Cooking methods: Food folates: Dietary folate intake ESPINAFRE Optimal folate status may have a role in the prevention of 400 mg folic acid/d in addition to normal dietary folate cardiovascular disease via plasma homocysteine-lowering intake to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. (Boushey et al. 1995), and possibly in the prevention of However, more recent studies suggest that an additional certain cancers (Branda & Blickenderfer, 1993; Kim et al. intake of 200 mg folic acid/d may be optimal both for the 1997; Jacob et al. 1998; Choi & Mason, 2000). However, prevention of neural tube defect occurrence (Daly et al. the most compelling evidence for the benefit of optimal 1997) and for the lowering of plasma homocysteine
  48. 48. British Journal of Nutrition (2002), 88, 681–688 DOI: 10.1079/BJN2002733 q The Authors 2002 The effect of different cooking methods on folate retention in various foods that are amongst the major contributors to folate intake in the UK diet Derek J. McKillop, Kristina Pentieva*, Donna Daly, Joseph M. McPartlin, Joan Hughes, J. J. Strain, John M. Scott and Helene McNulty Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), University of Ulster, Coleraine BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, UK (Received 14 January 2002 – Revised 04 July 2002 – Accepted 15 August 2002) COZIDO A VAPOR Folate intake is strongly influenced by various methods of cooking that can degrade the natural forms of the vitamin in foods. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different cooking methods on folate retention in various foods that contribute to folate intake in the UK diet. Typical purchasing and cooking practices of representative food folate sources were determined from a questionnaire survey of local shoppers (n 100). Total folate was deter- mined by microbiological assay (Lactobacillus casei NCIMB 10463) following thermal extrac- tion and tri-enzyme (a-amylase, protease and conjugase) treatment in raw foods and after typical methods of cooking. Boiling for typical time periods resulted in only 49 % retention of folate in spinach (191·8 and 94·4 mg/100 g for raw and boiled spinach respectively; P, 0·005), and only 44 % in broccoli (177·1 and 77·0 mg/100 g for raw and boiled broccoli respectively, P, 0·0001). Steaming of spinach or broccoli, in contrast, resulted in no significant decrease in folate content, even for the maximum steaming periods of 4·5 min (spinach) and COZIDO EM ÁGUA 15·0 min (broccoli). Prolonged grilling of beef for the maximum period of 16·0 min did not result in a significant decrease in folate content (54·3 and 51·5 mg/100 g for raw and grilled beef respectively). Compared with raw values, boiling of whole potatoes (skin and flesh) for 60·0 min did not result in a significant change in folate content (125·1 and 102·8 mg/100 g for raw and boiled potato respectively), nor was there any effect on folate retention whether or not skin was retained during boiling. These current results show that the retention of folate in various foods is highly dependent both on the food in question and the method of cook- ing. Thus, public health efforts to increase folate intake in order to improve folate status should incorporate practical advice on cooking. Food folate retention: Cooking methods: Food folates: Dietary folate intakeBRÓCOLO Optimal folate status may have a role in the prevention of 400 mg folic acid/d in addition to normal dietary folate cardiovascular disease via plasma homocysteine-lowering intake to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. (Boushey et al. 1995), and possibly in the prevention of However, more recent studies suggest that an additional certain cancers (Branda & Blickenderfer, 1993; Kim et al. intake of 200 mg folic acid/d may be optimal both for the 1997; Jacob et al. 1998; Choi & Mason, 2000). However, prevention of neural tube defect occurrence (Daly et al. Fig. 2. The effect of duration and method of cooking on folate retention in: (a), spinach; the most compelling evidence for the benefit of optimal 1997) and for the lowering of plasma homocysteine
  49. 49. British Journal of Nutrition (2002), 88, 681–688 DOI: 10.1079/BJN2002733 q The Authors 2002 The effect of different cooking methods on folate retention in various foods that are amongst the major contributors to folate intake in the UK diet6 D. J. McKillop et al. Derek J. McKillop, Kristina Pentieva*, Donna Daly, Joseph M. McPartlin, Joan Hughes, J. J. Strain, John M. Scott and Helene McNulty Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), University of Ulster, Coleraine BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, UK (Received 14 January 2002 – Revised 04 July 2002 – Accepted 15 August 2002) Folate intake is strongly influenced by various methods of cooking that can degrade the natural forms of the vitamin in foods. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different cooking methods on folate retention in various foods that contribute to folate intake in the UK diet. Typical purchasing and cooking practices of representative food folate sources were determined from a questionnaire survey of local shoppers (n 100). Total folate was deter- mined by microbiological assay (Lactobacillus casei NCIMB 10463) following thermal extrac- tion and tri-enzyme (a-amylase, protease and conjugase) treatment in raw foods and after typical methods of cooking. Boiling for typical time periods resulted in only 49 % retention of folate in spinach (191·8 and 94·4 mg/100 g for raw and boiled spinach respectively; P, 0·005), and only 44 % in broccoli (177·1 and 77·0 mg/100 g for raw and boiled broccoli respectively, P, 0·0001). Steaming of spinach or broccoli, in contrast, resulted in no significant decrease in folate content, even for the maximum steaming periods of 4·5 min (spinach) and 15·0 min (broccoli). Prolonged grilling of beef for the maximum period of 16·0 min did not result in a significant decrease in folate content (54·3 and 51·5 mg/100 g for raw and grilled beef respectively). Compared with raw values, boiling of whole potatoes (skin and flesh) for 60·0 min did not result in a significant change in folate content (125·1 and 102·8 mg/100 g for raw and boiled potato respectively), nor was there any effect on folate retention whether or not skin was retained during boiling. These current results show that the retention of folate in various foods is highly dependent both on the food in question and the method of cook- ing. Thus, public health efforts to increase folate intake in order to improve folate status should incorporate practical advice on cooking. Food folate retention: Cooking methods: Food folates: Dietary folate intake Optimal folate status may have a role in the prevention of 400 mg folic acid/d in addition to normal dietary folate cardiovascular disease via plasma homocysteine-lowering intake to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. (Boushey et al. 1995), and possibly in the prevention ofATATA B However, more recent studies suggest that an additional certain cancers (Branda & Blickenderfer, 1993; Kim et al. intake of 200 mg folic acid/d may be optimal both for the 1997; Jacob et al. 1998; Choi & Mason, 2000). However, prevention of neural tube defect occurrence (Daly et al.g. 3. Impact of preparation the most compelling evidence forretentionofduring boiling. and fordetails of samples and procedures, of potatoes on folate the benefit optimal 1997) For the lowering of plasma homocysteine see p. 682. Values
  50. 50. Vitamin C c 60 580 Yuan et al. / J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2009 10(8):580-588 (mg/100 g Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B ISSN 1673-1581 (Print); ISSN 1862-1783 (Online) www.zju.edu.cn/jzus; www.springerlink.com 40 E-mail: jzus@zju.edu.cn Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting 20 compounds of broccoli* Gao-feng YUAN1, Bo SUN1, Jing YUAN1, Qiao-mei WANG†‡1,2 0 (1Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China) 14 2 ( Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture, Hangzhou 310029, China) Micro- a † a E-mail: qmwang@zju.edu.cn Crú Vapor Ondas a Received Feb. 24, 2009; Revision accepted Apr. 20, 2009; Crosschecked July 14, 2009 a Frito 12Total carotenoid content Cozidob Abstract: The effects of five domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwaving, boiling, stir-frying, and stir-frying followed by boiling (stir-frying/boiling), on the nutrients and health-promoting compounds of broccoli were investigated. The (mg/100 g FW) results show that all cooking treatments, except steaming, caused significant losses of chlorophyll and vitamin C and significant Cozido 10 decreases of total soluble proteins and soluble sugars. Total aliphatic and indole glucosinolates were significantly modified by all cooking treatments but not by steaming. In general, the steaming led to the lowest loss of total glucosinolates, while stir-frying and c e frito stir-frying/boiling presented the highest loss. Stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling, the two most popular methods for most homemade dishes in China, cause great losses of chlorophyll, soluble protein, soluble sugar, vitamin C, and glucosinolates, but the steaming 8 method appears the best in retention of the nutrients in cooking broccoli. Key words: Broccoli, Cooking, Glucosinolates, Vitamin C, Chlorophyll, Soluble sugar 6 doi:10.1631/jzus.B0920051 Document code: A CLC number: S635 INTRODUCTION ferent compartments of the plant cells to separate 4 Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) con- from glucosinolates. When plant tissues are damaged, myrosinase rapidly hydrolyzes the glucosinolates to tains high levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and anti- glucose and other unstable intermediates, which 2 carcinogenic compounds and has been described as a spontaneously rearrange to a variety of biologically vegetable with high nutritional value. Glucosinolates, active products, including isothiocyanates, thiocy- a diverse class of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing anates, epithionitriles, or nitriles depending on 0 secondary metabolites, are found in Brassica vegeta- chemical conditions (Jia et al., 2009). The hydrolysis bles including broccoli. These compounds have products vary depending largely upon the level and 1 2 3 4 gained renewed interest in recent years due to the activity of myrosinase, presence of specifier protein, chemoprotective properties of their major hydrolysis e.g., epithiospecifier protein, and hydrolysis condi- 5 6 products, isothiocyanates. Glucosinolates are chemi- tions, e.g., pH, metal ions and temperature, and these Cooking method cally stable until they come in contact J Zhejiang Univ can be 2009 10(8):580-588 cultivar, and cooking Yuan et al. with the deg- Sci B influenced by species, radation enzyme myrosinase ( -thioglucoside glu- time and conditions (Verkerk et al., 2008). Epidemi- cohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.147), which is stored in dif- ological studies and experimental researches with cell
  51. 51. PERDA DE 30 A 35% DE β-CAROTENO NA CONFECÇÃO DE VEGETAIS Sweeney JP, Marsh AC. J Am Diet Assoc. 1971;59:238-43.
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