Short intro epigenetics & nutrigenomics& the early impact of nutrition

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Our “genes” are not fixed: “Plasticity” of the genotype by epigenetic mechanisms => important for the phenotypic impact of nutrition.
• Histone and DNA modifications have impact on gene transcription efficiency. Methylation (more stable) and acetylation (more flexible) have impact on chromatin
structures.
• Epigenetic modifications have impact on offspring, embryo development, ageing and disease development or prevention => example: Dutch Hunger Winter.
 Health status of future parents are very important for the future health of children.
 Early healthy nutrition & lifestyle essential for successful healthy life & “ageing”.

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Short intro epigenetics & nutrigenomics& the early impact of nutrition

  1. 1. Epigenetica – de invloed van voedingsstoffen op genexpressie<br />Michael MüllerNetherlands Nutrigenomics Centre<br />& Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics GroupDivision of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University<br />
  2. 2. Nutritional science tries to define:What is healthy? <br />
  3. 3. We have a tsunami of health problems<br />
  4. 4. Why is more effective prevention very important now: Because we should stay healthy as long as possible<br />100 %<br />Health/ “Quality of life”<br />time<br />
  5. 5. We are different<br />
  6. 6. Nutrigenomics = modern nutritional science: Quantification of the nutritional genotype-phenotype <br />Lifestyle<br />Nutrition<br />Environment<br />
  7. 7. Duality of biological information:Epigenetic & Genetic<br />
  8. 8. Epigenetics<br />The study of reversible heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of nuclear DNA. <br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Received, Recorded, Remembered & Revealed<br />
  11. 11. Environmental sensitivity of the epigenome<br />
  12. 12. Molecular mechanisms that mediate epigenetic phenomena<br />DNA methylation (CpGdinucleotides)<br />Histone modifications<br />
  13. 13. Epigenetic inheritance<br />In somatic cells, epigenetic information is replicated during mitosis along with the DNA sequence. <br />The mechanism for replication of DNA methylation is well understood but the mechanism for replication of histone modifications is not.<br />
  14. 14. LTR Hypomethylated <br />LTR Hypermethylated<br />Long terminal repeat (LTR) controlling expression of the agouti gene <br />Maternal Supplements <br />with<br />zinc<br />methionine<br />choline<br />folate<br />B12<br />Yellow Mouse<br />Agouti Mouse<br /><ul><li>Lower risk of cancer, diabetes, obesity
  15. 15. Longer life
  16. 16. High risk cancer, diabetes, obesity
  17. 17. Reduced lifespan</li></li></ul><li>Life cycle of the epigenome<br />
  18. 18. Epigenetic modifications associated with very early life<br />
  19. 19. Extensive epidemiologic studies have suggested that adult disease risk is associated with adverse environmental conditions early in development. <br />Although the mechanisms behind these relationships are unclear, an involvement of epigenetic dysregulation has been hypothesized. <br />Here we show that individuals who were prenatally exposed to famine during the Dutch Hunger Winter in 1944–45 had, 6 decades later, less DNA methylation of the imprinted IGF2 gene compared with their unexposed, same-sex siblings. <br />The association was specific for periconceptional exposure, reinforcing that very early mammalian development is a crucial period for establishing and maintaining epigenetic marks.<br />These data are the first to contribute empirical support for the hypothesis thatearly-life environmental conditions can cause epigenetic changes in humans that persist throughout life. => healthy nutrition of the mother is essential<br />
  20. 20. Early prevention of obesity: Role of epigenetics<br />
  21. 21. The father is also important for healthMetabolic risk can be conferred via the paternal lineage<br />(Cell & Nature 2011)<br />
  22. 22. Summary<br />Our “genes” are not fixed: “Plasticity” of the genotype by epigenetic mechanisms => important for the phenotypic impact of nutrition.<br />Histone and DNA modifications have impact on gene transcription efficiency. Methylation (more stable) and acetylation (more flexible) have impact on chromatin structures.<br />Epigenetic modifications have impact on offspring, embryo development, ageing and disease development or prevention=> example: Dutch Hunger Winter.<br /><ul><li>Health status of future parents are very important for the future health of children.
  23. 23. Early healthy nutrition & lifestyle essential for successful healthy life & “ageing”.</li>

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