Library Resources for EL3208

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  • Research is iterative, not instantaneous!
  • results from Using JSTOR


  • 1. Library Resources for EL3208 Bilingualism
    Ruby Seng
    Resource Librarian (ELL)
  • 2. Outline
    Advanced searching techniques
    Steps 1-3
  • 3. Introduction
  • 4. The Research Process
    List synonyms, related words & variant spellings
    Identify main keywords
    Create search statement
    Search for sources using LINC+/LINC & databases
    Complete your assignment
    Get more sources by checking references
    Are there enough? Evaluate quality, currency, relevance, etc.
  • 5. Information Sources
    Journal articles
    Conference papers
    Theses & dissertations
    Primary sources
  • 6. Finding Citations
    I want to find journal articles/book chapters on a topic.
  • 7. Finding Citations: Use Databases
    Method 1: browse databases by subject
    Method 2: search by name of database e.g. LLBA
    Note: Most databases do not have full-text articles
  • 8. Finding Full-text Articles
    I have the citation and need the full-text article.
  • 9. Finding Full-text: Use LINC or LINC+
  • 10. Finding Full-text: LINC Journal Search
    E-journal publishers/ providers
    our subscription
    latest issue In Current Journals
    click for complete listing of volumes in Bound Journals and Closed Stacks
    search for specific volume or year
  • 11. Advanced Searching Techniques
  • 12. Boolean Operators: AND, OR, NOT
    AND: both terms must be present
     fewer results
    OR: either terms may be present
     more results
    3. NOT/AND NOT: exclude a term
    use with caution
    cats ANDdogs
    cats ORdogs
    cats NOTdogs
  • 13. Quotation Marks “ ”
    Use quotation marks “ ” for phrase searching
    code switching: 10,719 results
    “code switching”: 2572 results
    Some databases treat adjacent words as separate words (AND),
    while others treat them as phrase (“ ”)
  • 14. Asterisk *
    Use asterisk * for variant forms of a word & variant spelling
    bilingual*= bilingual, bilinguals, bilingualism
    colo*r = color, colour
    Some databases use other symbols, e.g.: $, ?, !
  • 15. Parentheses ( )
    Use parentheses ( ) for grouping similar or related words
    e.g. (language acquisition OR bilingualism) AND adults
     language acquisition AND adults
     bilingualism AND adults
  • 16. Steps 1-3
  • 17. Step 1: Identify Keywords
    Relationship between cognitive development and bilingualism in children
    #1: cognitive development
    #2: bilingual
    #3: children
  • 18. Step 2: List Synonyms & Related Words
    #1: cognitive development
    #2: bilingual
    #3: children
    • intellectual development
    • 19. psychological development
    • 20. second language
    • 21. toddlers
    • 22. preschoolers
    • 23. elementary school students
  • Where to Find Synonyms
    • print
    • 24. online e.g.
    • built-in thesaurus e.g. LLBA, PsycINFO
    • 25. subject headings, key concepts, descriptors
    articles, books, etc. on the same subject
  • 26. Step 3: Create Search Statement
    Relationship between cognitive development and bilingualism in children
    Search statement:
    (cognitive development OR intellectual development OR mental development) AND (bilingual* OR second language) AND children
  • 27. Databases
  • 28. DB#1: LLBA
    CSA Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts
    >2,000 journals, books, dissertations, book reviews
    linguistics & related disciplines in the language sciences
  • 29. DB#1: LLBA
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32. advanced search
    e.g. thesaurus
    field: keywords
  • 33. sort by relevance or date
    mark record to save, print or email
  • 34. citation
    check whether library subscribes to this journal volume & issue by using LINC/LINC+
  • 35. DB#2: PsycINFO
    psychology & psychological aspects of related disciplines e.g. medicine, linguistics, business, etc.
    about 98% of the journals are peer-reviewed
  • 36. DB#2: PsycINFO Basic Search
    Basic search:
    • accepts natural language
    • 37. do not use AND, OR, NOT, $, ( ), “ ”
    • 38. includes related terms will search for alternative words
    • 39. searches all fields
  • 40. print, email or export citations
    automatic ranking by relevance
    related terms used
    link to journal in LINC
    no. of results
  • 41. DB#2: PsycINFO Basic Search Relevance Ranking
  • 42. DB#2: PsycINFO Multi-Field Search
    Multi-Field search:
    • Can select different fields, e.g. abstract
    • 43. Can use $, “ ”
  • automatic sorting by year
    no. of results
  • 44. DB#3: JSTOR
    Full-text database for humanities and social sciences
    back issues only
    searching and browsing functions
  • 45. DB#3: JSTOR
    various ways of limiting, e.g. by type, date
    Note: only about 10% of JSTOR articles have abstracts
  • 46. click here to see the first page
    download the PDF
  • 47.
  • 48. DB#4: ERIC
    educational-related literature, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education
    books, conferences, government documents, theses, reports, etc.
    available via CSA platform and
  • 49. DB#4: ERIC
    limit to elementary education
  • 50. sort by relevance
    full-text article
  • 51.
  • 52. DB#5: Factiva
    full-text articles from nearly 8,000 newspapers, newswires, magazines & trade journals
    no graphics and photographs
    Straits Times: from 1989 onwards
  • 53. DB#5: Factiva
    go to search builder
    put in your keywords
    type Straits Times & click on the button
    select Publication: Straits Times
  • 54. sort by date or relevance
    mark to view on single page, email, print or save
  • 55.
  • 56. Other Sources
    Multi-disciplinary Databases
    Arts & Humanities Citation Index (via WOS)
    Expanded Academic ASAP
    Periodicals Index Online
    Project Muse
    Proquest Dissertations & Theses
    Other Newspaper Databases
    LexisNexis Academic
    NewspaperSG (1831-2006, watermarked)
    Other E-Resources
    Oxford English Dictionary
    National Archives STARS(Speech Text Archival & Retrieval System)
  • 57. More…
  • 58. Recap
    use synonyms and related words
    create search statement using keywords plus AND, OR, NOT, ( ), *, “ ”
    select fields e.g. article title, abstract
    limit search by type (article, books, reviews), date, peer-reviewed, etc
    sort results by relevance
    Quality (Relevance) vs. Quantity
  • 59. Troubleshooting Search Results
    You may encounter:
    too many results use AND, more precise keywords
    too few results  use OR, synonyms/related words
    many irrelevant results  exclude keywords that are too general
    no results  check spelling, use more OR & synonyms, or redefine your research topic
    If you need help, check with your professor or ask a librarian! 
  • 60. Evaluating Information Sources
    authority: reputable publisher, society or organisation; author’s credentials & institutional affiliation
    accuracy: methods of research; means to verify data; support by references
    objectivity: biasness
    currency: up-to-date
    scholarly: peer reviewed, cited
  • 61. Appropriate Use
    • Library resources are mainly for your research and study
    • 62. Use them responsibly
    • 63. Observe copyright guidelines for photocopying and printing
    - 10% or 1 chapter of book
    - 1 article in a journal issue
    • Avoid excessive photocopying or downloading
    • 64. Copyright violations may have serious consequences
  • Plagiarism
    To avoid plagiarism:
    Jot down your sources
    Put all direct quotes in quotation marks, e.g.
    “Both words and images can be evocative in their own ways and independent of each other” (Nikolajeva & Scott, 2006, p. 2)
    Indicate the source even when you paraphrase, e.g.
    Vietnam is one of the region’s fastest growing economies (Rogers, 2008).
    Create a reference/bibliography section, e.g.
    Nikolajeva, M., & Scott, C. (2006). How picturebooks work. New York: Routledge.
  • 65. EndNote
    A software that:
    stores and organizes citations
    inserts citations into a Word document
    format references in a predefined citation style
    For more info:
    Technical queries (e.g. installation):
    call IT Care at 6516 2080 or email
    Watch EndNote video
  • 66. Getting Help
  • 67. Thank You!
    Download the slides:
  • 68. Bonus
  • 69. Google Scholar
    aim: single search engine for scholarly literature
    may include links to free PDF articles
    good for quick research
    not all results come from scholarly sources
    many link to publishers' websites which require subscriber login
    use the proxy bookmarkletto access full-texts
    note: only for resources subscribed by NUS Libraries
    guide to using bookmarklet
  • 70. myLINC
  • 71. myLINC
  • 72. myLINC
  • 73. myLINC
  • 74. myLINC
  • 75. myLINC