Measuring ROI of Training
Agenda <ul><li>Measuring the Effectiveness of Training Program </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring ‘Return on Investment’ of Train...
www.exploreHR.org You can download this presentation at: Please visit  www.exploreHR.org   for more presentations on leade...
Measuring the Effectiveness of Training Program
Training Need Analysis Training Objectives Training  Delivery Training Evaluation Training Process  What are the training ...
The Four Levels of Evaluation Level 1 - Reaction Level 2 - Learning Level 3 – Behavior Application Level 4 – Business Impa...
Test the trainees to determine if they learned the principles, skills, and facts they were to learn. Evaluate trainees’ re...
What final results were achieved in terms of the training objectives previously set? Did the number of customer complaints...
<ul><li>Level </li></ul><ul><li>I. Reaction  </li></ul><ul><li>II. Learning </li></ul><ul><li>III. Behavior </li></ul><ul>...
Level 1 - Reaction Evaluate trainees’ reactions to the program: Did they like the program?  Did they like the facilitators...
Guidelines for Evaluating Reaction <ul><li>Determine what you want to find out </li></ul><ul><li>Design a form that will q...
Sample of Reaction Form
Level 2 - Learning <ul><li>Measuring learning means determining one or more of the following : </li></ul><ul><li>What know...
Guidelines for Evaluating Learning <ul><li>Use a control group if practical </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate knowledge, skills a...
Guidelines for Evaluating Learning Pretest and Posttest Scores on Change Management Training Example :
Level 3 – Behavior Application <ul><li>The frequency of application of new skills/knowledge/ attitudes (on the job) </li><...
Guidelines for Evaluating Learning <ul><li>Use a control group if practical </li></ul><ul><li>Allow time for behavior chan...
Example of Survey to Measure Behavior Application  Instruction:  The objective of this questionnaire is to determine the e...
Level 4 – Business Results <ul><li>Indicate the extent to which you think this program has influenced each of these measur...
Guidelines for Evaluating Learning <ul><li>Use a control group if practical </li></ul><ul><li>Allow time for results to be...
Performance Indicators <ul><li>HARD DATA INDICATORS </li></ul><ul><li>Downtime duration </li></ul><ul><li>Number of defect...
Performance Indicators <ul><li>SOFT DATA INDICATORS (intangible impacts) </li></ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction </li></ul><ul>...
Example : Measuring Training Results Program :  TQM Training Results after  3 months of training,  number of defects dropp...
Example : Measuring Training Results Program : Sales Training Results after  3  months training , number of sales  per sal...
Measuring  Return on Investment of Training
Level 5 : Return on Investment of Training Level 1 - Reaction Level 2 - Learning Level 3 – Behavior Application Level 4 – ...
Criteria for Selecting Programs for Levels 4 and 5 Evaluation  <ul><ul><li>Importance of the program in meeting the organi...
Benefits of ROI of Training <ul><ul><li>Measure contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set priorities </li></ul></ul><ul>...
ROI of Training Model  Collect  Data Isolate the Effects of Training Convert Data to Monetary Values Calculate ROI of Trai...
Net Program Benefits Program Costs X 100 Return on Investment Formula ROI = <ul><li>Example  : </li></ul><ul><li>Costs per...
Collecting Data <ul><li>Identify appropriate performance indicators  </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a collection plan </li></ul...
Example of Performance Indicators <ul><li>Units produced </li></ul><ul><li>Items sold </li></ul><ul><li>Work backlog </li>...
Example of Hard Indicators <ul><li>Unit costs </li></ul><ul><li>Variable costs </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead costs </li></ul>...
Example of Performance Results <ul><li>Some performance results after training program: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrap was re...
Isolating the Effects of Training  Methods to Isolate the Effects of Training Using  Control Group Trend  Lines Participan...
Using  Control Group <ul><li>A control group arrangement can be used to isolate training impact. </li></ul><ul><li>With th...
Trend Lines <ul><li>Trend lines are used to project the values of specific output variables if training had not been under...
Trend Lines Analysis Jan Feb Mar Apr Jul Jun May Aug At the beginning of  May, a Sales training  Program session was held ...
Participants and Supervisors of Participants Estimate of Training’s Impact <ul><li>This method rests on the assumption tha...
Participants and Supervisors of Participants Estimate of Training’s Impact <ul><li>Typical Questions to Estimate : </li></...
Isolating the Effects of Training  Example of a Participant’s Estimation The confidence percentage is multiplied by the es...
Isolating the Effects of Training  Example of a Participant’s Estimation <ul><li>The confidence percentage is multiplied b...
Converting Data to Monetary Values Converting Data to Monetary Values <ul><li>Steps to Convert Data to Monetary Values </l...
Steps to Convert Data to Monetary Values An example to illustrate the steps to convert data to monetary values 1. Focus on...
Steps to Convert Data to Monetary Values 3. Calculate the change in performance data <ul><li>Six months after the program ...
Steps to Convert Data to Monetary Values 5. Calculate the annual value of improvement <ul><li>Annual value = 84 x $ 6,500 ...
Tabulating cost of the program <ul><li>Tabulating the costs involves monitoring or developing all of the related costs of ...
Tabulating cost of the program <ul><li>Cost components that should be included are : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost to des...
Tabulating cost of the program <ul><li>Cost components that should be included are : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel, lodging...
An Example to Illustrate ROI analysis Average Weekly Sales
An Example to Illustrate ROI analysis Annualized Program Benefits Note : 46 participants were still in job after 3 months
An Example to Illustrate ROI analysis Cost Summary : An Illustration ROI (%): $ 71,760 - $ 29,090 $ 29,090 146 % x 100 = =
Enhancing Training Effectiveness
How Effective is Your Training Program? Broad and   Newstrom (1992) report studies have shown less than  30% of what is   ...
Source of Barriers to Training  Transfer <ul><li>Lack of reinforcement on the job  </li></ul><ul><li>Interference from imm...
The Transfer Partnership Trainee Trainee recognizes need for new skills Trainee Trainer Trainer designs and/or delivers le...
The Transfer Matrix  Before During After Manager Trainer Trainee Time Periods Role Players
Manager Before Training <ul><li>Build transfer of training into supervisory performance standards </li></ul><ul><li>Collec...
Trainer Before Training <ul><li>Align the training plan with the organization's strategic plan </li></ul><ul><li>Systemati...
Trainee Before Training <ul><li>Provide input into program planning </li></ul><ul><li>Actively explore training options </...
Manager During Training <ul><li>Prevent interruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer work assignment to others </li></ul><ul><...
Trainer During Training <ul><li>Develop application-oriented objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the “WIIFM” question </li...
Trainee During Training <ul><li>Maintain an ideas and application notebook </li></ul><ul><li>Participate actively </li></u...
Manager After Training <ul><li>Plan trainees’ reentry </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities to practice new skills </li>...
Trainer After Training <ul><li>Provide follow-up support </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct evaluation surveys and provide feedback...
Trainee  After Training <ul><li>Practice self-management </li></ul><ul><li>Review training content and learned skills </li...
Recommended Further Readings <ul><li>Donald Kirkpatrick,  Evaluating Training Programs : The Four Levels , Berrett-Koehler...
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  • Measuring ROI of Training

    1. 1. Measuring ROI of Training
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Measuring the Effectiveness of Training Program </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring ‘Return on Investment’ of Training </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing the Effectiveness and ROI of Training </li></ul>
    3. 3. www.exploreHR.org You can download this presentation at: Please visit www.exploreHR.org for more presentations on leadership, personal development, and HR management.
    4. 4. Measuring the Effectiveness of Training Program
    5. 5. Training Need Analysis Training Objectives Training Delivery Training Evaluation Training Process What are the training needs for this person and/or job? Objective should be measurable and observable Techniques include on-the-job-training, action learning, etc. Measure reaction, learning, behavior, and results
    6. 6. The Four Levels of Evaluation Level 1 - Reaction Level 2 - Learning Level 3 – Behavior Application Level 4 – Business Impact Four Levels of Training Effectiveness
    7. 7. Test the trainees to determine if they learned the principles, skills, and facts they were to learn. Evaluate trainees’ reactions to the program. Did they like the program? Did they think it worthwhile? Level 1 - Reaction Level 2 - Learning The Four Levels of Evaluation If you find this presentation useful, please consider telling others about our site (www.exploreHR.org)
    8. 8. What final results were achieved in terms of the training objectives previously set? Did the number of customer complaints about employee drop? Did the reject rate improve? Was turnover reduced, and so forth. Ask whether the trainees’ behavior on the job changed because of the training program. For example, are employees in the store’s complaint department more courteous toward disgruntled customers than previously? Level 3 – Behavior Application Level 4 – Business Impact The Four Levels of Evaluation
    9. 9. <ul><li>Level </li></ul><ul><li>I. Reaction </li></ul><ul><li>II. Learning </li></ul><ul><li>III. Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Results </li></ul>Value of Information Frequency of Use Difficulty of Assessment The Four Levels of Evaluation Least valuable Most valuable Frequent Infrequent Easy Difficult
    10. 10. Level 1 - Reaction Evaluate trainees’ reactions to the program: Did they like the program? Did they like the facilitators? Did they like the training accommodation and facilities? Level 1 - Reaction
    11. 11. Guidelines for Evaluating Reaction <ul><li>Determine what you want to find out </li></ul><ul><li>Design a form that will quantify reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage written comments and suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Get 100 percent immediate response </li></ul><ul><li>Get honest response </li></ul><ul><li>Develop acceptable standards </li></ul><ul><li>Measure reactions against standards, and take appropriate action </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate reaction as appropriate </li></ul>
    12. 12. Sample of Reaction Form
    13. 13. Level 2 - Learning <ul><li>Measuring learning means determining one or more of the following : </li></ul><ul><li>What knowledge was learned? </li></ul><ul><li>What skills were developed or improved? </li></ul><ul><li>What attitudes were changed? </li></ul>Level 2 - Learning
    14. 14. Guidelines for Evaluating Learning <ul><li>Use a control group if practical </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate knowledge, skills and/or attitudes both before and after the program </li></ul><ul><li>Use a paper-and-pencil test to measure knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Use a performance test to measure skills </li></ul><ul><li>Get 100 percent immediate response </li></ul><ul><li>Use the results of evaluation to take appropriate action </li></ul>
    15. 15. Guidelines for Evaluating Learning Pretest and Posttest Scores on Change Management Training Example :
    16. 16. Level 3 – Behavior Application <ul><li>The frequency of application of new skills/knowledge/ attitudes (on the job) </li></ul><ul><li>The effectiveness of the skills/knowledge/ attitudes (as applied on the job) </li></ul>Level 3 – Behavior Application
    17. 17. Guidelines for Evaluating Learning <ul><li>Use a control group if practical </li></ul><ul><li>Allow time for behavior change and application to take place </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate both before and after the program if practical </li></ul><ul><li>Survey and/or interview one or more of the following : trainees, their immediate supervisor, their subordinates, and others who often observe their behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Get 100 percent response or a sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat the evaluation at appropriate times </li></ul><ul><li>Consider cost versus benefits </li></ul>
    18. 18. Example of Survey to Measure Behavior Application Instruction: The objective of this questionnaire is to determine the extent to which those who attended the recent program on Leadership have applied the principles and techniques that they learned there to the job. Circle the answer that you consider appropriate for each question. 5 = Much more 4 = More 3 = Same 2 = Less 1 = Much less
    19. 19. Level 4 – Business Results <ul><li>Indicate the extent to which you think this program has influenced each of these measures in your work unit, department, or business unit: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Response Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee Satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul></ul>Level 4 – Business Results
    20. 20. Guidelines for Evaluating Learning <ul><li>Use a control group if practical </li></ul><ul><li>Allow time for results to be achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Measure both before and after the program if practical </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat the evaluation at appropriate times </li></ul><ul><li>Consider cost versus benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Be satisfied with evidence if proof is not possible </li></ul>
    21. 21. Performance Indicators <ul><li>HARD DATA INDICATORS </li></ul><ul><li>Downtime duration </li></ul><ul><li>Number of defect products </li></ul><ul><li>Sales volume </li></ul><ul><li>Production unit </li></ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction index </li></ul><ul><li>Response time to orders </li></ul><ul><li>Number of accidents at work </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul>
    22. 22. Performance Indicators <ul><li>SOFT DATA INDICATORS (intangible impacts) </li></ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Conducive working relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Effective communication </li></ul><ul><li>Stress rate </li></ul><ul><li>Quality in decision-making </li></ul>
    23. 23. Example : Measuring Training Results Program : TQM Training Results after 3 months of training, number of defects dropped to 80 units/day 120 units 80 units Before training After training
    24. 24. Example : Measuring Training Results Program : Sales Training Results after 3 months training , number of sales per salesman increase to 30 units/month. 20 units 30 units Before training After training
    25. 25. Measuring Return on Investment of Training
    26. 26. Level 5 : Return on Investment of Training Level 1 - Reaction Level 2 - Learning Level 3 – Behavior Application Level 4 – Business Impact Level 5 – Return on Investment of Training
    27. 27. Criteria for Selecting Programs for Levels 4 and 5 Evaluation <ul><ul><li>Importance of the program in meeting the organization’s goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of the program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility of the program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of the target audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent of management interest </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Benefits of ROI of Training <ul><ul><li>Measure contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alter management perceptions of training </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. ROI of Training Model Collect Data Isolate the Effects of Training Convert Data to Monetary Values Calculate ROI of Training Tabulate Program Costs Identify Intangible Benefits
    30. 30. Net Program Benefits Program Costs X 100 Return on Investment Formula ROI = <ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>Costs per program (25 participants) $ 88,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits per program (1st year) $230,625 </li></ul>$ 230,625 – 88,500 $ 88,500 ROI = X 100 ROI = 161 %
    31. 31. Collecting Data <ul><li>Identify appropriate performance indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a collection plan </li></ul>Collect Data
    32. 32. Example of Performance Indicators <ul><li>Units produced </li></ul><ul><li>Items sold </li></ul><ul><li>Work backlog </li></ul><ul><li>New accounts opened </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>Output <ul><li>Equipment downtime </li></ul><ul><li>Overtime </li></ul><ul><li>Time to project completion </li></ul><ul><li>Processing time </li></ul><ul><li>Repair time </li></ul><ul><li>Lost time days </li></ul><ul><li>Etc </li></ul>Time
    33. 33. Example of Hard Indicators <ul><li>Unit costs </li></ul><ul><li>Variable costs </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead costs </li></ul><ul><li>Operating costs </li></ul><ul><li>Number of cost reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>Cost <ul><li>Scrap </li></ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Rejects </li></ul><ul><li>Error rates </li></ul><ul><li>Rework </li></ul><ul><li>Product defects </li></ul><ul><li>Product failure </li></ul>Quality
    34. 34. Example of Performance Results <ul><li>Some performance results after training program: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrap was reduced from 11 % to 7.4 % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absenteeism was reduce from 7 % to 3.25 % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The annual turnover rate was reduced from 30 % to 16 % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost time accidents were reduced 95 % </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Isolating the Effects of Training Methods to Isolate the Effects of Training Using Control Group Trend Lines Participants Estimate Supervisors of Participants Estimate
    36. 36. Using Control Group <ul><li>A control group arrangement can be used to isolate training impact. </li></ul><ul><li>With this strategy, one group receives training, while another, similar group does not receive training. </li></ul><ul><li>The difference in the performance of the two groups is attributed to the training program. </li></ul>Isolating the Effects of Training
    37. 37. Trend Lines <ul><li>Trend lines are used to project the values of specific output variables if training had not been undertaken. </li></ul><ul><li>The projection is compared to the actual data after training, and the difference represents the estimate impact of training. </li></ul>Isolating the Effects of Training
    38. 38. Trend Lines Analysis Jan Feb Mar Apr Jul Jun May Aug At the beginning of May, a Sales training Program session was held Volume of Sales The difference represents the estimate impact of training. Trend Projection Actual sales performance
    39. 39. Participants and Supervisors of Participants Estimate of Training’s Impact <ul><li>This method rests on the assumption that participants (and their supervisors) are capable of estimating how much a performance improvement is related to the training program. </li></ul><ul><li>Because their actions have produced the improvement, participants (and their supervisors) may have very accurate input on the issue. </li></ul><ul><li>They should know how much of the change was caused by applying what they have learned in the program. </li></ul>Isolating the Effects of Training
    40. 40. Participants and Supervisors of Participants Estimate of Training’s Impact <ul><li>Typical Questions to Estimate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What percent this improvement can be attributed to the application of skills/techniques/knowledge gained in the training program? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What confidence do you have in this estimate, expresses as a percent? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What other factors contributed to this improvement in performance? </li></ul></ul>Isolating the Effects of Training
    41. 41. Isolating the Effects of Training Example of a Participant’s Estimation The confidence percentage is multiplied by the estimate (50 % x 70 %) to produce a usable training factor value of 35 %
    42. 42. Isolating the Effects of Training Example of a Participant’s Estimation <ul><li>The confidence percentage is multiplied by the estimate (50 % x 70 %) to produce a usable training factor value of 35 % </li></ul><ul><li>This adjusted percentage is then multiplied by the actual amount of improvement (post-program minus pre-program value) to isolate the portion attributed to training </li></ul><ul><li>The adjusted improvement is now ready for conversion to monetary values, and used in the return on investment </li></ul>
    43. 43. Converting Data to Monetary Values Converting Data to Monetary Values <ul><li>Steps to Convert Data to Monetary Values </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on a unit of improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Determine a value of each unit </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the change in performance data </li></ul><ul><li>Determine an annual amount of change </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the annual value of improvement </li></ul>
    44. 44. Steps to Convert Data to Monetary Values An example to illustrate the steps to convert data to monetary values 1. Focus on unit improvement <ul><li>One grievance reaching step two in the four-step grievance resolution process </li></ul>Steps Illustration 2. Determine a value of each unit <ul><li>Using internal experts, the cost of an average grievance was estimated to be $ 6,500 when considering time and direct costs (V = $ 6,500) </li></ul>
    45. 45. Steps to Convert Data to Monetary Values 3. Calculate the change in performance data <ul><li>Six months after the program was completed, total grievances per month reaching step two declined by ten. </li></ul><ul><li>Seven of the then grievance reductions were related to the program as determined by supervisors (isolating the effects of training) </li></ul>Steps Illustration 4. Determine an annual amount for the change <ul><li>Using the six month value, seven per month (grievance reductions), yields an annual improvement of 84 (7 x 12 months) </li></ul>
    46. 46. Steps to Convert Data to Monetary Values 5. Calculate the annual value of improvement <ul><li>Annual value = 84 x $ 6,500 = $ 546,000 </li></ul>Steps Illustration
    47. 47. Tabulating cost of the program <ul><li>Tabulating the costs involves monitoring or developing all of the related costs of the program targeted for the ROI calculation. </li></ul>Tabulating Cost of the Program
    48. 48. Tabulating cost of the program <ul><li>Cost components that should be included are : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost to design and develop the program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost of all program materials provided to each participant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost for facilitator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost of the facilities of the training program </li></ul></ul>Tabulating Cost of the Program
    49. 49. Tabulating cost of the program <ul><li>Cost components that should be included are : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel, lodging, and meal costs for the participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salaries, plus employee benefits of the participants who attend the training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative and overhead costs of the training function, allocated in some convenient way </li></ul></ul>Tabulating Cost of the Program
    50. 50. An Example to Illustrate ROI analysis Average Weekly Sales
    51. 51. An Example to Illustrate ROI analysis Annualized Program Benefits Note : 46 participants were still in job after 3 months
    52. 52. An Example to Illustrate ROI analysis Cost Summary : An Illustration ROI (%): $ 71,760 - $ 29,090 $ 29,090 146 % x 100 = =
    53. 53. Enhancing Training Effectiveness
    54. 54. How Effective is Your Training Program? Broad and Newstrom (1992) report studies have shown less than 30% of what is actually taught transfers to the job in a way that enhances performance . Source : Broad, M., & Newstrom, J. W. (1992). Transfer of training: Action packed strategies to ensure high payoff from training investments. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    55. 55. Source of Barriers to Training Transfer <ul><li>Lack of reinforcement on the job </li></ul><ul><li>Interference from immediate (work) environment </li></ul><ul><li>Nonsupportive organizational culture </li></ul><ul><li>Trainees’ perception of impractical training programs </li></ul><ul><li>Separation from the inspiration or support of the trainer </li></ul>
    56. 56. The Transfer Partnership Trainee Trainee recognizes need for new skills Trainee Trainer Trainer designs and/or delivers learning experiences Trainee Trainer Manager supports learning and application on the job Manager
    57. 57. The Transfer Matrix Before During After Manager Trainer Trainee Time Periods Role Players
    58. 58. Manager Before Training <ul><li>Build transfer of training into supervisory performance standards </li></ul><ul><li>Collect baseline performance data </li></ul><ul><li>Involve supervisors and trainees in needs analysis process </li></ul><ul><li>Involve trainees in program planning </li></ul><ul><li>Brief trainees on the importance of the training (course objective, content, process, and application on the job) </li></ul><ul><li>Review instructional content and materials </li></ul><ul><li>Plan to participate in training sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage trainees attendance at all sessions </li></ul>
    59. 59. Trainer Before Training <ul><li>Align the training plan with the organization's strategic plan </li></ul><ul><li>Systematically design instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Provide proactive opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Design a peer coaching component for the program and its follow-up activities </li></ul>
    60. 60. Trainee Before Training <ul><li>Provide input into program planning </li></ul><ul><li>Actively explore training options </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in advance activities </li></ul>
    61. 61. Manager During Training <ul><li>Prevent interruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer work assignment to others </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor attendance and attention to training </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize trainee participation </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in transfer action planning </li></ul><ul><li>Review information on employee in training </li></ul><ul><li>Plan assessment of transfer of new skills to the job </li></ul>
    62. 62. Trainer During Training <ul><li>Develop application-oriented objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the “WIIFM” question </li></ul><ul><li>Manage the unlearning process </li></ul><ul><li>Provide realistic work-related tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Give individualized feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Provide job performance aid </li></ul>
    63. 63. Trainee During Training <ul><li>Maintain an ideas and application notebook </li></ul><ul><li>Participate actively </li></ul><ul><li>Form support groups </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for applications </li></ul><ul><li>Create behavioral contracts </li></ul>
    64. 64. Manager After Training <ul><li>Plan trainees’ reentry </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities to practice new skills </li></ul><ul><li>Have trainees participate in transfer-related decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce job pressures initially </li></ul><ul><li>Give positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule trainee briefings for co-workers </li></ul><ul><li>Set mutual expectations for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange proactive (refresher) sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Provide and support the use of job aids </li></ul>
    65. 65. Trainer After Training <ul><li>Provide follow-up support </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct evaluation surveys and provide feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and administer recognition system </li></ul><ul><li>Provide refresher/problem-solving sessions </li></ul>
    66. 66. Trainee After Training <ul><li>Practice self-management </li></ul><ul><li>Review training content and learned skills </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a mentoring relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain contact with training ‘buddies’ </li></ul>
    67. 67. Recommended Further Readings <ul><li>Donald Kirkpatrick, Evaluating Training Programs : The Four Levels , Berrett-Koehler Publishers </li></ul><ul><li>Jack J. Phillips and Patricia Phillips, In Action : Measuring Return On Investment , American Society for Training & Development </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Broad and John Newstrom, Transfer of training: Action P acked S trategies to E nsure H igh P ayoff from T raining I nvestments , Addison-Wesley. </li></ul>
    68. 68. End of Material

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