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Manpower Planning Company Strategy What staff do we need to do the job? What staff is available within our organization? Is there a match? If not, what type of people do we need, and how should we recruit them? Job Analysis
Recruiting new staff from external sources will be influenced by several factors, namely :
When the economic conditions are relatively difficult, there will usually be an oversupply, or the number of applicants will much higher than the demand. In such a case, the company will find it relatively easier to select new employees from the large number of applicants.
It will tend to be easier for a company to find and recruit the best people if the company has a good reputation, therefore the best fresh graduates will flock to apply to the company. Example : Google, McKinsey or Microsoft.
Company Reputation Recruitment from External Resources
Training Need Analysis Training Objectives Training Delivery Training Evaluation Training Process What are the training needs for this person and/or job? Objective should be measurable and observable Techniques include on-the-job-training, action learning, etc. Measure reaction, learning, behavior, and results
Training Matrix for Competency Development V = compulsory training Training Title
Enhance Training Effectiveness Make the material meaningful Provide for transfer to learning Motivate the trainee Training Effectiveness
Enhance Training Effectiveness Make the material meaningful
At the start of training, provide the trainees with a bird’s-eye view of the material to be presented. Knowing the overall picture facilitates learning.
Use a variety of familiar examples when presenting material
Organize the material so that it is presented in a logical manner and in meaningful units
Try to use terms and concepts that are already familiar to trainees
Use as many visual aids as possible
Enhance Training Effectiveness Provide for transfer to learning
Maximize similarity between the training situation and the work situation
Provide adequate training practice
Identify each feature of the step in the process
Enhance Training Effectiveness Motivate the trainee
People learn best by doing. Try to provide as much realistic practice as possible
Trainees learn best when correct response on their part are immediately reinforced.
Trainees learn best when they learn at their own pace. If possible, let trainees pace themselves.
Type of Training Program Formal course OFF THE JOB Simulation Wilderness Trip
Does not interfere with job
Provides for fact learning
Helps transfer of learning
Creates lifelike situations
Type of Training Program Job instruction training ON THE JOB Apprenticeship training Job rotation Mentoring
Facilitates transfer of learning
Does not require separate facilities
Does not interfere with real job performance
Provides extensive training
Gives exposure to many jobs
Allows real learning
Is integrated into job
Evaluation of Training Effectiveness Level 1 - Reaction Level 2 - Learning Level 3 – Behavior Application Level 4 – Business Impact Four Levels of Training Effectiveness
Evaluation of Training Effectiveness Test the trainees to determine if they learned the principles, skills, and facts they were to learn. Evaluate trainees’ reactions to the program. Did they like the program? Did they think it worthwhile? Level 1 - Reaction Level 2 - Learning
Evaluation of Training Effectiveness What final results were achieved in terms of the training objectives previously set? Did the number of customer complaints about employee drop? Did the reject rate improve? Was turnover reduced, and so forth. Ask whether the trainees’ behavior on the job changed because of the training program. For example, are employees in the store’s complaint department more courteous toward disgruntled customers than previously? Level 3 – Behavior Application Level 4 – Business Impact
Appraisal provide information upon which promotion and salary decision can be made.
Appraisal provide an opportunity for a manager and his/her subordinates to sit down and review the subordinate’s work-related behavior, and then develop a plan for corrective action.
Appraisal provide a good opportunity to review the person’s career plans in light of his/her exhibited strengths and weaknesses.
Performance Management Cycle Performance Planning (Setting Performance Targets) Regular Review and Monitoring Feed back Corrective Action Performance Appraisal and Evaluation
Training & Development Plan
Performance Management Cycle Defining Performance Standard/ Targets Appraising Performance Providing Feedback for Development
Defining the performance standards means making sure that you and your subordinate agree on his/her duties and targets that you expect
Appraising performance means comparing your subordinate’s actual performance to the standard/targets set in step one.
Providing feedback means discussing plans for any development that is required.
Problems in Performance Appraisal Lack of standards Irrelevant or subjective standards Poor measures of performance Poor feedback to employee Negative communication Failure to apply evaluation data Common Performance Evaluation Problems
Bias in the Appraisal Process Halo Effect The "halo" effect occurs when a supervisor’s rating of a subordinates on one trait biases the rating of that person on other traits Central Tendency A tendency to rate all employees the same way, such as rating them all average
Leniency The problem that occurs when a supervisory has a tendency to rate all subordinates either high or low Bias The tendency to allow individual differences such as age, race, and sec affect the appraisal rates these employees receives. Bias in the Appraisal Process
Performance appraisal elements has two main categories: 2. Performance Result : Hard or quantitative aspects of performance (result) 1. Competencies : It represents soft or qualitative aspects of performance (process) Performance Appraisal Element
2. Performance Result Score Overall Score Will determine the employee’s career movement, and also the reward to be earned Performance Appraisal Element
Element # 1 : Competencies Competency : Collaboration Draws upon the full range of relationships (internal, external, cross The company) at critical points in marketing and negotiations. Ensures events and systems, eg IT, for collaboration are in place and used. Manages alliance relationships through complex issues such as points of competing interest. Drives and leads key relationship groups across The company. Builds and maintains relationships across The company. Encourages co-operation rather than competition within the team and with key stakeholders. Uses cross functional teams to draw upon skills and knowledge throughout the organization. Uses cross functional teams to draw upon skills and knowledge throughout the organization. Involves teams in decisions that effect them. Builds internal and external networks and uses them to efficiently to create value. Actively builds internal and external networks. Balances complementary strengths in teams and seeks diverse contributions and perspectives. Responds promptly to other team members’ needs. Shares resources and information. Shares resources and information. Shares resources and information. Shares resources and information. Empathise with audience and formulates messages accordingly. Empathise with audience and formulates messages accordingly. Empathise with audience and formulates messages accordingly. Empathise with audience and formulates messages accordingly. Actively listens, and clarifies understanding where required, in order to learn from others. Actively listens, and clarifies understanding where required, in order to learn from others. Actively listens, and clarifies understanding where required, in order to learn from others. Actively listens, and clarifies understanding where required, in order to learn from others. Expert Advanced Intermediate Basic
Element # 2 : Performance Results Target should be measurable and specific
Career Planning and Development Providing employees the assistance to form realistic career goals and the opportunities to realize them Career Planning & Development
Entry Level First Line Middle Management Senior Management Top Management Join Company 22 years old Supervisor/Ass. Manager 26 - 29 years old Managers 29 - 35 years old GM/Senior Managers 35 - 45 years old CEO/BOD 45 - 55 years old Typical Career movement
Career Stage Trial Stage The period from about age 25 to 30 during which the person determines whether or not the chosen field is suitable and if it is not, attempts to change it. Stabilization Stage The period, roughly from age 30 to 40, during which occupational goals are set and more explicit career planning is made to determine the sequence for accomplishing goals
Mid career Crisis Stage The period occurring between the mid-thirties and mid-forties during which people often make a major reassessment of their progress relative to their original career ambitions and goals Maintenance Stage The period form about ages 45 to 65 during which the person secures his or her place in the world of work Career Stage
Decline Stage The period during which many people are faced with the prospect of having to accept reduced levels of power and responsibility. Career Stage
Career Anchors Career Anchor : A concern or value that someone will not give up if choice has to be made Career anchors, as their name implies, are the pivots around which a person’s career swings; a person becomes conscious of them as a result of learning about his or her talents and abilities.
Five Career Anchors Technical/ Functional Career Anchor Managerial Competence as a Career Anchor Creativity as a Career Anchor Autonomy and Independence as Career Anchor Security as a Career Anchor
Five Career Anchors Technical/ Functional Career Anchor
People who have a strong technical/functional career anchor tend to avoid decisions that would drive them toward general management.
Instead, they make decisions that will enable them to remain and grow in their chosen technical or functional field
People who go on to become successful entrepreneurs
These people seem to have a need to build or create something that is entirely their own product – a product or process that bears their name, a company of their own, or a personal fortune that reflects their accomplishments.
People who are driven by the need to be on their own, free from the dependence that can arise when a person elects to work in a large organization.
Some of these people decide to become consultants, working either alone or as part of relatively small firm. Others choose to become professors, free-lance writers, or proprietors of a small retail business.
Factors to keep in mind about the important first assignment, include :
Avoid reality shock (reality shock refers to the result of a period that may occur at the initial career entry when the new employee’s high job expectations confront the reality of boring, unchallenging jobs.