Diagnosis is the process of understanding how the organization is currently functioning, and it provides information necessary to design change interventions.
It is also a collaborative process between organization members and the OD (organization development) consultant to collect pertinent information, analyze it, and draw conclusions for action planning and intervention.
High Politics Organization: Common Approach to Business Problems DOES THE THING WORK? DON’T MESS WITH IT DID YOU MESS WITH IT? YOU DUMB *#@>!! DOES ANYONE KNOW? WILL YOU CATCH HELL? HIDE IT TRASH IT YOU POOR $#@! ~*%$ CAN YOU BLAME SOMEONE ELSE? NO PROBLEM YES NO YES NO NO YES YES YES NO
A. ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL B. GROUP LEVEL C. INDIVIDUAL LEVEL - General Environment - Industry Structure Inputs Design Components Organization Effectiveness Outputs Strategy Structure Culture Human Resources Technology - Organization Design Inputs Design Components Team Effectiveness e.g., quality of work life, performance Outputs Goal Clarity Task Structure Group Functioning Group Composition Group Norms - Organization Design - Group Design - Personal Characteristics Inputs Design Components Individual Effectiveness e.g., job satisfaction, personal development Outputs Skill Variety Task Identity Autonomy Task Significance Feedback about Results Comprehensive Model for Diagnosing Organization
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Organizational-Level Diagnosis Culture Technology Human Resources Systems Structure Strategy Organization Effectiveness General Environment Industry Structure Inputs Design Components Outputs
A strategy represent the way an organization uses its resources to gain and sustain a competitive advantage.
It can be described by the organization’s mission, goals and objectives, strategic intent, and functional policies.
Mission – Why We Exist Vision – What We Want to Be Values – What’s Important to Us Strategy : Our Game Plan Strategy Map : Translate the Strategy into Action Strategy Formulation Analysis of General Environment and Industry Structure Analysis of Organization’s Core Competence
Strategy : Our Game Plan Strategy Map : Translate the Strategy Strategic Outcomes Satisfied Shareholders Delighted Customers Excellent Processes Motivated Workforce Strategy Formulation
The structural system describes how attention and resources are focused on task accomplishment.
It represents the basic organizing mode chosen to (1) divide the overall work of an organization into subunits that can assign task to individuals and groups and (2) coordinate these subunits for completion of the overall work.
What are the company’s structure, human resources systems, and technology?
Organizational-Level Diagnosis Culture Technology Human Resources Systems Structure Strategy General Environment Industry Structure Inputs Design Components Does the organization strategic orientation fit with the inputs?
Organizational-Level Diagnosis Culture Technology Human Resources Systems Structure Strategy Design Components Do the design components fit with each other?
Organization design is the major input to group design.
It consists of the design components characterizing the larger organization within which the group is embedded : technology, structure, human resources systems and organization culture.
Group Functioning is the underlying basis of group life Group Norms are member beliefs about how the group should perform task Group Composition concerns the membership of groups Task Structure is concerned with how the group’s work is designed Goal Clarity involves how well the group understand its objectives Group Components
Personal characteristics of individuals occupying jobs include their age, education, experience, and skills and abilities.
Personal characteristics can affect job performance as well as how people react to job designs.
Individual Jobs Dimensions Five Key Dimensions Autonomy Feedback About Results Task Significance Task Identity Skill Variety
Individual Jobs Dimensions Autonomy The degree to which a job provides freedom and discretion in scheduling the work and determining work methods. Feedback About Results The degree to which a job provides employee with direct and clear information about the effectiveness of task performance Task Significance The degree to which a job has a significant impact on other people’s lives Task Identity The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work Skill Variety The degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities
Job Characteristics Model - Hackman/Oldham Core Job Dimension Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Feedback Psychological States Personal and Work Outcomes Experienced meaningfulness of the wok Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities
The extent to which it fits the needs of the organization
The extent to which it transfer change-management competence to organization members
Effective Intervention Two Major Criteria to Define an Effective Intervention
Intervention Success Factors Key Factors that can affect intervention success Readiness for Change Capability to Change Capability of the Change Agent Cultural Context
Types of Intervention Human Process Intervention Types of Intervention Structural Intervention Human Resource Management Intervention Strategic Intervention
Process Consultation Examples of Human Process Intervention Team Building This intervention focuses on interpersonal relations and social dynamics occurring in work groups. This intervention helps work groups become more effective in accomplishing task
Structural Design Examples of Structural Intervention Downsizing This change process concerns the organization’s division of labor – how to specialize task performances. This intervention reduces costs and bureaucracy by decreasing size of the organization Reengineering This intervention radically redesign the organization’s core work process to create more responsive performance.
Performance Management Examples of Human Resources Management Intervention Career Planning & Development This intervention is a systematic process to link between corporate goal settings and reward systems. This intervention helps people choose career paths and attain career objectives. Reward System This intervention involves the design of organizational rewards to improve employee satisfaction and performance.
Merger and Acquisition Examples of Strategic Intervention Cultural Change This intervention is a systematic process to integrate two or more organizations. This intervention helps organizations develop cultures appropriate to their strategies and environment. Organizational Learning This intervention seeks to enhance an organization’s capability to acquire and deploy new knowledge.
Institutionalizing Interventions Effective Institutionalization Process Intervention Enhance Organization Performance
Factors Affecting Institutionalization Process
Level of Change Target
Organization Characteristics: Congruence This is the degree to which an intervention is perceived as being in harmony with the organization’s strategy, and structure; its current environment; and other changes taking place. Stability of Environment and Technology This involves the degree to which the organization’s environment and technology are changing.
Organization Characteristics: Unionization Diffusion of interventions may be more difficult in unionized settings, especially if the changes affect unions contract issues, such as salary and fringe benefit, job design, and employee flexibility.
Intervention Characteristics: Goal Specifity This involves the extent to which intervention goals are specific rather than broad. Programmability This involves the degree to which the changes can be programmed or the extent to which the different intervention characteristics can be specified early in advance to enable socialization, commitment, and reward allocation.
Intervention Characteristics: Level of Change Target This concerns the extent to which the change target is the total organization, rather than a department or small work group. Internal Support This refers to the degree to which there is an internal support system to guide the change process.
Intervention Characteristics: Sponsorship This concerns the presence of a powerful sponsor who can initiate, allocate, and legitimize resources for the intervention.