Conservation updated (1)

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  • 1. CONSERVATION Compiled by Department of Architecture and Environmental Design Centre for Foundation Studies International Islamic University Malaysia
  • 2. CONSERVATION PROFESSION IN APPLIED ARTS
  • 3.  DEFINITION  TYPE OF CONSERVATION  INTERDISCPLINARY FIELD  CAREER OPPURTUNITY  STATUTORY BODIES  CONSERVATION LAW IN MALAYSIA  BUILDING AND ARCHITECTURAL CONSERVATION  CONSERVATION SCIENCE AND PRESERVATION OF ART OBJECT. CONTENTS
  • 4. Definition:  Conservation - all measures and actions aimed at safeguarding tangible (physical) and intangible (non physical e.g culture/tradition) cultural heritage while ensuring its accessibility to present and future generations.  Conservation activities include: examination, documentation, treatment, and preventive care. All of this work is supported by research and education.  Conservation embraces - Preventive conservation, Remedial conservation and Restoration. CONSERVATION
  • 5. Definition: Based on Historical Heritage Criteria UNESCO, Heritage Conservation could be divided into three parts: 1. Natural Heritage 2. Cultural Heritage (monuments, group of buildings, Sites) 3. Combination of natural and cultural heritage. CONSERVATION
  • 6. i-Preventive conservation - all measures and actions aimed at avoiding and minimizing future deterioration or loss. They are carried out within the context or on the surroundings of an item, but more often a group of items, whatever their age and condition. -These measures and actions are indirect – they do not interfere with the materials and structures of the items. They do not modify their appearance. -Examples of preventive conservation are appropriate measures and actions for registration, storage, handling, packing and transportation, security, environmental management (light, humidity, pollution and pest control), emergency planning, education of staff, public awareness, Legal compliance. CONSERVATION
  • 7. CONSERVATION, continue… ii-Remedial conservation - all actions directly applied to an item or a group of items aimed at arresting current damaging processes or reinforcing their structure. These actions are only carried out when the items are in such a fragile condition or deteriorating at such a rate, that they could be lost in a relatively short time. These actions sometimes modify the appearance of the items. Examples of remedial conservation are disinfestation of textiles, desalination of ceramics, de- acidification of paper, dehydration of wet archaeological materials, stabilization of corroded metals, consolidation of mural paintings, removing weeds from mosaics.
  • 8. CONSERVATION,continue… iii- Restoration – all actions directly applied to a single and stable item aimed at facilitating its appreciation, understanding and use. These actions are only carried out when the item has lost part of its significance or function through past alteration or deterioration. They are based on respect for the original material. Most often such actions modify the appearance of the item. Examples of restoration are retouching a painting, reassembling a broken sculpture, reshaping a basket, filling losses on a glass vessel.
  • 9. Conservation is an Interdisciplinary field as conservators have backgrounds in the fine arts, sciences (including chemistry, biology and materials science), and closely related disciplines, such as art history, archaeology, studio art and anthropology. They also have design, fabrication, artistic, and other special skills necessary for the practical application of that knowledge. CONSERVATION - INTERDISCIPLINARY FIELD
  • 10. The conservator applies some simple ethical guidelines, such as:  Minimal intervention.  Appropriate materials and methods that aim to be reversible to reduce possible problems with future treatment, investigation and use.  Full documentation of all work undertaken.  The conservator aims to take into account the views of the stakeholder and to apply their professional expertise accordingly. CONSERVATION
  • 11. CAREER OPPORTUNITY Specialization within the profession: The profession of art conservation is broad and encompasses many areas of specialty. Some specialties within art conservation would include:  Book and paper conservation  Textile Conservation  Architectural conservation  Conservation science  Natural conservation  Electronic media conservation – Digital preservation – Media preservation  Photograph conservation – Film preservation
  • 12.  Book and paper conservation A book is a set or collection of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of paper, parchment, or other various material, usually fastened together to hinge at one side. Books may also refer to works of literature, such as magazines, journals or newspapers. The Arabs revolutionized the book's production and its binding in the medieval Islamic world. They were the first to produce paper books after they learnt papermaking from the Chinese in the 8th century. Particular skills were developed for script writing (Arabic calligraphy), miniatures and bookbinding.
  • 13. Textile Conservation Textile preservation refers to the processes by which textiles are cared for and maintained to be preserved from future damage.  The concept of textile preservation applies to a wide range of artifacts, including carpets, quilts, clothing, flags, curtains, as well as objects which ‘’contain’’ textiles, such as upholstered furniture, dolls, and accessories such as fans, parasols, gloves and hats or bonnets. Ainu ceremonial dress on display under glass in the British Museum.
  • 14. Damaged areas are often able to be conserved, using techniques such as couching, re-weaving, and/or supporting with fabrics of compatible fibers. The cause for decay in textiles is the environment in which they are stored. - Light, temperature, and humidity can all contribute to a textile’s health or deterioration, depending on their intensity. - Additionally, pests, chemicals, and pollutants may also cause damage to an antique fabric. Textile Conservation Songket
  • 15. Architectural conservation  Architectural conservation deals with issues of prolonging the life and integrity of architectural character and integrity, such as form and style, and/or its constituent materials, such as stone, brick, glass, metal, and wood.  Architectural conservation also refers to issues of identification, policy, regulation, and advocacy associated with the entirety of the cultural and built environment. Conservation patches on mosaics wall of Hospital de la Santa Creu I Sant Pau
  • 16. Natural Heritage Conservation  Natural Heritage Conservation deals with issues of nation to implement strategies, action, plans and program on biological diversity for the conservation and sustainable of natural resources.  Including ethic, management, role of local communities and public awareness in preserving natural heritage such as forest, sea, rivers and existing biodiversity. Mangrove and bird sanctuary conservation area, Kuala Gula, Perak.
  • 17. Statutory Bodies in Conservation  Jabatan Warisan Malaysia.  Jabatan Muzuim dan antikuiti  Badan Warisan Malaysia  Local authorities Conservation patches on mosaics wall of Hospital de la Santa Creu I Sant Pau
  • 18. Conservation law in Malaysia  Antiquity Act (Act 168)  Town and country Act 1976 (Act 172)  Local Authority Act 1976 (Act 171)  Malacca Enactment 1995  National Heritage Act 2005
  • 19. Building and Architectural conservation
  • 20. 7 ascending degrees of intervention towards building Conservation 1. Prevention 2. Preservation 3. Consolidation 4. Restoration 5. Rehabilitation 6. Reproduction 7. Reconstruction
  • 21. Prevention  Protecting cultural property by controlling its environment thus preventing agents of decay and damage from becoming active.
  • 22. Preservation  Deals directly with cultural property. Its objective to keep it in existing state. Repairs must be carried out when necessary to prevent further decay. Istana Seri Menanti, Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan.
  • 23. Consolidation  Physical addition or application into actual fabric to ensure continued durability or structural integrity.
  • 24. Restoration  To revive the original concept or legibility of the object. Istana Sultan Sulaiman, Jugra, Banting, Selangor.
  • 25. Rehabilitation  To keep it in use which involve adaptive alteration and fewer changes. Bangunan Persatuan Sejarah Trengganu- adaptive re use from house to museum and office for Jabatan Warisan.
  • 26. Reproduction  Copying an artifact in order to replace some missing or decayed parts, generally decorative to maintain aesthetic harmony.
  • 27. Reconstruction  Done for historic buildings that are damage by fire, earthquake or war. Bukit Kepong Police Station – before and after