Aed1313 ibe week 5 urp


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  • Two-tier (Level 1 and 2) changed to Three-tier (Level 1 until 3)
  • Just a glance...types of national development plans
  • Example of one metropolitan where it is designed to be ‘smart’
  • Aed1313 ibe week 5 urp

    1. 1. AED1313: Intro. To Built Environment Urban & Regional PlanningUrban & Regional Planning  Part I: The beginnings of planning & urbanism  Part II: Overview of URP  Part III: Planners’ Role in Built Environment  Part IV: URP in Malaysia  Part V: Sustainable Planning Compiled by DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN, CENTRE FOR FOUNDATION STUDIES, IIUM, PETALING JAYA
    2. 2. Part I The beginnings of planning and urbanism
    3. 3. Mesopotamia Civilisation Indus Civilisation GreekCivilisation
    4. 4. Ancient Athens
    5. 5. The city can be a centre of industry, trade, education, orgovernment orall of those activities. The large community came about as a result of the growth of crops and the breeding of animals on a permanent basis. The production of grains that could be stored from year to year provided stability (wheat in the west, rice in the orient). The ability to preserve food made it possible to diversify into other activities. The development of a diversified economy provided employment in a variety of forms, and this brought about the enlargement of villages or hamlets into towns and cities. The word city implies a large concentration of people in a given geographic area who support themselves from the economic activities of that area. How Urbanism begins?
    6. 6.  Coined after the organization of the city  Namely, they are:  Grid: Greek cities  Linear: cities along the river or sea  Radial: Garden movement  Nucleus/ centralized: business area as the core Types of City Plan
    7. 7. Part II Overview of the urban & regional planning
    8. 8. What is planning?  Systematic, creative way to influence and respond to a wide variety of changes occurring in a neighborhood, in a city, in an entire region, or around the world.  A process for determining future appropriate actions to achieve a goal or a series of goals through a sequence of actions.
    9. 9. What is planning?  It requires and taking account:  all aspects and implications of the physical development of land  Socioeconomic factors  Cultural elements  Prime concern: PEOPLE and the relationship with the built environment  EVERYONE is involved!
    10. 10. Why do we need to plan?  A well-balanced life  In terms of Urban and Regional planning:  To fulfill the societal, economical and environmental needs  Provide healthy environment (social interaction, sufficient facilities, condusive area for living)  Safety and security  Employment  Functional Central Business District (CBD)  To achieve a sustainable development
    11. 11. Planning Process  Sequence of actions which are designed to solve problems in the future.  Formulation of vision and objectives as the guide to the whole process.  Data collection and analysis is important stage where studies are being carried out by sectors:  socioeconomic (population, income level)  infrastructure (water and drainage system, roads, electricity, etc)  public facilities (public hall, school, etc)
    12. 12. Identification of problem Formulation of visions and objectives Identification of issues and problems The projection of the future situation The generation and evaluation of alternative courses of action (plan) The production of preferred plan Implementation Data collection and analysis Public involvement Flowchart of the General Planning Process
    13. 13.  The organization of all elements of a town or other urban environment.  The art and the science of ordering the land- uses and buildings siting and communication routes so as to secure the maximum level of economy, convenience and beauty (Keeble, 1969).  management -of existing- and the development -of proposed- urban and rural areas in order to protect and best serve the present and future generations. URP is....
    14. 14.  Takes all aspects of a city into consideration.  It includes plans for safety, aesthetics and common sense placement of everything from houses to factories = ZONING  All planning issues deal with conflicting demands = a planner has:  to analyze and understand these demands and to advise on the best options.  to undertake comprehensive appraisals and detailed analysis of all problems related to the physical environment, and offer planning solutions to the encountered problems.  to anticipate future population growth and planning ahead of time for such growth in all sectors from public Thus, URP...
    15. 15. The Job scope of urban planners
    16. 16. Land Use Planning  Process of organizing, managing, and regulating the use of lands and their resources  to meet the socio-economic development of the country whilst safeguarding the environment  taking into account the land’s natural capacities  Essential in physical environmental management and biodiversity conservation.  conserving the environment.  managing the population demand for resources wisely = sustainability.
    17. 17. Development Control  The process whereby a local planning authority decides whether a planning application meets the requirements of planning policy, particularly as set out in development plans.  means by which planners enhance and protect our environment whilst at the same time allow the development necessary for our economic and social well being to take place in an acceptable manner.  relies on the "plan-led system" whereby Development Plans are formed and the public consulted. Subsequent development requires Planning permission, which will be granted or refused with reference to the Development Plan  done to prevent or minimize any potentially negative impacts from the development.
    18. 18. Part III The planners’ role in the built environment Nigel Ashton (1911-2008) … a hand in much of Sydney's development.
    19. 19. Planners’ Role  Umpire  referee or judge whose duty is to resolve conflicts between various interest groups involved in the built environment, enforce rules and impose controls in order to ensure that towns and cities develop logically and conveniently.  Technocrat  use technical expertise to predict future population growth, employment trends, car ownership and other variables
    20. 20. Planners’ Role  Economic Planner  essential companion to realistic town planning  involves the allocation of scarce resources, that is, urban land, goods and services, and is therefore seen as an aspect of economic planning  Environmental Guardian  given increased powers to assess the environmental impact of new developments  a requirement stipulated in the Environmental Quality Act 1974.
    21. 21.  Town Planning Officer  Corporate Town Planner  Project Manager  Property Developer  Research Officer  Town Planning Consultant orAdviser  Specialist in the field of CADD,GIS…  Urban Designer  Academician  Environmental Planner& Others Career Opportunities
    22. 22. Part IV Urban & Regional Planning in Malaysia
    23. 23. URP in Malaysia  Planning in Malaysia started in the British era.  Responsible body: Sanitary Board  Today: Jabatan Perancangan Bandar& Desa (JPBD) or Town & Country Planning Board  Its responsibilities are:  To monitor and supervise the planning of an area  Encourage public participation (Seranta)  To prepare guidelines and regulation:  Town & Country Planning (TCP) Act  National Physical Plan  Structure Plan  Doktrin Perancangan & Pembangunan Sejagat (DPPS)  Reference: JPBD
    24. 24. URP in Malaysia  Town and Country Planning (TCP) Act 1976  introduced a uniformsystemof town and country planning in Peninsular Malaysia.  involves regulating the use and development of land in the public interest through two ways:  development plan  development control  The 1976 Act was amended in 1995 through the Town and Country Planning (Amendment) Act 1995 (Act A933) revised format for the development plan hierarchy.  The two-tiersystem (Structure & Local Plan) now becomes a three-tier system with a series of plans that covers the nation, the individual states and the districts.  This amendment emphasized environmental management in planning, such as conservation of topographical features and trees.
    25. 25. Source: "Report on the 2008 National Spatial Policy Seminar" (2009) National and Regional Planning Bureau, MLIT, Japan
    26. 26. Urban Planning in Malaysia  Public participation orSeranta  Telling the community on the planning or development projects in their place  Major exercise: Public exhibition  Stated in TCPAct 172  Mandatory during the formulation stage of a development plan and after a draft plan is approved  Between 1985 to 2000, a total of 106 Structure Plans has been prepared and exhibited to the public.  MIP(Malaysian Institute of Planners)  “ to pro m o te the scie nce and art o f To wn Planning fo r the be ne fit o f the public… ”
    27. 27. Public exhibition forKuala LumpurStructure Plan 2020Public exhibition forKuala LumpurStructure Plan 2020
    28. 28. Part V Sustainable Planning “That which ensures the needs of the present are met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirown needs”. United Nations global summit on the environment and development in Rio de Janeiro 1992
    29. 29. Sustainable Planning  integrate consideration of healthy natural, social and economic systems and the well being of future generations into decision- making processes.  Comprises of several concepts:  Smart Growth  New Urbanism  Intelligent Urbanism  Sustainable Urban Infrastructure
    30. 30. Smart Growth  Compact neighbourhood  mixed use developments.  affordable housing.  Restrictions on suburban design forms such as detached houses and surface parking.  inclusion of parks and recreational areas.  Transit-oriented development  designed to maximize access to public transport, and mixed-use/compact neighborhoods tend to use transit at all times of the day  Pedestrian and bicycle-friendly
    31. 31. ‘New Pedestrianism’ at a street in the renewed city center of Radovish, Republic of Macedonia: Pedestrians are dominant, but there is also place for cars (parked on the
    32. 32. Principles of New Urbanism  Could be applied to any scale of projects.  Branching from Smart Growth  There are 10 principles:  Walkability  Connectivity  Mixed use and diversity  Mixed housing  Quality architecture and urban design  Traditional neighborhood structure  Increased density  Smart transportation  Sustainability  Quality of life
    33. 33. Intelligent Urbanism