Aed 1313 ibe wk 2


Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Aed 1313 ibe wk 2

  2. 2. What is Ecology? Greek words oikos, “house” or “place to live” and logos, “study of” the study of how organisms interact with one another and with their nonliving environment. a study of connections in nature. How organisms are adapted to their surrounding, how they make use of their surrounding, and how an area is altered by the presence and activities of organism Interactions involve energy and matter, living things requires a constant flow of energy and matter ECOLOGY
  3. 3. PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGY e c o s y s t e m o r a n i s e lo o yg m b i s p h e e h e r b i v o r o n i v ro mo m u n tic c a r n i v r p o p o l a t i n dp r ec ru 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1. An animal that consumes other animals for its food and energy. 2. A group of organisms of the same species that interbreed and live in the same place. 3. Interaction between biotic populations and abiotic factors in a community. 4. The zone of air, land and water at the surface of the earth that is occupied by organisms. 5. An animal that consumes autotrophs for its food and energy. 6. A collection of interacting population. 7. The study of how organisms interact with one another and with their nonliving environment. 8. An animal that consumes both plants and other animals for its food and energy. 9. Organisms that use energy from the sun to make their own food. 10. A single living thing.
  5. 5. • Man has bestowed with quality to function as STEWARD on the earth, with abilities to make pliant everything for his good. • Status of his own self, social and physical environment around him is TRUST. • Should live on earth with JUSTICE and benevolence without transgression the delicate BALANCE of things and phenomena there in or causing INJURY or affecting BEAUTY and productivity of NATURAL ENVIRONMENT. ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES OF ECOLOGY
  6. 6. If man ignores these basic values of life, then he is bound to face a severe crisis / FASAD. The Quran says, Everything is created in due the proportion and with intricate balance (MIZAN) HUMANITY is to discover this balance, which encompasses the animate and inanimate world, and within each individual’s own self submit to the law and order of the universe of its habitants. NATURE provides both material and spiritual sustenance for humanity, humanity should appreciate the forces of nature and make its possible in the planetary ecosystem. The whole realm of nature is the revelation of the will of God. The holy Quran as the basic sources, which may lead us to develop an Islamic perspective is regarding to the Ecological creation. ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES OF ECOLOGY
  7. 7. • ESSENCE OF ECOSYSTEM ‘Do they look at the earth – how many noble things of all kinds we have produced therein.’ (26:7) • ESSENCE OF ECOBALANCE ‘And the earth we have spread out; set therein mountain firm and immovable and produced therein all kinds of things in due balance’. • ESSENCE OF CREATION / BIODIVERSITY ‘There is not an animal (that lives) on earth, nor a being that flies on its wings but forms part of the communities, like you. Nothing have we omitted from the Book, any they all shall be gathered to their Lord in the end’. (Al An’am:38) ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES OF ECOLOGY
  8. 8. Study of natural ecosystem will help us to understand this complicated relationship between the environment and living things. It also gives a clear understanding on how the impact of humans is influencing the natural world and the consequent. Therefore, ecosystem is the functional units of sustainable life on earth. ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES OF ECOLOGY
  9. 9. It is a self –sustaining, self-regulating community of organism interacting with the physical environment within the defined geographic space DEFINITION OF ECOSYSTEM
  10. 10. ECOSYSTEM BIOTIC COMPONENTS Nonliving factors that influence the life and activities of an organism energy, matter (nutrient and chemicals), physical factors (temperature, humidity, moisture, light, wind and available space) Living portion of the environment ABIOTIC COMPONENTS
  11. 11. BIOTIC COMPONENTS AUTOTROPHS Autotrophs (producers) are self-nourishing organism. These are mainly green plants that are able to manufacture food from simple substances. Autotrophic means self- feeding. Heterotrophs are mainly animals that ingest other organisms and obtain the energy rich chemicals either indirectly or directly from autotrophs. HETEROTROPHS
  12. 12. Functions in ecosystem include the transformation, circulation and accumulation of matter and the flow of energy through the medium of living organisms and their activities and through natural processes. Other functions include photosynthesis, food web and symbiosis. All ecosystems are dependent upon the flow of energy and the cycling of materials through the community of living organism. ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION
  13. 13. FOOD CHAIN
  14. 14. Two type of habitats: Terrestrial ecosystem eg: forest, desert Aquatic ecosystem eg: sea, river, lake HABITATS
  17. 17. Biological diversity or biodiversity is the variety of life forms: the different plants, animals and microorganisms, the genes they contain, and the ecosystems they form. OR The genetic, species, and ecological diversity of the organisms in a given area. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
  18. 18. • 1 of 17 mega diverse areas in the world • High levels of endemism • Mammals:286 total species (27)endemic • Birds: 736 total species (11) endemic • Flowering plants: P.M’sia: orchids:500 total species (350) endemic • Palm: 195 total species (84) endemic MALAYSIA’S MEGA DIVERSITY
  19. 19. Examples of Malaysia’s Biodiversity • Endau-Rompin (Johor-Pahang) Lowland/hill dipterocarp forest, • Houses the largest viable population of Sumatran rhinoceros • Endemic and threatened species include tiger, fan palm and the kelisa or arowana fish • Site supports a vast diversity of fauna and flora species, with much knowledge yet to be unlocked
  20. 20. Benefits can be considered in 3 groups: – Ecosystem services – Biological resources – Social Benefits IMPORTANCE OF DIVERSITY
  21. 21. •Weather regulation •Climate regulation •Hydrological services •Nutrient cycling •Soil formation •Air cleaning •Water quality ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
  22. 22. • Food • Fuel • Clothes • Medicines • Ornamental plants • Timber • Non-timber forest products • Basis for improving domestic stocks BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES
  23. 23. • Aesthetic • Cultural • Traditional • Spiritual • Scientific • Research • Recreation SOCIAL BENEFITS
  24. 24. Biological diversity is central to the productivity and sustainability of the earth's ecosystems. • Specific examples of the role of bio-diversity in ecosystem functioning include providing for • 1) essential processes, • 2) ecosystem resistance to and recovery from disturbances, and • 3) adaptability to long-term changes in environmental conditions. WHY IS DIVERSITY IMPORTANT
  25. 25. • stability (resistance) recovery (resilience) from disturbing that disrupt important ecosystem process • Resistance often results from complex linkages among organisms, such as food webs that provide alternate pathways for flows of energy and nutrients. • Energy flow and nutrient cycling • Long term adaptation towards climatic changes and other environmental parameters • Selection for rearrange of lake and terrestrial ecosystems when environment change BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
  26. 26. The intimate living together of members of two different species; includes mutualism, commensalisms, and in some classification parasitism OR Any intimate association of two dissimilar species regardless of the benefits or harm derived from it SYMBIOSIS Mutualism relationship between individuals of different species where both individuals derive a fitness benefit Commensalism relationship between two living organisms where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped. Parasitism relationship is one in which one member of the association benefits while the other is harmed.
  27. 27. • Habitat alteration and loss • Overuse/overexploitation • Pollution • Global climate change • Ecological invasions such as species and disease introduction resulting from human activities THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY
  28. 28. The stage where human activities alter environmental condition in such a way that they exceed the range of tolerances for one or more organisms in the biotic community. 5 D’s of natural system degradation / ecosystem degradation • Ecosystem Damage • Ecosystem Disruption • Ecosystem Destruction • Ecosystem Desertification • Ecosystem Deforestation ECOSYSTEM DEGRADATION
  29. 29. Impacts: • The overall productivity of the area is reduced. • Biodiversity is greatly diminished. • The soil more prone to erosion and drying. • The standing stock of nutrients and biomass, once stored in the trees and leaf litter, is enormously reduced. • The hydrological cycle is changed, as water drains off, instead of being released by transpiration through the leaves of trees or instead of percolating into ground water. ECOSYSTEM DEGRADATION