MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIA: SOLUTION FOR SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT MUNIRAH MAZLAN (1090321) NURUL IZYAN OTHMAN (1090323)
INTRODUCTION• Rate of waste generation in Malaysia is increasing due to : a) Community activities – commercial, institutional, industrial, markets. b) Economic level of different sector – squatter, low, medium and high class residential areas. c) Type of waste generator and land use
• Below are statistic by the government on solid waste composition based on physical characteristic :
• In Malaysia, the handling and separation of wastes at the source is a critical step in waste management.• Various type of bins used for storage the waste: a) Small bin – household b) Medium bin – communal bin c) Large bin – hauled communal
• Most expensive activity in waste management system is waste collection activities.• Two type of cost waste collection : a) Direct - All direct expenditure incurred in the management of solid waste b) Indirect – External cost incurred in practicing existing waste management system.
• Efficiency of collection system give an impact on level of MSWM services in an area.• Poor collection – affect public confidence in the services.• Public aware about the quality of collection.• The frequency of collection varies from daily to three times per week.• Usually in city centers, commercial areas and public areas practiced everyday collection.
• In Malaysia, we are practice direct haulage from collection point without any intermediate treatment.• However, there is problem in getting suitable land for disposal site.• Thus, intermediate treatment facilities are introduced.• For example, transfer station, compositing and incinerator plants.• Government has considered the various design and mode of incineration process such as thermal gasification process.
• Waste disposal in Malaysia is totally to landfill• Landfill in Malaysia were in small scale operations with varying levels of design sophistication and majority were poorly managed.• Sanitary landfill is practiced by municipal council and the total is very small.• For example The Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill.
• The advanced of the landfill should include: a) Proper liner system b) Proper gas ventilation system c) Comprehensive leachate collection system• Generally, this paper focus on development of the MSWM, integrated approach and further planning.
• Malaysia is governed as a parliamentary democracy with three tiers of government : a) Federal Government b) State Government c) Local authority• Under Federal Government, the administration of MSWM is under the purview of Ministry of Housing and Local Government.• 2 unit in this ministry involved directly with MSWM which are: a) Local Government Department b) Town and Country Planning Unit• Roles of federal Government – as an advisory and coordinating nature.
• National council of Local Government provide consultation between the MHLG in formulate of National Policies for the promotion, development and control of local authority.• Prime Ministry Department also related to MSWM.• Several bodies in this department such as EPU, cabinet division, JPA and etc.
• Agencies that involved indirectly are : a) Ministry of Finance b) Ministry of Health c) Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment d) Ministry of Rural Development e) Ministry of Public Work f) Ministry of Agriculture g) Ministry of Land and Regional Department h) Ministry of Education
• In MSWM, the second tier in Malaysia government, State Government is responsibility to guide and assist Local Authorities in strengthening their institutional and financial capabilities for MSWM.• The third tier is Local Authorities – more powerful tier.
• Local Authority role in make decision to determine whether MSW collection is implemented by local authority or private contractor.
Action Plan for a Beautiful and Clean Malaysia (ABC)• MHLG produced ABC document in 1988.• It discuss about the guidelines and the procedures in implementing SWM programme in Malaysia.• There were 12 programmes outlined in the ABC.
1) Local authorities thought out the country should be strengthened to be able to establish efficient and effective system of MSWM in their areas.2) A regional approach for MSWM should be encouraged, whenever it is applicable to improve their economic and technical level.3) All urban centers should prepare and implement MSWM plans extending into the future including periodical revisions.4) All MSWM generated in urban and semi-urban areas should be collected and disposed of adequately in such a manner that would not create public health, worker’s health and environmental problems and would be technically and financially viable.5) The generator of waste who is supported by the Rural Environmental Programme of the MHLG should dispose of all municipal solid waste generated in rural areas adequately.6) Reduction of solid waste generation especially that of packaging waste and household chemical waste should be encouraged involving the procedures and distributors of consumer goods as well as consumer themselves.
7) MSW should be treated as resource and all efforts must be made to recycle and recover most of the material that are presently burn and buried.8) MDSWM services should be self-financing and an appropriate user charger or any other methods to attain the self-financial objective should be imposed on beneficiaries of the service.9) The private sector should be encouraged to be contractors for MSW collection and disposal services. In addition, the national automobiles industries and other related industries should be encouraged to produce locally all the vehicles and the equipment necessary for MSWM.10) The public should be continuously educated on cleanliness and resources recovery through health and environmental education, cleanliness campaigns and strict enforcement of the anti-litter by laws.11) Land for MSWM disposal should be identified ad reserved for the purpose.12) Research and development about MSWM should be strengthened to cope with the ever-changing environment.
Privatisation of MSWM• The privatisation of MSWM is to be done on national scale.• Aim – to improve the quality of service and to promote efficiency and provide better facilities.• Goals – To take over the municipalities’ function in managing MSWM in an integrated National MSWM system that will be managed by the Federal Government.
Integrated MSWM• The hierarchy of MSWM is an internationally accepted and practiced concept in many countries.• Under full privatisation or concession periods, contractor will roughly try to match the hierarchy of MSWM starting with waste minimisation, waste separation and recycling and waste processing.• This integrated strategy requires participant at all levels.
• In October 1994, Malaysia Government initiated the privatisation of country’s waste management.• It was part of the vision 2020 initiative which focuses on having the country evolve into a fully industrialized nation by year 2020.• HICOM Environmental Berhad is a joint partnership – prepared a waste management privatisation proposal to Malaysia’s government.• In 1996, four consortium success in obtaining a 20 years privatisation contract : a) HICOM Environmental Berhad (Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan). b) Southern Waste Management Sdn. Bhd. (Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka). c) Northen Waste Management Sdn. Bhd. (Perak, Kedah, Penang, Perlis) d) Eastern Waste Management Sdn. Bhd. (Sabah, Sarawak)
• The concession need to develop their own technologies and methods.• The World Bank found that privatisation : a) Enhances efficiency b) More closely supervised c) Regulated privatised agencies were more efficient that those operated at a bureaucratic distance.