Group Members: Nor Shahila (Leader) Ong Shi Hui Nurul Amelina Nor Khalish Group 4, 2L06
A manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally. Clear liquid with a sweet aroma that can be detected at low levels. Most often found in the air as a colourless gas. It is not flammable and does not dissolve in water easily. 3 0 0
How are you exposed to CCl 4 ? <ul><li>Breathing contaminated air / workplace air when it is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking contaminated water. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin contact with contaminated water source </li></ul><ul><li>Happens to consume contaminated soil’s vegetation </li></ul>
How can families reduce the risks of exposure to CCl 4 ? <ul><li>Discard any product that contains CCl 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Household chemicals should be stored out of the reach of children in their original containers. </li></ul>
Specified Limit to Exposure of Chemical - Applicable to shop- floor / workplace The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) set a (PEL) limit of 10 ppm. TLV- TWA: In workplace air for an 40-hour workweek .
<ul><li>Production of refrigeration fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Propellants for aerosol cans </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticide </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Degreasing agent </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of fire extinguishers </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of spot removers. </li></ul>
EYE EFFECTS: Causes mild irritation. SKIN EFFECTS: Mild irritation. Prolonged contact causes contact dermatitis. INHALATION / INGESTION EFFECTS: Short term - causes headache, dizziness and irritation of respiratory system.
Chronic exposure can cause what effect? Research done by lab technicians: LD50 = 2350 mg/kg (Species: Rat) Is a central nervous system depressant. May cause loss of consciousness at high concentrations.
Non-flammable but… vapour is! Decomposes into phosgene and hydrogen chloride under fire conditions. Explosive reaction with particulates of metal E.g. Aluminum, barium, potassium, sodium Reacts violently with chemicals like: Fluorine, Boranes, Allyl alcohol
<ul><li>Forms explosive mixtures with the following chemical substances: </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine trifluoride </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium hypochlorite </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium disilicide </li></ul><ul><li>Triethyldialuminum trichloride </li></ul><ul><li>Decaborane </li></ul><ul><li>Dinitrogen tetraoxide </li></ul>
Should Carbon Tetrachloride come in contact with… Eyes : Flush eyes with water immediately for about 15 minutes . Skin : Remove contaminated clothing and flush the affected areas with water. Seek medical help immediately!
<ul><li>Should Carbon Tetrachloride come in contact with… </li></ul><ul><li>Ingestion : </li></ul><ul><li>Contact Local Poison Control Centre or Civil Defence . If conscious, induce vomiting and continue till vomit is clear. </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalation : </li></ul><ul><li>PROMPT MEDICAL ATTENTION IS NEEDED. </li></ul><ul><li>RESCUE PERSONNEL SHOULD BE EQUIPPED WITH… PPE. </li></ul>
Conscious persons should be assisted to ( warm ) zone and inhale fresh air/ decontaminated! Prompt evacuation! Basic First Aid Procedures… Seek for emergency medical help immediately! Further treatment should be followed up.
Proper Storage/ Handling of CCl 4 Carbon Tetrachloride… Check Compatibility of chemicals… incompatible with aluminium and zinc! Cylinder movement is only to be used with a suitable hand truck.
Proper Storage/ Handling of CCl 4 <ul><li>Preferably stored in: </li></ul><ul><li>Cool </li></ul><ul><li>Dry </li></ul><ul><li>Well-ventilated area </li></ul><ul><li>Away from all the heavily trafficked areas and emergency exits. </li></ul>
Temperature at which the cylinders are stored… should not exceed 54 Degree Celsius. Stored cylinders upright and firmly secured. No open flames are allowed to come in contact with the vapour. Proper Storage/ Handling of CCl 4
Handling of chemical spillage of CCl 4 ENGINEERING CONTROLS: Use local exhaust to prevent accumulation above the exposure limit. EYE/FACE PROTECTION: Safety goggles or glasses SKIN PROTECTION: Protective Gloves: Nitrile or Viton. RESPIRATORY PROTECTION: Full-face mask and self-contained breathing apparatus. *SQUEAK*My PPE!
In Year 2000, Congress proposed transforming Rocky Flats to a wildlife refuge . Due to fires in 1957 due to protests and other “lack of attention” releases (waste storage area prone to air borne), the site is contaminated with plutonium. The other major contaminant is carbon tetrachloride . Both of these substances affected areas adjacent to the site.
Actions taken by the DOE & The Jury: About 4.0 km² of the new wildlife refuge remains under DOE control. After a 16-year legal battle... A lawsuit brought by 12,000 property owners living downwind from Rocky Flats was filed… Against Dow Chemical and Rockwell International.
CCl 4 can get really dreadful !!! Research done by ATSDR: What happens to carbon tetrachloride when it enters the environment? Swiftly, it is gone with the wind. So, most of it is in the air! What if the public inhales huge volumes of it? It does not build up in animals but we do not know if it build up in plants.
CCl 4 can get really dreadful !!! Small amount sticks to soil particles; the rest evaporates or moves into the groundwater . When it does break down, it forms chemicals that can destroy ozone in the upper atmosphere.
Another follow – up research done by ATSDR: Mice that breathed in carbon tetrachloride also developed tumours! The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that carbon tetrachloride is possibly ... carcinogenic to humans . OH NO ! OH NO! AHHHHHS!
So, the Outcome of the Lawsuit: $110 million in punitive damages against Dow Chemical $89 million against Rockwell International $177 million against each company in actual damages
The End. Thank you! References : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocky_Flats http://www.eurochlor.org/carbontetrachloride http://www.eco-usa.net/toxics/ccl4.shtml http://dhfs.wisconsin.gov/eh/ChemFS/fs/carbontet.htm http://images.google.com.sg/imgres?imgurl=http://www.keystone.org/spp/images/rockyflats_250.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.keystone.org/spp/env-hazardouswaste.html&h=164&w=250&sz=18&hl=en&start=152&um=1&tbnid=4WQAyOWZ3mrbXM:&tbnh=73&tbnw=111&prev=/images%3Fq%3Drocky%2Bflats%26start%3D140%26ndsp%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN & certain MSDS data in PDF format surfed from the Internet. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaq.html www.yahoo.com www.google.com
<ul><li>Benzene is used in daily products such as dyes, paint remover(thinner) and also after shave lotion. </li></ul><ul><li>It could cause vomiting, dizziness or headaches for acute health effect. While for serious health hazards, it could cause damage to the bone marrow, liver and decrease in ovary size for women. </li></ul><ul><li>Benzene is flammable and has a flash point of -11.11 degrees. </li></ul><ul><li>The benzene pollution which happened in Songhua River is a good example of how dangerous benzene could be to the society and environment as it could spread faster than we could control. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Group 5 is clear on explaining about the health hazards of benzene from the acute to serious effects. Case Study too very detailed and really interesting </li></ul><ul><li>But kind of too wordy.. (based on Version 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Pie charts are used to present the percentage of benzene consumed in the US and China where accidents of the chemical occurred. Pictures are used to clearly illustrate how badly the pollution is. </li></ul><ul><li>They should include more details for storage and handling of benzene. </li></ul>