Group 5 : Anik Widyastuti Izzati Gemi S. Nurul Adhalina Rika Rahma A. Hamza Aabeed .K. CASEMany languages have a CASE SYSTEM. The case itself is an inflectional form thatindicates its grammar function in phrase, clause, or sentence. The example of casesystem happens in some languages including such as, Pitta-pitta, Latin, and English.1. Pitta-PittaThe example of case system is a set of affixes (almost always suffixes) that mark therelations that NPs bear to their governors. CASE SYSTEM occurs in Australian Language,Pitta-Pitta. Each case is represented by a single form. There is one complication. The subject of an intransitive verb is unmarked. The subject of a transitive verb is marked by a suffix –lu (the ergative case) that marks instruments.CASE SUFFIXES SUFFIXES SENTENCESNominative -Ø The dog ran away (INTRANSITIVE SUBJECT)Ergative / -lu The man hit the dog with a stickinstrumental (TRANSITIVE SUBJECT and instrumental)Accusative -nha The dog bit the man (direct object)Dative / pergressive -ku The dog is fond of the man, The dog swam through the floodPurposive / possesive -nga The woman’s dog went for the paperlocative -ina The dog swam in the creek
allative -inu The dog went to the creekablative -inya The dog name back from the creekcausal -la The dog hid from the policeman-Ø nominative The nominative is used for nouns in isolation and for the subject of an intransitive verb. It characteristically expresses the role of neutral patient, including entities that ‘locomote’ (with ‘go’, ‘come’, etc). These might seem to have agent subjects, but the mover is also the moved and the activity does not extend to an external entity. karna karnta-ka man go-past The man went-lu ergative / instrumental The ergative marks the subject of a transitive verb. It expresses the role of agent. It also encodes the role of instrument. karna-lu pithi-ka piyawarli-nha parnkuparnku-lu man-erg hit past dog-acc walking:stick-erg (insr) The man hit the dog with a stick.-nha accusative The accusative marks the direct object expressing the characteristics role of affected patient. karna-lu pithi-ka piyawarli-nha parnkuparnku-lu man-erg hit past dog-acc walking:stick-erg (insr) The man hit the dog with a stick.-ku dative / pergressiveThe dative function of –ku is restricted.It marks the complement: yatha ‘to like’ tiwa ‘be jealous of’
wapa ‘to look for’ wantili ‘to wait for’ karna yatha-ya piyawarli-ku man like-pres dog-dat The man likes the dog. The pergressive function: ‘through’ ‘across’ ‘along’ karna yurta-ka ngarraru-ku man swam-past flood-dat (pergressive) The man swam through the flood-nga purposive / possesiveExampe of purposive: karna karnta-ka kupi-nga man go-past fish-purp The man went for (to get) fishExample of possesive: karna-nga piyawarli pantyi-ya man-purp dog ail-pres The man’s dog is sick-ina locative It indicates location in general. Adverbs are used to give specific orientation of one entity in relation to another. karna nhangka-y kunti-ina kukuina man sit-pres house-loc behind The man is (sitting) behind the house-inu allativeIt indicates destinations. -inya ablativeIt indicates ‘from’, i.e. source. karna karnta-ka Mount Isa-inya Dajarra-inu man go-past Mt Isa-abl Dajarra-allative
The man went from Mt Isa to Dajarra-la causalIt marks causes ‘sick from (drinking) whisky, and entities that are to be avoided.Example:Bad spirits – not just bad whisky! karna wilakana-ya yampi-la man hide-pres m:in:law-causal The man is hiding from (sc. to avoid) his mother-in-law2. LatinBesides occuring in Pitta-Pitta language, case system also In European language. Latin is oneof European language that has case system. The Latin‟s case system is more complicated thanothers. It‟s because in Latin, the suffix expresses case, number, gender class, andirregularities. There are three declinsion in Latin: - -ā-stems is for almost all feminine gender - o- stems is for almost all masculine but with a subclass of neuter nouns - The consonant stems are for masculine, feminine and neuter and to differentiate the gender is shown from the form of the agreeing adjective and determiner take.Note that there is separate Paradigm/Pattern for Plural words Example: First declension: „a girl‟, ā stem Case Singular Plural Nominative puella puellae Vocative puella puellae Accusative puellam puellās Genitive puellae puellārum Dative puellae puellĩs Ablative puellā puellĩs
Second Declension: „a slave‟ (o stem) Case Singular Plural Nominative servus servĩ Vocative serve servĩ Accusative servum servōs Genitive servĩ servōrum Dative servō servĩs Ablative servō servĩs Third declension: „king‟ (consonant stem) Case Singular Plural Nominative rēx rēgēs Vocative rēx rēgēs Accusative rēgem rēgēs Genitive rēgis rēgum Dative rēgi rēgibus Ablative rēge rēgibusIn Latin, neuter nouns have the same form in the nominative, vocative and accusative. Forexample, the word bellum (war) has the same form bellum in nominative, vocative andaccusative while in plural, it has bella for these three cases.Cases are distinguished on the basis differentiation in a single paradigm. The vocative ismarked by separate form only in the second declension singular. Other than that there is aSYNCRETISM (neutralization) between the nominative and vocative.Case category in Latin: Nominative : marks the subject Vocative : used to address someone Accusative : marks direct object and the object of some prepositions Genitive : correspons to „s and of in English
Dative : marks indirect object of dare „to give‟ and the complement of a score or so of verbs that do not involve impingement on neutral patient. (e.g: ignoscere „to pardon‟, credere „to believe‟) Ablative : marks a number of distict roles, usually governed by an appropriate preposition. For example: „from‟ – ex Asiā „by means of‟ – gladiō „with a sword‟ „agent‟ – ab Arriō „accompanimen‟ – cum amicō „in‟ – in Italiā „in Italy‟Adjective and determiners agree with their head nouns in number, case and gender. Forexample, the adjective used in the sentence bellow decline like puella, servus or bellumaccording to the gender of the nouns they modify: a. Rex bonus dat unum servum puellae King good give:3s one:acc slave:acc girl:dat The good king gives one/a slave to the girl b. Regis servus itt ex Britaniā in Italiam King slave go:past:3s from Britain:abl in Italy:acc The king‟s slave went down from Britain to Italy c. Illa puella manet in Italiā cum amicis That girl remain:3s in Italy with friend:abl:plur That girl is staying in Italy with friends3. EnglishAnother Indo – European language that has case system is English but along the time, there issome changing in the case system. It is once has a complicated case system like Latin. OldEnglish has almost identical case system like modern German. While during the MiddleEnglish period that case system is disappeared, except for the sibilants ending of the genitivebut it is no longer a case marker. It becomes a derivational affix that is added to noun phrasesto produce possessive determiners. For example: a. The dog‟s bone b. The man down the street‟s dog c. The man over there‟s dog
Note that in English, possessive„s is written with an apostrophe to distinguish it from theplural.There are two – way case distinction with pronouns: nominative and oblique (non –nominative). The distinction between nominative and oblique is made suppletively by usingdifferent stems. For example, Me supplies the oblique case of I, Him of He, etc.For example: Nominative ObliqueFirst person singular I meThird person singular he him She her It itFirst person plural we usSecond person plural you youThird person plural they themNote that there are also different uses of nominative and oblique. Nominative forms areusually used for subject and oblique for all other function.In English, nouns can be distinguished two cases, namely: • The Unmarked Common Case Ex: girl (singular) and girls (plural) • The Marked Genitive Case Ex: girl’s (singular) and girls’ (plural) - A case grammar is an approach to grammar that gives emphasis on the semantic relationships in a sentence. - In the case of grammar, verbs are considered as an important part of the sentence and have some semantic relationship with the noun phrase. These relationships are called the CASE. Example: Smith killed the policeman with a Revolve. This revolver killed the policeman.
Case Category 1. Agentive Case It is the case on a noun or noun phrase that refers to people or animals who perform or initiate action.Example:John chew the candy.“John mengunyah permen.”John is in the agentive. But the subject of the verb does not need to always be in the agentivecase. In the sentence:John likes candy. “John menyukai permen.”John did not do an act, but his attitude toward the candy is called. John in this sentence arenot in the agentive case but in the dative case. It will be discussed in the next category.2. Benefactive CaseIt is the case on the noun or noun phrase that refers to people or animals who have benefitedfrom the action verbs. In the English language is connected with the preposition “for”.Example: - Tom did it for Huck. “Tom melakukan itu untuk Huck.” Huck is in the benefactive case. - John cooked a chicken for Louise. “John memasak ayam untuk Luise.” - John cooked Louise a chicken. “John memasakan Louise ayam.” Louise is in the benefactive case.3. Comitative caseIt is a case in noun phrases that bear a conjunctive relationship with other noun phrases in asentence. In English associated with the preposition “with”.Example:- Tom ran away with Huck.“Tom melarikan diri dengan Huck.”- Tom and Huck ran away. “Tom dan Huck melarikan diri.”4. Dative CaseIt is a case of the noun or noun phrase that refers to a person or animal that is affected state oraction verbs.Example: - Gregory was frightened by storm. “Gregory ditakut-takuti oleh angin topan.”
- I persuaded Tom to go. “Saya membujuk Tom pergi.”Gregory and Tom are in the dative case. Both Tom and Gregory is influenced by something.Gregory intimidated and Tom experienced persuasion. This case is also called experiencescase.5. Factitive CaseIt is a case in phrase or noun phrase that refers to something that is made or created by theaction verbs.Example: - Tony built the shed. “Tony membangun bangsal.” The shed is in the case of factitive. - Tony repaired the shed. “Tony memugar bangsal.”The shed is not located in factitive case because the shed had been there / standing at thetime of restoration was carried out. In the sentence, the shed is in the objective case. FactitiveCase is also called result/resultativecase.6. Objective CaseIt is the case in the phrase or noun phrase that refers to anyone or anything that has a neutralrelationship to the action verbs. Noun or noun phrase in the objective case no action, do notact, nor is the instrument / equipment / means of action.Example: - Marry slided the onion with a knife. “Marry mengiris bawang putih itu dengan pisau.” - The onion sliced easily. “bawang putih itu teriris dengan mudah.” - The onion was thick. “bawang putih itu tebal.”The Onion is not the agent (such as Marry) nor instrument (such as a knife); but instead is inthe objective.The notion of objective case had everything to do with the traditional sense of the object.However, not everything that is in the objective case can be an object and not all objects canbe considered to be in the objective case.7. Ergatif CaseIt cases is causative, which refers to the syntactic relation that exists between a sentence.Example:
The car moved.“Mobil itu bergerak.”John moved the car.“John menggerakkan mobil itu.”8. Instrumental CaseIt is about an inanimate instrument which is the cause of an action or state expressed by theverb, which in English by using the preposition “with”.Example:1. Bella opened the door with the key.“Bella membuka pintu itu dengan kunci.”2. The door was opened with the key by Bella.“Pintu itu dibuka dengan kunci oleh Bella.”3. The key opened the door. “Kunci membuka pintu itu.”9. Locative CaseIt is the case on a phrase or noun phrase that refers to the location / site of action verbs.Example: Irene put the dictionary on the table. “Irene menaruh majalah itu di atas meja.The table is in the locative case. In English, it can be seen by using of the preposition: on, in,at, from.