Presented by MD NURUDDIN SUMIT KUMAR B.TECH(BIOTECH) SHARDA UNIVERSITY
MINING Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from anorebody, lode, vein, seam, or reef, which forms the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner.
MINING WASTE AND MATERIAL In mining upper surface called waste material are removed.waste material are composed of acid generating substance and it is big task to replace it a proper place where it should be treated to detoxified.most of money spend in removing the waste material so highly qualified needed to operate this job.or recover by mining includes metal,coal,oil shale,gems stone,lime stone,rock salt,petrolium,natural gas even water.
PRE HISTORICAL MINING Since the beginning of civilization,people have used stones,ceramics for making tools and weapons. in ancient egypt malachite and maadi where excavated for ornamentation,pottery,etc.gold mines of nubia was very famous.ancient greece and rome silver mines of laurium was very famous.the used hydraulic method.america continent was also not behind in the field of mining and copper mines along lake suprior was veryt famous and it is still working.
Types of MiningSurface Mining Underground Mining Placer Mining Drift Mining Strip Mining Mountaintop Slope Mining removal Hydraulic Shaft Mining Open pit Hard rock Dredging
Surface MiningSurface mines are mining operations that delve into rock toextract deposits of mineral resources that are close to thesurface . In most forms of surface mining, heavy equipment, such asearthmovers, first remove the overburden (the soil and rockabove the deposit). Next, huge machines such as drag lineexcavators extract the mineral. Once the material has been removed, the land isrecovered for safe use on the surface through a process calledreclamation.
1.Placer mining involves any type of mining where raw mineralsare deposited in sand or gravel or on the surface and are pickedup without having to drive, use dynamite or any other significantmeans. Ex:gold.
2.Strip mining is the practice of mining a seam of mineral ore byfirst removing all of the soil and rock that lies on top of it (theoverburden). It is similar to open-pit mining in many regards.
3.Mountaintop removal .Mountaintop removal (MTR) is a relatively new form of coalmining that involves the mass restructuring of earth in order toreach sediment as deep as 1,000 feet below the surface.Mountaintop removal requires that the targeted land be firstclear-cut and then leveled by explosives
4.HydraulicHydraulic mining involves high pressure water. The water is sprayedat an area of rock and/or gravel and the water breaks the rock up,dislodging ore and placer deposits. The water/oremixture is thenmilled. This is a very destructive way to mine and has beenoutlawed in most areas.
5.Open pit mines involve digging large open holes in the groundas opposed to a small shaft in hard rock mining. This method ofmining is most often used with minerals like copper andmolybdenum
6.DredgingDredging is a method often used to bring up underwater mineraldeposits. Although dredging is usually employed to clear or enlargewaterways for boats, it can also recover significant amounts ofunderwater minerals relatively efficiently and cheaply.
Underground miningUnderground mining refers to a group oftechniques used for the extraction of valuableminerals or other geological materials from theearth.
1.Drift mining is a method of accessing valuablegeological material, such as coal, by cutting into theside of the earth, rather than tunneling straightdownwards.
2.Slope miningSlope mining is a method of accessing valuable geologicalmaterial, such as coal. A sloping access shaft travelsdownwards towards the coal seam.
3.Shaft mining is a type of underground mining doneby use of a mine shaft. A mine shaft is a verticalpassageway used for access to an underground mine.
4.Hard Rock mining refers to various techniques usedto mine ore bodies by creating underground "rooms"supported by surrounding pillars of standing rock.
Some effects of mining on the environment•Deforestation and loss of biodiversity aremajor effects of mining.(It destroys forest andwetlands. It may mean that you have to cut down lots oftrees just to get to the spot that has all the gold oriron ore).•Many mine require tailings dams to prevent waste beingwashed into the rivers. Unethical miners can dispensewith the dams, to save costs, resulting in massivepollution downstream. In other cases, the tailings damcan overflow, and even breach, during periods of heavyrain.
•Underground coal mining can require the removal ofalmost an entire layer of material deep under thesurface. When the timber supports collapse, this canlead to subsidence. The subsidence can mean economicloss to people above or damage to natural areas. It caneven cause cracks in river beds, leading to loss of riverflow.
•Some mining involves the inadvertent dispersal ofheavy metals, such as lead, into the atmosphere. Thiscan have serious health effects, including mentalretardation in children.•Asbestos mining causes the dispersal of asbestosinto the environment. This will cause deaths amonglocal residents and workers, often several decadeslater. Fortunately, the mining and use of asbestos arebanned in most parts of the world.
SOCIAL DAMAGE OF MINING A large scale mining creates new infrastructure and provides additional employment,permanent settlements can arise around these operations in areas that otherwise would have remained more sparsely inhabited.mining comes along with promise of wealth and jobs for people.but it has many negative impacts that is Appropriation of land belonging to local communities, Impacts on health, Alternation of social relationships,
Continued… Destruction of forms of community subsistence and life, Social disintegration, Radical and abrupt change in regional cultures, Displacement of other present and future local economic activities.
It may be true that many of the affected communities have given their consent.however it is hard to speak of previous,genuine infomed cosent as they do not have opportunity to fully understand what is waiting for them when they asked to place their signature at the foot of the contract.
Case study of sukinda valley Here due to mning of chromite ore 2600000 people affected.due to open pit mining the brahmni river got poluted by hexavalent chromium.according to OVHA obout 24.47% of the inhabitant found to be suffering pollution induced disease in that area.