Reading readiness


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note language and literacy from Prof Khadijah that i got from my masters in early childhood education

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Reading readiness

  1. 1. Getting him/her ready for school ………..<br />
  2. 2. Readiness :<br />Readiness of many kind happen in many <br />stages in our life. It simply means a <br />state where we undertake a new task <br />with ease and profitably. It has many <br />dimensions and it is a never ending <br />process (Morrison, 1995). <br />
  3. 3. Aspects of Readiness<br />Psychomotor Readiness<br />refers to the mastery of skillsandtechniquesthat involve body movements.<br /> <br />Psychomotor readiness becomes optimumwhen physical maturation is parallel to appropriate training.<br /> <br />It involves the development of sensory-perceptual skills; muscles become strong, flexible and coordinated; followed by the development of fine motor strength and skills. <br />The development of psychomotor readiness will influence other aspects of a child’s development. <br />
  4. 4. Affective Readiness <br />refers to students’ attitudes, needs, feelings and interests to accept the things being taught.<br /> <br />composes of students’ attitudes as well as values when doing learning task<br /> <br />positive affective readiness determines students’ academic achievement and performance <br /> <br />Qualities needed to cultivate affective readiness:<br /> Ø      confidence<br /> Ø      independence<br /> Ø      curiosity<br /> Ø      persistence<br /> Ø      self-control<br />
  5. 5. Social Readiness<br />refers to the growing ability to relate to others and to become productive members of society.<br /> <br />The development of social readiness is interrelated and influenced by the kinds of experiences and social relationships that children have with their families and others and also by their level of cognitive development. <br />
  6. 6. 4. Cognitive Readiness<br />refers to the mental readinessto learn something.<br />language develops fast between infancy and the ages of 3 or 4. By the year 8-9, a child’s language system more or less completely formed. <br />The rate of thinking and problem solving also increased but not as rapid as language acquisition. <br /> <br />Understanding the cognitive development of the young child can help avoid pressuring him to learn somethingbefore he is ready or missing the golden momentwhen he is ready. <br />
  7. 7. Readiness for learninng :<br /><ul><li>Readiness for learning refers to the stage when the child can learn easily and without emotional strainand can learn profitably</li></ul> (Downing & Thackray, 1975).<br />
  8. 8. Readiness for school :<br /><ul><li>refers to the condition of children as they enter school i.e a state of physical, intellectual and social developmentthat enable a child to assimilate the school's curriculum and fulfill school fixed standard requirements.
  9. 9. It is always equated withreading readiness.</li></li></ul><li>Readiness to participate :<br />Readiness to participate in reading /<br />learning experience depends on:<br /><ul><li>The information and skills basic to the new learning
  10. 10. Level of intelligence and his possession of appropriate special abilities and aptitudes
  11. 11. The desire to learn the new material </li></li></ul><li>Reading Readiness skills in kindergarten:<br /><ul><li>Cognitive:</li></ul> -- visual discrimination<br /> -- phonological awareness<br /> -- alphabetic principle<br /> -- vocabulary: listening, speaking, reading, <br /> writing<br /><ul><li>Psychological-environmental:</li></ul>-- emotional maturity<br /> -- social development<br /> -- behavior<br /> -- interest in reading<br /> -- environment<br />reading readiness<br />
  12. 12. Factors Affecting Reading Readiness<br /><ul><li>Hildreth, 1968: interrelated factors
  13. 13. Harrison & Inglis: physiological, intellectual & personal readiness
  14. 14. Rubin, 1991: educational & non-educational factors</li></ul>Factors affecting RR<br />
  15. 15. <ul><li>Downing & Thackray(1975) - 6 factors:
  16. 16. Physiological
  17. 17. Environmental
  18. 18. Emotional
  19. 19. Motivation
  20. 20. Personality
  21. 21. Intellectual
  22. 22. educational & non-educational factors</li></ul>Factors affecting RR<br />
  23. 23. <ul><li>McGinnis & Smith (1982) - 4 factors:
  24. 24. physical
  25. 25. cognitive
  26. 26. environment
  27. 27. Emotional</li></li></ul><li>Psychological Factors :<br /><ul><li>Learning to read is a cognitive process
  28. 28. Cognitive factors: </li></ul>i. Intelligence<br /> ii. Mental content (experiential background) : comes from<br /> environment<br /><ul><li>Intellectual abilities are influenced by many factors operate on an individual (McGinnis & Smith, 1982): personality factors, motivation, interest in a subject, etc
  29. 29. Piaget: intelligence has its origin through process of adaptation to the environment
  30. 30. The quantity of the environment and the nature of children’s experiencesplay a major role in the development of intelligence</li></ul>Psychological factors<br />
  31. 31. <ul><li>Emotional difficulties may affect learning: some are developmentally appropriate but need to be aware by teachers
  32. 32. McGinnis & Smith (1982): successful learning relates toconfidence, ability to concentrate and to face difficult task, to cope with stressful situations, patience, tension and anxiety</li></ul>emotional-soc-beh<br />
  33. 33. <ul><li>Failure to read results in:</li></ul> -- frustration<br /> -- lack of interest<br /> -- inattention<br /> -- discouragement<br /> -- poor self-concept<br /> -- maladjustment <br /><ul><li>lack of success and feelings of inadequacy may contribute to emotional, social & behavioral maladjustments</li></ul>emotional-soc-beh<br />
  34. 34. Environmental Factors :<br /><ul><li>Home, school, community - contribute to</li></ul> child’s attitudes,<br /> points of view, language, learning skills<br />environmental<br />
  35. 35. <ul><li>Home environment - Parents influence:</li></ul>-- how much experience children have with books & other reading materials<br /> -- familiarity with letters & sounds<br /> -- the vocabulary they develop<br /> -- reading & writing habits<br /> -- opportunities and experiences they have in and out of school once they begin school<br />environmental<br />
  36. 36. <ul><li>Children from poor families:</li></ul>-- more dependent on school experiences for <br /> their academic literacy development <br /> (Snow et al., 1991)<br /> -- come to school with fewer literacy <br /> experiences (Clark, 1993; Teale, 1986)<br />-- optimal care & education for children: <br /> formidable challenges<br />environmental<br />
  37. 37. <ul><li>School environment : teacher’s attitude and expectation, instructional materias, classroom physical setting
  38. 38. Teachers: critical source of stimulation to children’s cognitive, language & social-emotional development (Landry, 2002)
  39. 39. Carter (1970): teacher expectations affect students’ level of confidence</li></ul>environmental<br />
  40. 40. MATURATIONIST THEORY<br />Maturationists believe that development is a biological processthat occurs automatically in predictable, sequential stages over time.  <br />This perspective assume that young children will acquire knowledge naturally and automatically as they grow physically and become older, provided that they are healthy.<br />Arnold Gessell<br /> (1880-1961)<br />
  41. 41. ENVIRONMENTALIST THEORY<br />Watson <br />(1878-1958)<br />Skinner <br />(1904-1990)<br />Bandura <br />(1925- )<br />Environmentalists believe the child's environment shapes learning and behavior. Thus, human behavior, development and learning are thought of as reactions to the environment. <br />
  42. 42. <ul><li>Optimal language development depends on interactions with the best possible language models (Morrison, 1995) – content of language differ according to environmental factors
  43. 43. Children’s environment shapes learning and behaviour
  44. 44. Human behaviour, development, and learning are reactions to the environment</li></ul>Theories: environmentalis<br />
  45. 45. CONSTRUCTIVIST THEORY<br />Piaget <br />(1896-1980)<br />Montessori <br />(1870-1952)<br />Vygotsky <br />(1896-1934)<br />Constructivists believe that learning and development occur when young children interact with the environmentand people around them <br />