Internet Post On Demographic Trends And Influencing Factors For Starting To Smoke Among Residents Of Baranggay
DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS AND INFLUENCING FACTORS FOR STARTING TO SMOKE AMONG RESIDENTS OF BARANGGAY __, ____________ CITY<br />A Research Proposal<br />Submitted in partial fulfillment<br />Of the requirements for the degree of<br />MASTER OF ARTS IN NURSING<br />NURSE1283 UNIVERSITY<br />PRESENTED BY:<br />nurse1283.blogspot.com<br />MARCH 2010<br />CHAPTER 1<br />PROBLEMS AND ITS BACKGROUND<br />Introduction<br />Most smokers start smoking when they are teenagers. In the “olden days” when most ---------------------------------------------------------were teenagers, people started smoking because their friends smoke; they thought that smoking was the “grown-up” thing to do; ---------------------------------------------------------sport stars; tobacco advertising in films, magazines, TV, sports and posters showed smoking as being cool, sexy, smart, tough and the adult thing to do; smoking was allowed in ---------------------------------------------------------; people could buy cigarettes in cheaper prices; and most people didn’t know that smoking was bad for their own health and for the health of people who were around smokers.<br />Smoking ---------------------------------------------------------drug use. Tobacco smoking is today by far the most popular form of smoking and is practiced by over one billion people in the majority of all human societies.<br />The history of ---------------------------------------------------------, and has been recorded in many different cultures across the world. Early smoking evolved in association with religious ceremonies; as offerings to deities, in cleansing rituals or to allow priests to alter their minds for purposes of divination or spiritual enlightenment. After the European exploration and conquest of the Americas, the practice of smoking tobacco quickly spread to the rest of the world.<br />Perception ---------------------------------------------------------has varied over time and from one place ---------------------------------------------------------and vulgar, a cure and deadly health hazard. Only relatively recently, and primarily in ---------------------------------------------------------come to be viewed in a decidedly negative light. Today medical studies have proven that smoking tobacco is among the leading causes --------------------------------------------------------- as lung cancer, heart attacks, erectile dysfunction and can also lead to birth defects. The well-proven health hazards of smoking have caused many countries to institute high taxes on tobacco products and anti-smoking campaigns are ---------------------------------------------------------to curb tobacco smoking. It is well- known that smoking is hazardous not only to the general health but also to the oral health.<br />Over the years, ---------------------------------------------------------and employment background seem ---------------------------------------------------------many teenagers who are in ---------------------------------------------------------finds it interesting to have a gasp ---------------------------------------------------------among selected respondents. The results look forward to impart updated information to the public to initiate ---------------------------------------------------------extra programs to solve problem of increasing number of smokers. The study will not only look into the trends of smoking but also on the influencing factors as perceived by the respondents.<br />Statement of the Problem<br />This study will look into the demographic trends and influencing factors of smoking among residents of Baranggay ____, ________________ City.<br />Specifically, it will seek answers to the following questions:<br /><ul><li>Are there significant _______________________________ the following?
___________________</li></ul>Hypotheses<br />Based on the statement of the problems, the researcher postulates the following hypotheses:<br /><ul><li>When respondents are grouped into _______________________________________ age they started smoking.
There is no significant difference on how ___________________________________________smoking.</li></ul>Significance of the Study<br />Parents of smokers. As _________________________, they will gain insights on the possible _________________________ child. The results will give a clearer view of what factors strongly influence one individual to start smoking. Once revealed to those ________________________ with the help of proper authorities to _____________________ habits.<br />Future and Current Smokers. The study aims to reflect _____________. This reflection _______________________________ among smokers and to those who have intentions to smoke. __________________________ cannot spot his own unhelpful patterns and __________________, his own strengths, and thus change or use them.<br />Nursing Service. The author of this study believes in the detrimental effects of smoking. Results can be part of the nursing team’s guidelines when combating smoking habits. _______________________ in many settings, from the community to the hospital, and are _____________________ smokers. They may feel they lack the counseling skills to persuade smokers to stop but there are many simple ways in which ___________________________ to seek help. For example, they can refer patients to smoking cessation services or offer information on such services. <br />Nursing Students. The in-coming _________________ generation in the nursing world. As future nurses, they too have a _____________________ caring for smoking clients and the concerned people around them. Through their own small ways, like ____________________ with the aid of their mentors, they can contribute to the worldwide program campaign against smoking.<br />Nurse Educators. In general, _____________________ is to develop the knowledge, skill, or character of students. As far as the nursing profession is concerned, __________________ the classrooms. Nursing mentors are in the right place to ______________________ and to influence nursing students on the ________________________ habits and factors influencing. This is indeed a valuable responsibility of every nurse educator.<br />Future Researchers. The researcher finds the current study very interesting. There is a hope that readers and future researchers will____________________________meaningful. Contents and results of the study will give _______________________________ programs against smoking in order to promote health and wellness to mankind.<br />Scope and Delimitation of the Study<br />The current study considers the ____________________________________ at Baranggay ______ , in _________________ City. As for the _________________profile, the __________________________________________ status of the respondents by the time they ____________________ taken into consideration. The _________________________ the time the respondent started smoking and ___________________condition. The religious affiliations of the respondents are not noted. Factors which influenced the respondents to smoke are divided into three (________________________________ are also obtained. These _______________________ on the respondents’ perceptions. Respondents are still engaging in smoking habits during the time of interview.<br />CHAPTER 2<br />REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES<br />Related Literature<br />Today people are more aware about how bad smoking is for the health. Smoking is restricted or banned in almost all public places and cigarette companies _____________________________ radio, and in many magazines. Almost everyone knows that smoking causes cancer, emphysema, and heart disease; that it can shorten life by 10 years or more; and that the habit can cost a smoker thousands of money a year.<br />People start _________________________ of different reasons. Some think it looks cool. Others start because their family members or friends smoke. Statistics show _________________________ start before they're 18 years old. Most adults who started smoking in their teens never expected to become addicted. That's ______________________ much easier to not start smoking at all.<br />In ________________________ trends in cigarette smoking in the United States and the __________________________. National trends in smoking prevalence by educational ___________________________ showed that education has replaced gender as the major sociodemographic predictor of smoking status. Smoking prevalence has declined across all educational groups but the decline has occurred five times faster among the higher educated compared with the less educated. From ____________________________ among persons with less than a high school diploma declined to 34.2% (0.19 percentage points per year) whereas prevalence for persons with four years or more of college education declined to 18.4% (0.91 percentage points per year). Smoking cessation activity increased across all _________________________ of increase among the higher educated was twice that of lower-educated groups. Initiation of smoking among _________________________ to 15% in 1985 but leveled off by 1987. Until 1985, less-educated young females were the only group in which smoking initiation was increasing. However, in 1987 a sudden and large decline in initiation among less-educated females occurred. The apparent recent changes in initiation patterns by educational level suggest that the converging of smoking prevalence _______________________. The large and widening educational gap in smoking suggests that health promotion priorities need to be reassessed (www.__________________).<br />In 1991, _______________________ a study on US smoking statistics. CDC said that smoking is significantly higher among those who have gone through bad marriages. Among separated or divorced people, 43% smoke, compared with 27% of married or single _________________________ Americans. CDC also noted that separated or divorced persons are less likely to have quit smoking. Social support provided in marriage may increase the probability of cessation, while stress from marital discord may decrease the likelihood of quitting. The _________________ smoke the most; 34% of high school dropouts smoke, compared with 16 percent of college graduates (www.____________v).<br />Another _______________________. The study focused on the uptake of smoking by children and factors, influencing such behavior. Although well documented in the West, statistics have not yet been commonly studied in the Asia-Pacific region. _________________________ out on 3,521 children, aged 8-11 years living in two districts of Hong Kong. Knowledge, attitude and behavior related to smoking and sociodemographic data were obtained from questionnaires completed by ________________________________________________-year-olds and 21 percent of 11-year-olds. Believing that parents will not interfere with their ______________________ ratio 5.52; 95% confidence interval 2.72, 11.18), living with family members who smoke (1.72; 1.33, 2.23), and having a positive attitude to smoking (4.13; 1.43, 11.98) were factors predictive of ever-smokers. Experimentation with smoking is a major health risk for primary school children in ______________________________ current smoking prevention programs. Effective culture-specific programs to counteract risk factors and with continuing evaluation are urgently needed; they should be based on information from appropriately-designed epidemiological studies (www.biomedexperts.com).<br />__________________________ no physical reasons to start smoking. The body doesn't need tobacco the way it needs food, water, sleep, and exercise. In fact, many of the chemicals in cigarettes, like nicotine and cyanide, are actually poisons that can ____________________________. It goes on the defense when it's being poisoned. For this reason, many people find it takes several tries to get started smoking: First-time smokers often feel pain or burning in the throat and lungs, and some people feel sick or even throw up the first few times they try tobacco (_________________.org).<br />A _______________________________May of 2002, reflects the following smoking trends in the Philippines. It _______________________ men smoke. A recent _________________________ smokers found 99.8% cited tobacco __________________________ smoking. More than half of Filipino households are not smoke-free. As many ___________________________ boys smoke. Most began in their early teens. Another 6% were former smokers. The majority of these young smokers said peer pressure was one reason why they took up smoking. Most then wished they did not smoke and about two-thirds tried to give up (__________________________int).<br />Terry __________________________ worldwide, between 80,000 and 100,000 kids start smoking every day. Approximately one quarter of children alive in the Western Pacific Region will die from smoking. The World Health ______________________________-- worldwide smoking statistics for the year 2002. The smoking facts and stats presented are sobering. Reflected on the report was that about a ___________________________ population smokes. Among young teens (aged 13 to 15), about one in five smokes worldwide. Between 80,000 and 100,000 children worldwide start smoking every day - roughly half of whom live in Asia. Peer-reviewed studies show teenagers are heavily influenced by tobacco advertising (________________.about.com).<br />A ____________________________ 80% of American advertising executives from top agencies believed cigarette advertising does make smoking more appealing or socially ______________________________, tobacco firms try to link smoking with athletic prowess, sexual attractiveness, success, adult sophistication, adventure and self-fulfillment.<br />Del Castello et al’s study (2002) about factors influencing the age at which adolescents start smoking, revealed that most cigarette smokers take up their habit during adolescence. The study aimed to compare the age at which the students _________________________________- and those of a non-metropolitan high school start smoking. Selected nine hundred and seventy-eight students (55.6% males, mean age 15.8 +/- 1.5 years) in a big city (Naples) and 467 (50.3% males, mean age 16 +/- 1.5 years) in a small town (Capua-CE) filled in a questionnaire on cigarette smoking. Two hundred and nine (21.4%) students (99 __________________________ 16.5 +/- 1.3 years) in Naples and 99 (21.2%) students (59 males, 40 females, mean age 16.8 +/- 1.3 years) in Capua stated that they had smoked at least one cigarette in the last week and were considered as smokers. __________________________ at which adolescents start smoking did not differ between the big and the small city (Naples 14.9 +/- 1.5 years; Capua 14.9 +/- 1.6 years; p = 0.849) nor between sexes, both in Naples (males 14.9 +/- 1.5 years, females 14.8 +/- 1.4 years; p = 0.576) and in Capua (males 14.8 +/- 1.6 years, females 15 +/- 1.5 years; p = 0.379). Both in Naples and in Capua, no relation was found between the age at which the adolescent starts smoking and the smoking habits of the father, mother, siblings, best friend of the same sex, best friend of the opposite sex and friends. In Naples, the age at which the adolescent started smoking was related to the number of cigarettes he or she smoked _________________________________________hers came up with the conclusion that in adolescents, the age at which the habit of smoking is taken ______________________________ which the adolescent started smoking was related to the number of cigarettes he or she smoked in the last week and to the number of cigarettes smoked per day by the father (www._______________________.gov).<br />In _____________________________ of ___________________, Malaysia conducted a study using self-administered questionnaire to identify factors that contribute to smoking behavior among adolescents in Kuantan District of Pahang, ________________________________ among secondary students have been widely reported. In that study, the researchers found that the prevalence of smoking among the _______________________ was higher (45.8%) than a similar study conducted in Kelantan (34.6%) in the previous years. The study showed that the academic performance of the students was significantly associated with the smoking status of the students where smokers had poor academic performance than non-smokers. Some smokers eventually became dropouts from school (____________________com).<br />The ________________________ are easily influenced by the environment they love in and people surrounding them. Results reflected that peer’s influence was one of the important factors to influence the smokers to smoke. Besides the _______________________ played an important role in influencing the adolescents’ smoking status and concluded that parental influence was more important than peer’s influence in the Asian population _______________).<br />Conceptual Framework<br />Health psychology looks at the complex array of biological, social and psychological factors that influence an individual’s health and illness-related behavior. Smoking is a biological addiction, with nicotine as addictive as cocaine and heroin. However, there is more to being hooked on cigarettes than the physical addiction to nicotine. When people want to quit, they also have a psychological habit to break. __________________________________ people learn by example from others. People are strongly influenced by parents, and other people one look up to, such as peers, actors and pop stars. This can lead to the emulation of their behavior and try smoking. There is an almost immediate effect on one’s brains __________________________ keep smoking to get this reward. Later the person learn to associate smoking with other activities such as drinking coffee, going to the pub, etc. These psychological associations remain when smokers try to quit. Finally, an individual learn to keep smoking, because if he _______________________________ a cigarette gets rid of these symptoms, negatively reinforcing the desire to carry on smoking. Such conditioning keeps people hooked on smoking because the reward of smoking is instant, whereas it takes years before people become aware of the damage in terms of health. Similarly, when people try to quit, the 'punishment' of withdrawal symptoms comes quickly, whereas the benefits of better health take longer to realize (www._________________________).<br />This study also points out to one of the most well-known theories in the nursing profession, _____________________f needs. The needs are specified from highest to lowest as basic or physiological needs; safety and security; social and belongingness; self-esteem and lastly self-actualization.<br />As Maslow stressed, the basic needs must be fulfilled before any other level can be attained because the first level involves basic survival issues.<br />As people __________________________________-- addictive drugs, the body and mind quickly become so used to the nicotine in cigarettes that a person needs to have it just to feel normal. Thus, smokers may perceive this addiction to smoking as a_________________________ need.<br />On the third __________________________-d belonginess are cited. This level of Maslow’s theory deals with love, acceptance, friendship, and companionship. People start smoking for a variety of different reasons. Some think it looks cool. Others start because their family members or friends smoke. Many people have to socialize and feel part of a group simply engaging in what others do. ______________________ has been very common in any age and social group at present. Even by simply looking around different places, one can notice that this is true.<br />Once the individual is ______________________ with others. When people are at this point of Maslow’s hierarchy, they are focused on personal ego, what others think of them, self-respect, achievement, and receiving recognition for efforts given.<br />In order to give a ________________________ to the used theories cited above and to show relationship to the contents of the study, the researcher constructed the following paradigm:<br />Demographic Trends andPerceived Influencing Factors (Family, Peers, Advertising/Media)To Start SmokingProfile of the Respondents:-Year of Birth-Gender-Educational Background-Marital Status-Employment Background<br />Feedback<br />Definition of Terms<br />Advertising and Media. Various ____________________ internet by which promotional messages of smoking are communicated to the public using words, speech, and pictures.<br />Baranggay _______, ______________City. Venue where the research will be conducted.<br />Demographic Data. Population statistics regarding socioeconomic factors such as age__________________ size, and the like. In the current study, the researcher assesses the year __________________________ and employment background of the respondents.<br />Demographic Trend. It describes the changes in demographics in ___________________ the average age of a population may increase over time. It may decrease as well.<br />Educational Status. Educational attainment or level of education of individuals. As used in the ___________________ post-graduate schooling.<br />Employment Background. Condition whether the respondents are gainfully employed for work or occupation.<br />Family. A group of persons sharing common ancestry. The term is operationally used in the study like a father, mother, brother, sister, cousin, or other relatives.<br />Gender. The condition of being female or male; sex.<br />Influencing Factors. In the study, the term is operationally used to refer to ______________________________ as something that contributes to the development of smoking habits.<br />Marital Status. The condition of being married, unmarried or separated or divorced.<br />Peer. Person who has equal standing with another or others, as in rank, class, or age.<br />Smoking. The inhalation of the smoke of burning tobacco encased in cigarettes, pipes, and cigars.<br />Smoker. A person who ____________________ or more sticks of cigarettes and alike every day.<br />Year of Birth. The numerical year by which one is born. One example is 1980.<br />CHAPTER 3<br />METHODOLOGY<br />This chapter presents the design of the research. It includes the method of research to be used, the method of collecting data and the development of the research instrument, and the sampling design.<br />Method of Research<br />The researcher plans to use the descriptive method of research, to determine the ________________________________________________________<br />________________________________ It describes with emphasis the present nature such as current practices, conditions, situations, or any phenomena. The descriptive method of research showed to be the most appropriate method to be used. The value in using __________________________ it would reveal problems or abnormal conditions so that remedial measures may be instituted and it gives a better and deeper understanding of this certain phenomenon. <br /> <br />Locale of the Study<br />The study will be conducted in Baranggay ____, _____________ City, among the selected residents. <br />Description of Respondents<br /> The researcher will select respondents ________________________d the like every day. The ______________________________ and employment background of the respondents by the time they started smoking will be taken into consideration. This will be reflected on the questionnaires. The ___________________spondents will not be noted. All primary data will be personally obtained by the researcher in order to gather authentic and substantial responses.<br />Instrumentation<br />To obtain accurate ________________________ questionnaires, which will be examined and evaluated as to its relevance and significance to the outcome of the study. For acquiring supportive data a direct observation and analysis of the records will be applied.<br />The survey feedback questionnaire will consist of two parts. First part will mostly comprise the respondents’ demographic data, including the name, ______________________________ employment background as the respondents during the time they started smoking.<br />The second part will include a series of questions reflecting the identified three major influencing factors, f______________________ of smoking habits.<br />Since some of the variables being studied are abstract that they cannot be counted individually, a weighted that may be computed will be used. The variable will be divided into categories of descending degree of quality and then each degree of quality is given a weight. The quality response is divided into five degrees. To specify this, the following are identified: “1” as “Strongly Agree/ ______________________”; “2” as “Agree/ ___________________”; “3” as “Not sure/ Hindi Sigurado”; and “4” as “Disagree/ ____________________” and “5” as “Strongly Disagree/ ___________________ Sumasang-ayon”.<br /> <br />General Procedure<br />The study process will __________________________________r approval. After the approval of the proposal, an authorization will be secured from the Baranggay Captain of Baranggay ___, _________ City. Before the observation, necessary explanation about the purpose and importance of the study will be given. Sample questionnaires will be _____________________________ to the respondents for them to answer. Right after the respondents have completed the questionnaires; they ________________________________ and interpreted. Conclusions will be drawn from the result of the study.<br />