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Internet Post 3 On Toddlers Separation Anxiety

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NURSING RESEARCH PROPOSAL FOR ONLY 2000PESOS (REACH ME THROUGH 09352009437 OR VISIT MY BLOG AT nurse1283.blogspot.com)

NURSING RESEARCH PROPOSAL FOR ONLY 2000PESOS (REACH ME THROUGH 09352009437 OR VISIT MY BLOG AT nurse1283.blogspot.com)


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  • 1. PARENTS’ COPING STRATEGIES TOWARDS HOSPITALIZED TODDLERS’ SEPARATION ANXIETY<br />AT ____________________ TERTIARY HOSPITAL<br />A THESIS PROPOSAL<br />PRESENTED TO<br />COLLEGE OF NURSING<br />________________ UNIVERSITY<br />PRESENTED BY:<br />nurse1283.blogspot.com<br />FEBRUARY 2010<br />CHAPTER 1<br />PROBLEMS AND ITS BACKGROUND<br />Introduction<br />Children can --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.Separation ------------------------------- stage experienced by a child when separated from the primary caregiver. It typically manifests itself as crying and distress when a child is away from a parent or from home.<br />Parents, especially mothers, often have the problem of separation anxiety when it comes to a point in time when they must leave their child for a short time. Because the ----------------------------------to his mother, he is so traumatized by her leaving that he gets stressed out and psychologically affected with separation anxiety. This can in turn lead to “clingy” behavior of the child ----------------------------------even when she leaves the room for a few minutes. Easing the child’s separation anxiety can prove difficult and stressful but ----------------------------------development and will take time to achieve success, making life much easier on both mom and child. <br />Bringing ----------------------------------him there can be a very traumatic experience for the parent and the child. For ----------------------------------to arm the child with firm, loving reassurance that you will return.<br />Under ----------------------------------all parents want and seek to maintain: bonding with their children. Because babies bond to primary caregivers, then realize their ----------------------------------to trust that an absent caregiver will return, they become anxious when Mom isn’t around. As children develop a sense of safety and security in their homes and with their parents, begin to realize ----------------------------------will in fact come back, separation anxiety usually fades.<br />The ----------------------------------separated, and sometimes even follow a parent from room to room. When questioned, the child may disclose worries about parents or ----------------------------------harm. Kids are also very perceptive to what a parent at home is feeling. For example when a mother is distressed when her husband is going away, these feelings may consciously or subconsciously trouble ----------------------------------the coping reactions of parents towards young children’s, particularly toddlers’ hospitalization anxiety. It is generally accepted that the young child does indeed become upset and disturbed when separated from his parents and especially from his mother, his main caretaker. A child's ----------------------------------, crying, smiling, and sucking). These instinctual responses play a vital part in the genesis of the infant's attachment to the mother, in that these responses serve to act as " social releasers" for ----------------------------------is, when the child exhibits these behaviors, maternal caretaking activities are evoked. This keeps the mother in close proximity, and insures survival or care for the child.<br />When the ----------------------------------of crying, for example, is activated, the cries are usually ----------------------------------by the mother. When the child wants to cling or follow, again it is commonly the mother who provides the terminus for this behavior. Thus ----------------------------------in the infant's life and these responses, through a rather complex mechanism, become integrated into attachment behavior.<br />However, ----------------------------------are activated and the one mother figure on which these responses have become focused is not available (as during a separation experience) then, separation anxiety results.<br />Statement of the Problem<br />This ----------------------------------or coping behaviors of parents to their hospitalized toddler’s separation anxiety at _________________ Tertiary Hospital.<br />Specifically, it will seek answers to the following questions:<br />
    • What differences ----------------------------------when parents are grouped according to the following:
    • 2. Age
    • 3. G----------------------------------
    • 4. Educational----------------------------------
    • 5. M----------------------------------
    • 6. Single-parent
    • 7. Married
    • 8. Is there a ----------------------------------to their hospitalized toddler’s separation anxiety?
    Hypotheses<br />Based on the statement of the problems, the researcher postulates the following hypotheses:<br />
    • When ---------------------------------- there is no significant difference on respondents’ coping reactions to their hospitalized toddler’s separation anxiety.
    • 9. There ----------------------------------to their hospitalized toddler’s separation anxiety.
    Significance of the Study<br />Parents. Children ----------------------------------parents. Primarily, with the importance of proper child rearing, respondents will benefit from this study. Parents should not limit or forego ----------------------------------to separation anxiety because doing so could compromise the child's maturation and development. <br />Toddlers (Children). Children ----------------------------------surroundings and often respond in ---------------------------------- It would benefit children, socially, psychologically and mentally if they would receive compassionate responses from their parents during periods of separation anxiety.<br />Nursing Service. The rest of the nursing team at ---------------------------------- particularly nurses, is often observant on how parents, the primary caregivers of hospitalized toddlers, ----------------------------------client’s separation anxiety. This study ----------------------------------knowledge regarding the importance of reacting positively on a child’s separation anxiety to ----------------------------------hindrance to a child’s ----------------------------------, once they find the study important, can guide the staffs as they work together on helping the parents cope to their hospitalized child’s separation anxiety.<br />Nursing Students. The in-coming ----------------------------------in the nursing world. Almost everyday, they will encounter new challenges. It would greatly benefit them----------------------------------stages of their career as tender, loving nurses, they would find ways to assist the parents on understanding what children, particularly toddlers ----------------------------------and feel during periods of separation anxiety and eventually help the parents implement positive changes.<br />Nurse Educators. Everything, as far as the nursing profession is concerned, starts inside the classrooms. ----------------------------------and influencing the nursing students on how children with separation anxiety should be dealt with by ----------------------------------the author’s desire to strengthen the bonding between the hospitalized child and parents’ bonding.<br />Future Researchers. The ----------------------------------current study very interesting. There is a hope that readers and future researchers will find the study ----------------------------------. Contents and ----------------------------------will give additional stronghold to the ----------------------------------child rearing based on established theories and facts.<br />Scope and Delimitation of the Study<br />The current study ----------------------------------of parents to their hospitalized toddler’s separation anxiety at _______________ Tertiary Hospital, in _________________ City. The ----------------------------------. The parents’ employment status and religious affiliation are not reflected on the study. Only those whose children, ----------------------------------admitted during the time of hospitalization are surveyed.<br />CHAPTER 2<br />REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES<br />Related Literature<br />According ----------------------------------anxiety and fear tends to follow a developmental sequence. These tendencies seem to be hard-wired and seem to have a developmental ----------------------------------and toddlers commonly show a fearful response to loud noise or the sudden loss of physical support. Reluctance to be separated from ----------------------------------, healthy response in young children and indicated the development of healthy attachment. Most common ----------------------------------: eight months, twelve months and anywhere between 18 months to three years. Separation anxiety generally emerges around ----------------------------------around 12-24 months. The child's crying and clinging can express two different messages. First, the child may cry when the parent leaves because ----------------------------------day, begins to cry when the parent returns. This is because the parent's return reminds the child of how he or she felt when the parent left. Sometimes, children between one and two ----------------------------------have created. Separation anxiety generally ----------------------------------of age. The child often tends to be shy with strangers, but morning separations become easier. The degree of separation difficulty may vary from day to ----------------------------------may be anxious to go and another day, clingy and sad. Many two-year-olds go through a phase when they prefer ----------------------------------. This can exhaust the desired parent and make the other parent feel unloved. The child has more of a drive toward independence. Still ----------------------------------difficult, and lead to temper tantrums. For toddlers, those who have had either very few or very frequent separations from loved ones experience the most separation anxiety. Adults too experience ----------------------------------ones, but it is usually not so overwhelming. The adult has a better concept of time and has had more experience dealing successfully with ----------------------------------)<br />Recent brain research indicates that the process of early bonding between child and ----------------------------------critical for healthy brain development. There are strong indications that breaks in early attachment (through adoption, ----------------------------------, return to work, frequent change of nannies, etc.) ----------------------------------effects on relationships and mental health. Thus, while conventional observation shows that a young child can be soothed by almost any caring adult, more subtle difficulties in attachment can actually be seen on ----------------------------------<br />----------------------------------book, ----------------------------------to Parenting a Preschooler and Toddler that parents should try not to get annoyed by their toddler's ----------------------------------, take it as a ----------------------------------If parents had failed to form a warm and loving relationship with their child, he probably wouldn't ----------------------------------left. So bear with the tears and tantrums.<br />The ----------------------------------makes such a fuss when parents leave shows that he loves them. Probably the most important thing parents can do to ease the child's anxiety ----------------------------------to offer a balance between freedom and security. Independence springs from the combination of these two conditions: having the opportunity to venture off on one's own and feeling safe enough to do it.<br />If you increase ----------------------------------her a sense of security, your child, filled with anxiety, will flounder. (So don't just leave your toddler alone in her room for extended periods of time thinking it will make her more independent. It won't.)<br />Boyd (----------------------------------parents provide their child with plenty of security but little freedom, the child will likely become either extremely timid or very rebellious. Either way----------------------------------a child's struggle for eventual and inevitable independence into a hard-fought battle. Because neither freedom ----------------------------------facilitate the child's independence, parents need to strive for a balance between the two.<br />Children ----------------------------------with emotional upset. Seminal work by Prug, Staub, ---------------------------------- (1953) revealed how toddlers respond negatively to stress of hospitalization., developing separation anxiety, unrealistic fears, and ----------------------------------control. These responses often manifests in withdrawal or aggressive behaviors, including crying, screaming, kicking, biting, hitting, physically resisting ----------------------------------. (Bowden et al, 2008:25)<br />According to Bowden, a classic work by Robertson (1958) described the phases through which young children progress when separated from their parents. The first ----------------------------------. In this phase, the child searches for the lost parent, angrily protests, cries frequently, and rejects hospital staffs. When the parent returns, the ----------------------------------or her. Second is the Despair phase. In this phase, the child becomes more sad and apathetic, mourning the lost ----------------------------------searching the environment less. They make few demands on their environment and those within it. When parent returns, the child may not readily approach him or her or may cling to the parent. Lastly, the ----------------------------------phase. In phase, the child becomes ----------------------------------the environment and new persons, and seemingly unaware of the lost parent (denial). The child is friendly with staff and begins to develop ----------------------------------).<br />Because the child becomes seemingly easier to work with, it may be mistakenly ----------------------------------effectively. Children who progress to denial and detachment suffer long-term impaired parental relationships and impaired trust, which can lead to problems in establishment of close relationships, ----------------------------------, and decreased intellectual functioning. Therefore, the pediatric nurse must develop interventions that reduce separation anxiety ----------------------------------)<br />A ----------------------------------parents and toddlers and strategies for intervention shows that adolescent parents share many developmental similarities with their toddlers. The adolescent m----------------------------------with her child as the two pass through similar developmental stages. Issues of independence, ----------------------------------, and mobility surface for both individuals and may increase the potential for parent-child conflict.<br />Nurses are in ----------------------------------assess these families for conflict and intervene appropriately. A ----------------------------------with these families ----------------------------------and assist adolescent assuming a successful parenting role.<br />Specific ----------------------------------with a chance to role-play difficult parent-child interactions, providing them with concrete suggestions and demonstrations for handling toddler ----------------------------------respite care are helpful. ----------------------------------individualized care is the healthy growth and development of both young parents and young children. (www3.interscience.wiley.com)<br />Another study was conducted by ----------------------------------), entitled “Toddler Distress ----------------------------------This year-long study explored toddler separation distress ----------------------------------n a developmentally appropriate classroom that used a gradual entry process, including a home visit. Four toddlers ----------------------------------for study: two had overt separation distress behaviors at the beginning of the year, and two did not exhibit overt distress. The children were videotaped at the beginning of the year and throughout the year. Anecdotal records were kept, and parents were surveyed and informally interviewed whenever there was an incidence of separation distress ----------------------------------exhibited individual differences in the intensity, frequency, and duration of separation distress behaviors. Some separation behavior seemed to be low-key and easy to miss. Minor events influenced one child's ----------------------------------while more unusual family events seemed to have little ----------------------------------child's behaviors. The results suggested that the entry process and caregiver responses to the child's behavior lessened the frequency, intensity, and duration of some separation distress. (eic.ed.gov)<br />In another study, ----------------------------------a series of problems requiring the use of tools. Some of the problems are within the child’s capacity; others were quite difficult. The ----------------------------------the problems with enthusiasm and persistence. When they encountered difficulties, they seldom cry or get angry. Those who ----------------------------------earlier as insecurely attached, behaved quite differently. They became easily frustrated and and angry, seldom asked for ----------------------------------ignore or reject directions from adults, and quickly gave up to solve the problems. (Smith, 1993:498)<br />Another study ----------------------------------behavior of nursery school children (age 3 years old) whose attachment relationship had been assessed at 15-months of age. The children rated as securely attached tended to be the social leaders; they were ----------------------------------in activities and were sought out by ----------------------------------teachers rated them as self-directed and eager to learn. The insecurely attached children tended to be socially withdrawn and hesitant about participating ----------------------------------teachers rated them as less curious about new things and less ----------------------------------, 1993:498-499)<br />These studies are related the researcher’s current focus since the normal development separation anxiety in a child is a demonstration that the child has formed a healthy attachment to the ----------------------------------fascinates previous ----------------------------------established seem to persist in a variety of childhood and even adult behaviors, influencing later-life job satisfaction, relationship choices, and intimacy experiences. <br />When parents cannot continuously be with the child at the hospital, the nurse and the parents need to plan together to make this situation more ----------------------------------:776)<br />In attempting to account for differences in attachment among children, previous researchers have ----------------------------------attention to the behavior of the primary care giver, usually the mother. The main findings has been that it is a caregiver’s “----------------------------------” to the child’s needs that produces secure attachment. (Atkinson, 1990:93)<br />Conceptual Framework<br />A child’s tendency to seek closeness to particular people and to feel more secure in their ----------------------------------in the early years is related to an inability to develop close personal relationship in adulthood. (Atkinson, 1990:91-92)<br />The major threat to attachment is separation, and everyone who loses an attachment figure experiences some degree of separation distress, a pattern of negative emotions, ----------------------------------anxiety when an attachment figure is not available. Babies cry when their parents leave them in the care of another person other than the parents. (Zimbardo, 1997:135)<br />Promoting a ----------------------------------may be implemented to make the difference between a ----------------------------------hospital experience. But as the nursing process implies, nursing process is a continuous process. Therefore, in order to ----------------------------------minimize or prevent stress of separation anxiety to both the children and parent, the researcher intends to assess how parent from two different age groups cope with their toddler’s separation anxiety. <br />The intensity and ----------------------------------separation anxiety vary and depend partly on the child-parent relationship. Separation anxiety in a child with a strong and healthy attachment to a parent resolves sooner than in a child whose connection is less strong. <br />Parents should not limit ----------------------------------in response to separation anxiety. This could compromise the child’s maturation and development. (Beers, 2003:1386)<br />In order to give a ----------------------------------the used theories cited above and to show ----------------------------------the study, the researcher constructed the following paradigm:<br />Coping -------- Toddlers’ ParentsProfile of the Respondents:------G------E-------------Marital Status<br />Feedback<br />Definition of Terms<br />________________ Tertiary Hospital, ______________City. Venue where the research will be conducted. The ----------------------------------/children are currently admitted in this ----------------------------------instruments will be distributed.<br />Coping. In psychology, a term that ----------------------------------of response to stress. Some patterns ----------------------------------a person's risk of developing Stockholm syndrome in a hostage situation. (www.thefreedictionary.com)<br />Coping Strategies. Differences in ----------------------------------. Refer to the specific efforts, both behavioral and psychological, that people employ to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize stressful events. (www.macses.ucsf.edu)<br />Hospitalized Toddler. Any ----------------------------------old who is currently admitted in the hospital during instrument dissemination to respondents. <br />Parent/s. A person from ----------------------------------. One who begets, gives birth to, or nurtures and raises a child; a father or mother. (www.thefreedictionary.com)<br />Separation Anxiety. A child's ----------------------------------associated with his or her separation from a parent or other significant person. (www.thefreedictionary.com)<br />Toddlers. Children between ----------------------------------and three years. (www.thefreedictionary.com)<br />CHAPTER 3<br />METHODOLOGY<br />This chapter ----------------------------------of the research. It includes the method of research to be used, the method of collecting data and the development of the research ----------------------------------the sampling design.<br />Method of Research<br />The researcher plans ----------------------------------of research, to determine the comparison of coping strategies used by parents of hospitalized toddlers. Descriptive method of research is something that goes beyond mere gathering and tabulating of data. It ----------------------------------, adequate and accurate interpretation of the findings and the elements of the significance of what is described. It ----------------------------------. The descriptive method of research showed to be the most appropriate method to be used. The value in using this kind of research is that it would reveal problems or abnormal conditions so that remedial measures ----------------------------------and it gives a better and deeper understanding of this certain phenomenon. <br /> <br />Locale of the Study<br />Chosen respondents ----------------------------------pediatric ward of ________________ Tertiary Hospital in ________________ City. <br />Description of Respondents<br /> The researcher will ----------------------------------toddlers, children admitted during the conduct of the study and are ages one to three years. The age, gender, educational background ----------------------------------of the respondents will be taken into consideration. This will be reflected on the questionnaires. The religious ----------------------------------status of each parent will not be noted. All primary data will be personally obtained by the researcher in order to gather authentic and substantial responses.<br />Instrumentation<br />To obtain accurate ----------------------------------survey questionnaires, which will be examined and evaluated as to its relevance and significance to the outcome of the study. For ----------------------------------direct observation and analysis of the records will be applied.<br />The survey feedback ----------------------------------of two parts. First part will mostly comprise ----------------------------------data, including the name, gender, educational background and marital status.<br />The second ----------------------------------questions reflecting the coping behaviors that parents resort during time that toddlers manifest hospital separation anxiety.<br />Since variables ----------------------------------cannot be counted individually, a weighted that may be computed was used. The variable will be divided into categories of descending degree of quality and then each degree of quality is given a weight. The ----------------------------------degrees. To specify this, the following are identified: “1” as “---------------------------------- “2” as “Often/ Malimit”; “3” as “----------------------------------”; and “4” as “Rarely/ Bihira” and “5” as “Never/ Hindi Kailanman”.<br /> <br />General Procedure<br />The study process will begin with the submission of the proposal to the Research Committee for ----------------------------------, an authorization will be secured from the Medical Director and Chief Nurse of __________ Tertiary Hospital in _________ City. Before the observation, necessary explanation about the purpose and ----------------------------------be given. Sample questionnaires will be personally handled to ----------------------------------; they will be collected, tabulated; analyzed and interpreted. Conclusions will be drawn from the result of the study.<br />