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    Modals ppt Modals ppt Presentation Transcript

    • CONTENTS7-1 The form of modal auxiliaries7-2 Expressing ability: can and could7-3 Expressing possibility: may and might Expressing permission: …7-4 Using could to express possibility7-5 Polite questions: may I, could I, can I7-6 Polite questions: would you, could you, will you, can you7-7 Expressing advice: should and ought to7-8 Expressing advice: had better7-9 Expressing necessity: have to, have got to, must7-10 Expressing lack of necessity: do not have to Expressing: …7-11 Making logical conclusions: must7-12 Giving instructions: imperative sentences7-13 Making suggestions: lets and why dont7-14 Stating preferences: prefer, like...better, would rather 1
    • 7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIESSomebody should clean up this mess. 2
    • 7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIESAUXILIARY + SIMPLE FORM OF VERBcan (a) Inga can play the violin.could (b) They couldn’t arrive on time.may (c) It may be a nice day tomorrow.might (d) It might be a nice day tomorrow. 3
    • 7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIESAUXILIARY + SIMPLE FORM OF VERBshould (e) Inga should go inside.had better (f) You had better go inside.must (g) He must be gentle with the cat.will (h) They will attend the recital.would (i) I would like to meet her. 4
    • 7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIES AUXILIARY + SIMPLE FORM OF VERB could must wouldcan should may willmight had better not followed by to Inga can to play the violin. 5
    • 7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIES AUXILIARY + SIMPLE FORM OF VERB could must wouldcan should may willmight had better no final -s Inga can plays the violin. 6
    • 7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIES AUXILIARY + SIMPLE FORM OF VERB could must wouldcan should may willmight had better not in past form Inga can played the violin. 7
    • 7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIES AUXILIARY + SIMPLE FORM OF VERB could must wouldcan should may willmight had better not in -ing form Inga can playing the violin. 8
    • 7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIESAUXILIARY + TO + SIMPLE FORM OF VERBhave to (j) You have to eat something.have got to (k) He has got to be on time.ought to (l) It ought to be fun. to + simple form 9
    • 7-1 LET’S PRACTICE to Ø toShe has ___ learn how to skate. 10
    • 7-1 LET’S PRACTICE to Ø ØShe might ___ learn how to skate. 11
    • 7-1 LET’S PRACTICE to ØShe should ___ learn how to skate. Ø 12
    • 7-2 EXPRESSING ABILITY: CAN AND COULD I can’t believe that! 13
    • 7-2 EXPRESSING ABILITY: CAN AND COULD(a) Dolphins can jump very high.(b) They can swim long distances.(c) They can be taught fancy tricks. can ability in present or future 14
    • 7-2 EXPRESSING ABILITY: CAN AND COULD can’t(d) I cannot fix this computer. can not three negative forms of can 15
    • 7-2 EXPRESSING ABILITY: CAN AND COULD(e) When we were in college, we could play chess for hours. could = past form of can 16
    • 7-2 EXPRESSING ABILITY: CAN AND COULD(f) I couldn’t play chess in graduate school. I had to study all the time.couldn’t or could not = negative form ofcould 17
    • 7-2 LET’S PRACTICE can can’t He is always upset when he _____ remember something. can’t 18
    • 7-2 LET’S PRACTICE can can’t A dolphin ____ can’t run, can but it ____ jump. 19
    • 7-2 LET’S PRACTICE can can’t You ____ bring a horse can to water, but you can’t ____ make him drink it. 20
    • 7-3 EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: MAY AND MIGHT EXPRESSING PERMISSION: MAY AND CANMaybe Alice heard some bad news. 21
    • 7-3 EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: MAY AND MIGHT EXPRESSING PERMISSION: MAY AND CAN(a) It may snow this week. same meaning(b) It might snow this week. may, might possibility 22
    • 7-3 EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: MAY AND MIGHT EXPRESSING PERMISSION: MAY AND CAN(c) I don’t know. Can we might be We may be finish this by ready by then. Monday? 23
    • 7-3 EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: MAY AND MIGHT EXPRESSING PERMISSION: MAY AND CAN(d) It may not snow this week.(e) It might not snow this week. Negative: may not, might not no contractions 24
    • 7-3 EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: MAY AND MIGHT EXPRESSING PERMISSION: MAY AND CAN(f) Maybe it will snow tomorrow.COMPARE(g) Maybe the test will be hard. adverb maybe “possibly” beginning of sentence(h) The test may be hard. verb may be = may + the main verb be 25
    • 7-3 EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: MAY AND MIGHT EXPRESSING PERMISSION: MAY AND CAN(i) Yes, you may borrow my pen. more formal(j) Sure, you can borrow my pen. less formal may permission can often used, too 26
    • 7-3 EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: MAY AND MIGHT EXPRESSING PERMISSION: MAY AND CAN(k) You may not borrow my pen. You can’t borrow my pen. may deny permission can often used, too 27
    • 7-3 LET’S PRACTICE may be I _______ done with this project tomorrow. maybe may be 28
    • 7-3 LET’S PRACTICE Maybe _______ I’ll be done with this project tomorrow. maybe may be 29
    • 7-3 LET’S PRACTICE maybe can The boss told me that we ____ use can the new color printer. 30
    • 7-4 USING COULD TO EXPRESS POSSIBILITY This could be a long walk. 31
    • 7-4 USING COULD TO EXPRESS POSSIBILITY(a) Why isn’t this working? I don’t think it’s serious. It could be just a weak battery. present Could = possibility 32
    • 7-4 USING COULD TO EXPRESS POSSIBILITY(b) This error could cause problems in the whole company. future Could = possibility 33
    • 7-4 LET’S PRACTICEI’d like to visit a beautiful place. present ? futureWe could go to Thailand. 34
    • 7-4 LET’S PRACTICEOh, no! This could be a problem! ? present future 35
    • 7-4 LET’S PRACTICEThis car doesn’t run.The battery could be dead. ? present future 36
    • 7-5 POLITE QUESTIONS: MAY I, COULD I, CAN I May I help you? 37
    • 7-5 POLITE QUESTIONS: MAY I, COULD I, CAN IPOLITE QUESTION(a) May I please take your picture?(b) Could I please take your picture?(c) Can I please take your picture?POSSIBLE ANSWERS Yes. Of course. Okay. Sure. Certainly. Yes. Of course. Sorry, not today. Yes. Certainly. Uh-huh. 38
    • 7-5 POLITE QUESTIONS: MAY I, COULD I, CAN IPOLITE QUESTIONMay I take your picture, please?Could I take your picture, please?Can I take your picture, please? please at end 39
    • 7-5 POLITE QUESTIONS: MAY I, COULD I, CAN IPOLITE QUESTIONMay I take your picture? please take your picture? please take your picture?Could I take your picture? please take your picture?Can I take your picture? without please 40
    • 7-5 LET’S PRACTICECORRECT ? YES NO Can I please borrow your car? 41
    • 7-5 LET’S PRACTICECORRECT ? YES NO May I borrow your car? 42
    • 7-5 LET’S PRACTICECORRECT ? YES NO Could I borrow please your car? 43
    • 7-6 POLITE QUESTION: WOULD YOU, COULD YOU, WILL YOU, CAN YOU Would you please sit still? 44
    • 7-6 POLITE QUESTION: WOULD YOU, COULD YOU, WILL YOU, CAN YOUPOLITE QUESTION(a) Would you please explain that again?(b) Could you please explain that again?(c) Will you please explain that again?(d) Can you please explain that again? basically the same meaning 45
    • 7-6 POLITE QUESTION: WOULD YOU, COULD YOU, WILL YOU, CAN YOUPOLITE QUESTION POLITE ANSWERS(a) Would you please explain that again? Yes. Sure. Uh-huh.(b) Could you please Yes. Of course. explain that again?(c) Will you please Certainly. Okay. explain that again?(d) Can you please Of course. I’d be glad to. explain that again? I’m sorry. I don’t have time. 46
    • 7-6 POLITE QUESTION: WOULD YOU, COULD YOU, WILL YOU, CAN YOUPOLITE QUESTION(a) Would you please INCORRECT: explain that again? May you please explain that again.(b) Could you please explain that again?(c) Will you please explain that again?(d) Can you please can is less formal explain that again? 47
    • 7-6 LET’S PRACTICECORRECT ? YES NOCould you wash my car yesterday? 48
    • 7-6 LET’S PRACTICECORRECT ? YES NO Will you wash my car, please? 49
    • 7-6 LET’S PRACTICECORRECT ? YES NO May you please wash my car? 50
    • 7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO They should go home and get some rest. 51
    • 7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO should(a) I have a headache. I take a nap. ought to(b) INCORRECT: I should to take a nap.(c) INCORRECT: I ought taking a nap. should + simple form of verb ought + to + simple form of verb 52
    • 7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO(d) You need to study. You should not go out. You need to study. You shouldn’t go out. NEGATIVE: should + not = shouldn’t Ought to not usually used in negative 53
    • 7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO I don’t understand(e) the assignment. What should I do? QUESTION: should + subject + main verb Ought to not usually used in questions 54
    • 7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO You should(f) come in to see me. 55
    • 7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO You ought to(f) come in to see me. 56
    • 7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO Maybe you(g) should come in to see me. 57
    • 7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO(g) Maybe you ought to come in to see me.maybe + should, ought to softens advice 58
    • 7-7 LET’S PRACTICE shouldI need a bookabout geology. You should go to the library. 59
    • 7-7 LET’S PRACTICE ought toI need a bookabout geology. You ought to go to the library. 60
    • 7-7 LET’S PRACTICE maybe, shouldI need a bookabout geology. Maybe you should go to the library. 61
    • 7-8 EXPRESSING ADVICE: HAD BETTER They had better go home and get some rest. 62
    • 7-8 EXPRESSING ADVICE: HAD BETTER should(a) I have a headache. I ought to take a nap. had better should ought to same had better meaning good idea, good advice 63
    • 7-8 EXPRESSING ADVICE: HAD BETTER(b) He’d better be careful. His pan is on fire! Had better usually = warning 64
    • 7-8 LET’S PRACTICE You’d better quit watching TV all day. Possible bad results?  eat too much catch a cold  hurt your eyes  not study enough  not exercise enough 65
    • 7-8 LET’S PRACTICE He’d better not walk there. Possible bad results?  fall  get hurt get the flu  be embarrassed fail a test 66
    • 7-8 LET’S PRACTICE He’d better stay awake in school. Possible bad results?  miss something get hurt  get in trouble  fail a test get the flu 67
    • 7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO, MUSTThis man has to wear ear protection. 68
    • 7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO, MUST(a) I want to become a doctor. have to I have got to go to medical school. must have to have got to same had better meaning something is necessary 69
    • 7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO, MUST(b) I need to hurry. I have to go to soccer practice. 70
    • 7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO, MUST(c) It’s late. We’ve got to go home. 71
    • 7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO, MUST(d) Everyone must wear a seatbelt on an airplane. 72
    • 7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO, MUST(b) I have to go to soccer practice.(c) We’ve got to go home.(d) Everyone must wear a seatbelt on an airplane. have to common have got to informal conversation must written instructions 73
    • 7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO, MUST(e) Do you have to wear seatbelts in your car?(f) Did they all have to come? have to Questions have got to must 74
    • 7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO, MUST(e) Do you have to wear seatbelts in your car?(f) Did they all have to come? have to Questions have got to must 75
    • 7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO, MUST(e) Do you have to wear seatbelts in your car?(f) Did they all have to come? have to Questions have got to must 76
    • 7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO, MUST(g) We had to clean up the mess. Past form: have to have got to had to must 77
    • 7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO, MUST PRONUNCIATION(h) I have to (“hafta”) call my mom.(i) Jason has to (“hasta”) work tomorrow.(j) I’ve got to (“gotta”) cook dinner tonight. /hӕftә/ or /hӕftu/ /hӕstә/ or /hӕstu/ /gadә/ or /gәtә/ 78
    • 7-9 LET’S PRACTICE CORRECT ? YES NODo I must wash all the dishes? 79
    • 7-9 LET’S PRACTICE CORRECT ? YES NODo I have to wash all the dishes? 80
    • 7-9 LET’S PRACTICE CORRECT ? YES NODo I have got to wash all the dishes? 81
    • 7-10EXPRESSING LACK OF NECESSITY: DO NOT HAVE TOEXPRESSING PROHIBITION: MUST NOT You mustn’t talk on the phone while you are driving. 82
    • 7-10 EXPRESSING LACK OF NECESSITY: DO NOT HAVE TO EXPRESSING PROHIBITION: MUST NOT(a) I mowed the yard yesterday. I don’t have to mow it this weekend. not necessary 83
    • 7-10 EXPRESSING LACK OF NECESSITY: DO NOT HAVE TO EXPRESSING PROHIBITION: MUST NOT(b) Alesha is on vacation. She doesn’t have to go to work today. not necessary 84
    • 7-10 EXPRESSING LACK OF NECESSITY: DO NOT HAVE TO EXPRESSING PROHIBITION: MUST NOT(c) You must not swim here.(d) You must not swim in this water. Prohibition (Do Not Do This!) 85
    • 7-10 EXPRESSING LACK OF NECESSITY: DO NOT HAVE TO EXPRESSING PROHIBITION: MUST NOT(e) You mustn’t throw trash in the garden. must + not = mustn’t 86
    • 7-10 LET’S PRACTICE We cleaned the house this morning.We _________________________ now. don’t have to clean the house 87
    • 7-10 LET’S PRACTICEI cooked dinner this morning.I ______________________ tonight. don’t have to cook dinner 88
    • 7-10 LET’S PRACTICE Swimming is prohibited. must not / mustn’t You _______________ swim here. 89
    • 7-11 MAKING LOGICAL CONCLUSIONS: MUST Mary and Artie are smiling. They must be happy. 90
    • 7-11 MAKING LOGICAL CONCLUSIONS: MUST(a) That woman is She must very funny. be a comedian. best guess must OR logical conclusion 91
    • 7-11 MAKING LOGICAL CONCLUSIONS: MUST COMPARELOGICAL CONCLUSION(b) My friends went skydiving. They must be brave.NECESSITY(a) To become a scientist, you must go to college. 92
    • 7-11 MAKING LOGICAL CONCLUSIONS: MUST COMPARENEGATIVE LOGICAL CONCLUSION(d) Jed smokes. He must not know that smoking is harmful.PROHIBITION(e) We need money for the future. We must not spend it all now. 93
    • 7-11 LET’S PRACTICE necessity prohibition logical conclusion negative logical conclusionJenny swims everyday.She must love to swim. 94
    • 7-11 LET’S PRACTICE necessity prohibition logical conclusion negative logical conclusionSmoking is not allowed.You must not smoke. 95
    • 7-11 LET’S PRACTICE necessity prohibition logical conclusion negative logical conclusionIf you want to graduate,you must stay in school. 96
    • 7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE SENTENCES Listen to me! 97
    • 7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE SENTENCESCOMMAND Sit down! You are in trouble. Yes,(a) Mom. 98
    • 7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE SENTENCESREQUEST Sit down, Okay, please. I want Mom.(b) to talk to you. 99
    • 7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE SENTENCESDIRECTIONS(c) Emma: So, where should I turn? Adam: In two miles, turn right. Then drive five miles to the hotel on the left. 100
    • 7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE SENTENCESCOMMAND (a) Sit down!REQUEST (b) Sit down, please.DIRECTIONS (c) Turn right. Then drive five miles. give commands imperative make polite requests sentences give directions 101
    • 7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE SENTENCES(d) Slow down! 102
    • 7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE SENTENCES(d) Slow down!(e) Please slow down! 103
    • 7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE SENTENCES(d)Come down!(f) Slow on!(e) Please slow down!(f) Come on! subject of sentence = you (unspoken) 104
    • 7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE SENTENCES(g) Don’t worry. I won’t fall. 105
    • 7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE SENTENCES(g) Don’t worry. I won’t fall.(h) Please don’t drive so fast. 106
    • 7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE SENTENCES (g) Don’t worry. I won’t fall. (h) Please don’t drive so fast. (i) Don’t do that again.Don’t + simple form of a verb 107
    • 7-12 LET’S PRACTICE command ? request directions Please don’t worry about me. 108
    • 7-12 LET’S PRACTICE command ? request directionsTo use chopsticks, keep one finger overthe other, and use your thumb to direct themovement. 109
    • 7-12 LET’S PRACTICE command ? request directions Don’t swing so high! 110
    • 7-13 MAKING SUGGESTIONS: LET’S AND WHY DON’T Let’s try this approach. 111
    • 7-13 MAKING SUGGESTIONS: LET’S AND WHY DON’T(b)(a) Why don’t this Let’s buy we buy this looks It one. It one? good. That’s okay looks good. with me. 112
    • 7-13 MAKING SUGGESTIONS: LET’S AND WHY DON’T(a) Let’s buy this one. same meaning(b) Why don’t we buy this one? suggestions about activities 113
    • 7-13 MAKING SUGGESTIONS: LET’S AND WHY DON’T I don’t know Why don’t(c) which classes you ask your to take. advisor? friendly suggestion 114
    • 7-13 LET’S PRACTICE Let’s We have a big test tomorrow. Let’s study ___________ together. 115
    • 7-13 LET’S PRACTICE Why don’t we We have a big test tomorrow. Why don’t we study ________________ together? 116
    • 7-13 Let’s Practice I don’t Why don’t youunderstandthis report. Why don’t you look ________________ at this line? 117
    • 7-14STATING PREFERENCES: PREFER, LIKE…BETTER,WOULD RATHER I would rather have a motorcycle than a car. 118
    • 7-14 STATING PREFERENCES: PREFER, LIKE…BETTER, WOULD RATHER(a) I prefer motorcycles to cars. prefer + noun + to + noun(b) I prefer riding on a motorcycle to riding in a car. prefer + -ing verb + to + -ing verb 119
    • 7-14 STATING PREFERENCES: PREFER, LIKE…BETTER, WOULD RATHER(c) I like motorcycles better than cars. like + noun + better than + noun(d) I like riding a motorcycle better than driving in a car. like + -ing verb + better than + -ing verb 120
    • 7-14 STATING PREFERENCES: PREFER, LIKE…BETTER, WOULD RATHER(e) Ray would rather have a cat than a dog.(f) INCORRECT: Ray would rather has a cat.(g) I’d rather buy dinner than cook it.(h) INCORRECT: I’d rather buy dinner than to cook it. I’d rather buy dinner than cooking it. Would rather simple form of verb 121
    • 7-14 STATING PREFERENCES: PREFER, LIKE…BETTER, WOULD RATHER(i) I’d/You’d/She’d/He’d/We’d/They’d rather have a motorcycle. Contraction of would = ’d. l(j) Would you rather have a car or a motorcycle? would rather or polite situations / offers a choice 122
    • 7-14 LET’S PRACTICE than toI like to play badminton better ____ tennis. than 123
    • 7-14 LET’S PRACTICE than toI prefer badminton ___ tennis. to 124
    • 7-14 LET’S PRACTICE than toI would rather play badminton ____ tennis. than 125
    • PHOTO CREDITSCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education andits licensors. All rights reserved. Images used under license from:• Shutterstock, Inc.• Clipart, Inc. 126 126