Example of Proposal : THE STUDY ON LEARNING MATHEMATICS THROUGH ART BY USING EDUCATION GAMES AMONG STUDENTS AT SECONDARY SCHOOL

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EXAMPLE OF PROPOSAL : THE STUDY ON LEARNING MATHEMATICS THROUGH ART BY USING EDUCATION GAMES AMONG STUDENTS AT SECONDARY SCHOOL

EXAMPLE OF PROPOSAL : THE STUDY ON LEARNING MATHEMATICS THROUGH ART BY USING EDUCATION GAMES AMONG STUDENTS AT SECONDARY SCHOOL

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  • 1. THE STUDY ON LEARNING MATHEMATICS THROUGH ART BY USING EDUCATION GAMES AMONG STUDENTS AT SECONDARY SCHOOL BY NUR NABIHAH BINTI MOHAMAD NIZAR
  • 2. Contents CHAPTER 1..........................................................................................................................................3 1.0 Introduction................................................................................................................................3 1.1 Background Of Study...............................................................................................................4 1.2 Statement of the research.......................................................................................................5 1.3 Research Objectives................................................................................................................7 1.4 Research Questions......................................................................................................................7 1.5 Hypothesis......................................................................................................................................7 1.6 Operational Definition ...................................................................................................................8 1.6.1 Learning...................................................................................................................................8 1.6.2 Mathematics............................................................................................................................8 1.6.3 Art .............................................................................................................................................9 1.6.4 Games......................................................................................................................................9 1.7 Limitation of the Study...........................................................................................................10 1.8 Significant of the Study..........................................................................................................11 CHAPTER 2........................................................................................................................................13 LITERATURE REVIEW.....................................................................................................................13 2.0 Literature Review ...................................................................................................................13 2.1 Learning Process ...............................................................................................................13 2.2 The important of Mathematics..........................................................................................13 2.3 The important of Art ...........................................................................................................13 2.4 Learning mathematics using art.......................................................................................13 2.5 Learning through games ...................................................................................................13 2.6 Framework...........................................................................................................................13 Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................14
  • 3. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction The advanced of digital technology now make major changes to the world, the birth of a variety of digital technology are getting progressive. Human being is the inventor of the technology and whether we ourselves were under the control and shaped by technology? Undoubtedly, with the help of technology making life better and easier. As Wu (2006) mentions at the same time, it has been transforming the ways people live, think, learn, communicate, work and this transformation that brings problems to be address. Multimedia is one of the advanced technology nowadays. The combination of graphic, text, sound, audio and video are called multimedia. Multimedia can be divided into two which are linear and non-linear multimedia. The different between these two is interactive. Linear multimedia can be define as a something that we can't interact. For example, when we watching a movie at cinema. We just watch the movie until the end without giving a chance to change the ending or any part that we dislike. Its different with non-linear multimedia, while designing game using Adobe Flash for example, we can interact with the games and the score and lives is depends on how we control it. In short, it Is something that not fixed, something that we can interact or change according to what we want. By using multimedia, we can use visual in the process of learning to make students more understand about certain topic. In U.S they believe the uses of art in education is important to help student in learning process. Institute Education of Sciences (IES) in U.S recommended the uses of visual widely in mathematics. We recommend that interventionists use such abstract visual representations extensively and consistently
  • 4. in mathematics (IES, 2009). In 21st century there are a lots of changes in technology thereby the way of learning also should be improve to help students in learning process. Games is one of the digital technology and as reported in Entertainment Software Association (2012), the most gamers player are teenagers around 12-14 years old. There are games that designs for the educational purpose to help student in process of learning. Usually educational games is the purpose to develop their skill in certain subject and introduced the students to the technologies in effort to make them prepare for the future. Games can be your best friends to get the meaningful content in information without throw away the traditional method. 1.1 Background Of Study This paper focuses on the technologies used in academic context and specially focuses on learning mathematics through art by using video game. Presently, traditional educational approaches have resulted in a mismatch between what is taught to the students and what the industry needs (Neo M, T.K.Neo, 2001). As we can see, technologies increase rapidly so that the learning process also should run parallel with the increases of technology. Some educators see games as a useful and perhaps even necessary learning environment suitable for learners of all ages (Blunt, 2008). Regarding the role in teaching learning process, Barbara & Chu (2008) stated, “Games are effective tools for learning because they offer students a hypothetical environment in which they can explore alternative decisions without the risk of failure” (Javed Mustafam, Alam Khan, Atta Ullah, 2011). In his research, he find out the difference in students' performance for those who are use video games in learning and who are not. Based on the result, the students that use videos games as their
  • 5. learning aids got good achievement compare for those are not use it and it proved that video games can help students to get good academic achievement (Blunt, 2008) Thus, this paper deal with a question on how the uses of art through educational games can fit into the mathematics subjects among students at secondary school in order to improve students' academic achievement. 1.2 Statement of the research The purpose of education through art is to make students aware of their environment and more understanding of themselves and others (Pattemore, 1974). Video games are related with art which is in process on producing video games there will be the uses of art or visual. Video games is one of the educational approach that can be use as learning aids to improve students' achievement. Games can be used as a tool in the classroom to engage students (Javed Mustafam, Alam Khan, Atta Ullah, 2011). As according to Corti (2006) cited by (Javed Mustafam, Alam Khan, Atta Ullah, 2011) games engage people psychologically and physiologically and the people engaged in the games can have emotional experiences. In this 21st century, we are a modern society with rapid technological and technology comes with mathematics. Over the years, mathematics becoming one of the subject that important and compulsory in school curriculum. In the development of highly technological societies, competencies for setting up, analysing, and criticising mathematical models are of crucial importance (Blomhøj, 2009). Based on result of Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) 2013, there are reduction of achievement in Mathematics while all other subjects increased. In addition, Minister of Education state in Berita Harian Online (20 March 2013), that it might due on method of teacher's teaching and the understanding of students towards the subject itself.
  • 6. Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in playing games. The Entertainment Software Association (SAE, 2012) carried out a gamer demographics which are 47% of game players is female while the balance 53% are male which are the gamers have been playing for an average of 14 years. In Malaysia, 14 years old are among secondary school students. In this report, SAE analysed that 70% of households have their own console to playing a games, while 65% reported playing games on their pc. Besides, 38% are reported using their smart phone to playing games while 26% using their own wireless device such as ipad and tablets. 90% parents feels that, games its fun for the entire family while 52% of parents say video games are a positive part of their child's life and 66% agree that games can provide mental stimulation in education (SAE, 2012) The report show that games are familiar among the society especially towards teenagers. It can help people to discover ideas with each other. By playing games we can learn new skills and interact with other people in order to learn something news (Forsyth, 2012). Educators already start using multimedia as a teaching aids but it is more towards linear multimedia. Since in Malaysia, there are reduction of achievement in Mathematics subject among secondary school and games are proved as effectives learning aids, so that games can be another purpose in learning process in improving students' performance in mathematics subject. Thus, another study should be carried out to determine the effectiveness on learning mathematics through art by using educational games among students at secondary school.
  • 7. 1.3 Research Objectives The research objectives of this study are : 1. To determine the factors of reduction performance in mathematics subjects among secondary school students 2. To evaluate the effect of educational game as learning aids on students’ achievement in mathematics. 3. To investigate the difference of students' achievement in learning mathematics through art by using educational game and conventional way. 1.4 Research Questions The research questions of this study are : 1. What is the factors of reduction performance in mathematics subjects among secondary school students ? 2. What is the effect of educational game as learning aids on students’ achievement in mathematics ? 3. What is the difference of students' achievement in learning mathematics through art by using educational game and conventional way ? 1.5 Hypothesis The hypothesis for this research is : H1 : There is a significant difference of students' performance in learning mathematics through art by using educational games compare with using conventional way. H2 : Students can perform better in learning mathematics by through art by using educational games
  • 8. 1.6 Operational Definition 1.6.1 Learning Learning is a complex process due to the complexity of human nature (Javed Mustafam, Alam Khan, Atta Ullah, 2011). Difference in the human nature causes different learning requirements for learning. They cited from Ediger & Rao (2000), in order to improve students’ performance having various learning styles, there is often a need .to explore various learning opportunities which can address the 152 complexity of learners in the classroom to capture pupils’ interest and purpose and it should be for fast, average and slow learners . For the purpose of this study, it is focusing towards the learning process that fill with joy and excitement through games in mathematics subject. 1.6.2 Mathematics According to (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM], 1989) as cited by Burton (1992) mathematics is a complex and compact symbol system, and unless meanings are attached to those symbols. Burton (1992) stated that personal experience, years of observation and reading the autobiographies of over 750 pre service teachers have convinced me that the typical mathematics lesson in elementary school is more often characterized by teacher presentations and independent silent work than by group discussions. Mathematics is largely taught as an abstract subject in the traditional 'chalk and board' manner (Ghosh, 2012). Teaching and learning process of mathematics in secondary school is important to prepare students for their future and fit careers' requirements in Malaysia. In this paper, mathematics can be defined as a teaching and learning by using art through games in order to improve students academic achievement based on school's syllybus.
  • 9. 1.6.3 Art Pearl Greenberg, in his book entitled Art and Ideas for Young People stated that Joe Demarais said " Philosophers define art in many ways. Some describe it as an insight into reality. Picasso says it is a lie and some say it is an escape. Others compare it to an adult form of children's game (Greenberg, 1970). The term of art embraces a vast array of diverse expression and activities all of which share one central attribute which is creativity (Greenberg, 1970). Different people will define as different meaning according to their own understanding. For the purpose of this study, art refers to visual creativity are use as one of the way to learn mathematics subject. 1.6.4 Games Games are considered to be unavoidable factor for enhancing and accelerating the teaching learning process (Javed Mustafam, Alam Khan, Atta Ullah, 2011). They also cited that games can help to create and provide and environment for the users in which they learn the process of explaination, description, construction, assessment and the evaluation of advanced problem solving skills (Corti, 2005). (Javed Mustafam, Alam Khan, Atta Ullah, 2011) cited from Corti (2006), games engage people psychologically and physiologically and the people engaged in the games can have emotional experiences. From the above discussion, it can be concluded that games can be used as a learning aid tool in the classroom to engage students. For the purpose of study, games in this paper are used as a learning aid to improve students' academic achievement among secondary school.
  • 10. 1.7 Limitation of the Study The first limitation is the respondents of this study. The respondents is only limited to secondary schools students only. Males and females from other contexts such as who are not playing games may be affected differently when they are using games as a learning aid. As example, students who are a game players maybe easily can adapt the learning process compare with those are not playing a games. Students who are not playing a games might take time to adapt the process. The second limitation of this study is the sample size. The sample size is only limited to 150 respondents consists of student from Government's secondary school only. The sample size is too small in order to make a general conclusion based the effectiveness on learning mathematics through art by using education games among students at secondary school in students' academic performance. The sample size should be in large amount in order to make a general conclusion based on how art through educational games can help students to improve academics' performance towards mathematics subject. The third limitation is the place that this study will be conducted. The samples were only takes from Government's secondary school in few schools at Perak and Selangor only that will choose randomly. Because of this study is only conducted for students from Government's secondary school in few schools at Perak, Johor and Selangor only, thus the sample cannot be the representative of the rest of the population. Students in other school such as others Government's secondary school and Private's secondary school because it might show different results from the samples that chosen. Furthermore, the study only focuses in Malaysian context only because this study is only conducted for secondary school students in Malaysia. The result will be conclude based on the sample and it might be not same for others
  • 11. country but it can be used worldwide if there is any further or related study regarding the effectiveness on learning mathematics through art by using education games among students at secondary school in students' academic performance. 1.8 Significant of the Study Firstly, the study on learning mathematics through art by using education games is to identify whether the uses of art through educational games can helps in improving secondary school students' academic performance in mathematics subject. The significance of the study is to determine either the use of educational games in mathematics can help or not in improving students' academic achievement. If the use of educational games in mathematics can helps in improving secondary school students' academic leaning process is proven, thus students can apply these educational games as their learning aid and will benefit to all students. Thus, it is very crucial to identify whether educational games can helps in improving secondary school students' academic performance in mathematics subject. Besides that, this study tends to determine how educational games can help secondary school students' to improve their academic performance. For example, with the learning aid of educational games, the students manage to improve their thinking skill, creativity skills and help to understand the lesson easily compare using conventional ways. Therefore, it is necessary for the students to know how educational games can helps in improving secondary school students' academic performance in mathematics subject In addition, the study on learning mathematics through art by using education games in mathematics subjects will help students to know the exact effects of using educational games and the benefits. The study to determine whether the uses of educational games in learning process can help or not students to gain better results
  • 12. in their examination. For example, it is necessarily to students to know whether the educational games in learning can help them to get high score in examination. If the theory is proven, students have new alternatives of learning aid since they can score high marks in their examination with the aid of educational games instead of using the conventional ways. From the result the researcher can make a comparison when students used educational games as learning aid and when are not used based on a test will given. Thus, the students would have the opportunity to use educational games as learning aid in mathematics subjects to enhance their academic performance through the innovative learning process.
  • 13. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Literature Review 2.1 Learning Process 2.2 The important of Mathematics 2.3 The important of Art 2.4 Learning mathematics using art 2.5 Learning through games 2.6 Framework
  • 14. Bibliography Blomhøj, M. (2009). The educational perspective on mathematical modelling. Mathematical applications and , 5-6. Blunt, R. (2008). Does Game-Based Learning Work? Does Game-Based Learning Work? Results from Three Recent Studies , 1-11. Burton, G. M. (1992). Using Language Arts to Promote Mathematics. Using Language Arts to Promote Mathematics , 26-31. Forsyth, E. (2012). LEARNING THROUGH PLAY. GAMES AND CROWDSOURCING FOR , 167-173. Ghosh, J. B. (2012). The Senior Secondary Mathematcs Curriculum in India. Learning Mathematics In Secondary School : The Case Of Mathematical Modelling Enabled By Technology , 1-20. Greenberg, P. (1970). Invitation to Art. In P. Greenberg, Art and Ideas for Young People (p. 9). Canada: Van Nostrand Reinhold . Harian, B. (2014). SPM 2013: Kajian khusus bagi cari punca penurunan Matematik - TPM. Malaysia: Berita Harian . IES. (2009). Intervention materials should include opportunities for students to work with visual representations of mathematical ideas . Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics , 30-36. Javed Mustafam, Alam Khan, Atta Ullah. (2011). Investigating Students’ Achievement in Mathematics through Non Technological Game Based. Investigating Students’ Achievement in Mathematics through Non Technological Game Based , 151-164. Neo M, T.K.Neo. (2001). Innovative teaching: Using multimedia in a problem-based learning environment. Innovative teaching: Using multimedia in a problem-based learning environment , 5. Pahlaila. (2014). How to write references. Journal of Visual Art , 55-56. Pattemore, A. W. (1974). Groundwork. In A. W. Pattemore, Art and Environment (p. 13). Canada: Van Nostrand Reinhold Limited. SAE. (2012). 2012 Sales, Demographic and Usage Data. Essential Facts About The Computer And Video Game Industry , cvrii - 3. Wu, C. (2006). Introduction. HOW COM PUTER TECHNOLOGY INFLUENCES ART AND DESIGN PROGRAM S IN , 1.