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  • MANAGEMENT & LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION PSB1014Name : NURIL EKMA BTE HJ ABD MUDAMatric Number : KJC0950313Sem : JANUARY 2010Assigment Tittle : Choose two (2) journals articles based on the research about the individual, employees or leaders’ competencies in educational organization or at organizations from internal or external researchers.Due Date :Signature:Date Of Submission: Marks given:……………… MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION (SECTION 2) (PSB1014 - JANUARY SEMESTER 2010) 1
  • INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENTChoose two (2) journals articles based on the research about the individual, employees orleaders’ competencies in educational organization or at organizations from internal orexternal researchers.Read and understand the content of selected journals/articles and summarize separatelyfor each articles on: 1. The abstract, problems, findings and solutions of the journals emphasis on competencies. 2. The usefulness of the journals for school principals (leaders) and 3. The usefulness of the journals for school teachers (individual)Guidelines of the assignment: Must have a cover page with all relevant details – name, metric number, course title, course code and title of the topic. (please refer to the standard format) Your assignment should be typed on and A4 paper. (Focus on the abstract, finding and solution that given by the researchers) Paragraphs must be justified with 1.5 spacing. Font – Times New Roman 12 Must include a reference list. Any assignment without a reference list, marks will be deducted. You should submit your assignment according to the due date (will discuss in class) The assignment contributes to 10% of your final grade For each of the articles you are limited to write only two (2) pagesYour group’s assignment should have as follows: a) Cover page b) Summary of your assignment (four pages) c) Your journals (Please don’t attach your journals with the a) and b).Journal 1: LEADERSHIP SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES FOR EXTENSION 2
  • DIRECTORS AND ADMINISTRATORSThe Abstract This journal was discussed to identify the major leadership skill area and specificleadership competence within each skill area needed by extension leaders. This researchconducted from 1862-1890 using qualitative interviews and 7 people involved in a long terminterviews. At the end of the surveyed, they find that there were 6 major competencies thatneeded by extension leaders and 80 specific leadership were cluster into the six maincompetencies.The Problem The article touched about job promotion at first. Leader in an organization pick theemployee to be promoted to higher position based on their performance evaluation but not in theindividual competence. Employee who was promoted based on their performance in theirprevious position not necessarily will succeed in their new position. For example, a sub-managerwho is doing well in his task or handling project not necessarily will succeed as a manager thatleading one big project that involved millions. This is because he did not have the knowledge tobe the head of the project. He succeeds because he listens to the leading manager who had thecompetence skill in his area. Many studies were conducted to identify the most skills and competencies need to be asuccessful leader. Some researcher said there are 7 important competencies ( Betts, Firth,Watters & Shephard studies, 1996 ), some finds 57 competencies that should have as a leaderfrom Cooper & Graham studies ( 2001 ). In terms of core competencies, there are few studiesdone. Example are from NISLDE ( National Impact Studies Of Leadership Development InExtension ), they identified 13 broad competence that are must to have in leadership.Findings 3
  • The journal finally come with a findings that all the studies at the end are to be classesinto six major competence which are human skills, conceptual skill, technical skill,communication skill, emotional intelligence skills and lastly are industry knowledge skills. Thissix skills are the conclusion to all the studies made by others researcher before. This is becausethe previous studies had found out so many core competence that should have in a leader wherethis competencies are a small part of the six major competence. The first competence skill that should have in leader is human skills. A leader is someonewho holds power and authority in a team. Besides fostering strength into the group, he also needto have the trust to his team members. This is important to motivate the workers because leaderand workers can work like a family members but still have the respect to leaders. Secondly is a conceptual skill. As a leader, u have to see the organization overall from thelower level to the high. He needs to know what he wants and how he wants to bringsorganization to achieve its mission and vision. A leader vision is not just his vision, but it alsoreflects the organization vision. Technical skill is the third competence skill that important to leader. Lake technical skillin high position leader like computers skill is very obvious in the present extension leader. Thisis because the extension leader always had a management team who responsibilities in datadoing, information research and data collecting. The leaders are less involved in this activity.The participant in the studies says those extension leaders who are computer literate are moreresponsibilities, not easy to be cheated and more respectful by the employee. Fourth important skills are communication skills. Each participant mentioned aboutcommunication skill is important to be a successful extension leader. Some participant says itsimportant to have communication with the media. Other says that communication at varioussetting of stating is important. The other participant also mentioned the important of listeningskill as important to extension leader. The fifth important competencies in the range are emotional intelligence skills. Majorityof the participant say about the important of extension leader to manage time, balance betweenpersonal life and professional life and effectively manage this both areas. Some more theparticipant also saying about the important of leader open to criticism and not become critical 4
  • and angry to them. Leader should be calm and control their emotion when facing criticism bytheir employee or outsiders. Lastly are industry knowledge skills. A leader should aware of the environment changesand think broader that other people in the organization because it important for leader to knowthe industry present trends and culture.Solutions The solutions found in this journal are all the six important competencies are interrelatedto each other and are parts that consist to become successful extension leaders. These journalsalso recommend these studies should be used to create an instrument that assesses thecompetence of potential leader. And this journal suggested more studies to be made in the futureabout leadership competencies.The useful of this journal for school principals ( leader ) A school principal is the main heads leading in the school. He should have the six maincompetencies in his leadership. The six competencies as a guideline to principals to make theschool more integrate among the principals itself, teachers, administration and also students.Principals had to have human skill to ensure the school run smoothly under his instruction andcontrol. Principals sometimes had to listen to the teacher’s problem and be flexible on somesituations. Rigid principle will only make the teacher fell uneasy and difficult to do their job.Sometimes, principle also had to do empowerment on certain student’s issues. For exampleprincipals give teacher power on how to handling students problem before brought to disciplineteacher or counselors. Principals are one that comes with the school mission and vision. He reflects this when hedoing the concept of what kind of school he wanted. Principal needs to have the main idea onbringing the school to achieve success in academic or co-curriculum. Every planning that he’sdoing is what concept he wants to impart to the school. As a principal, he must have the technical skill especially in computers. World now a dayrequired technology in everything. In school organization, the administrations are doing by theteachers itself. So, principals also need to learns new things even though they are old. Use the 5
  • computers technology to have feedback with the parents, have a communication with them onhow to advance the school. Some more, computers literate will helps principals to make datastoring easier and efficient. School is an open system. It depends on environment to get the output and feedbacks onhow is the school perform. So, this is the important for principals to have the communicationsskills. Principals have to have good communication skills to communicate with teachers andstudents so that they know what the principals want in the school is. Principals also need toalways communicate with teachers to ensure that they are doing what is being instructed byprincipals.Journal 2 : MALAYSIA TRANSITIONS TOWARDS A KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY 6
  • The Abstract This journal is about Malaysia that are moving to K-Economy. So, employer are findingan entry-level competence in employee. This journal is like an expectation about what employerwants in the employee to have as to suits the work place culture. This journal comes with a resultthat can be use by teacher as a guide in their profession that are always communicate with theenvironment such as student, teachers, PTA and others.Problems Now-a-day the world are moving to fast in each line, either it is profitable or non-profitable organization. In this journal, the researcher finds that employer is taking the employeecompetencies as important when they want to hired an employee. This journal emphasis on whatskills are important to employee in employer perspective.Findings The are several research done on the entry-level competence on employee. Murphy &Jenks interviews on 1983 are done to identify the traits of successful entry level professionalemployment applications. This research stated that according to employer, they indicated thatboth functional and adaptive skills are very important. Adaptive skills identified by employer arewide range of attitudes, personality traits and work habits. In an organizations, competitions aremajor factors that motivates the industry to be more efficient ant to apply strategic that willimprove organizations activities. This activities required teamwork, creative and flexible workerswho had a broad range of interpersonal and management skills. Junge, Daniels and Karmos ( 1984 ) come with a survey that involved 116 companiesto determine the perceptions of employee regarding the work literacy that needed by employee.This studies stated that speaking, listening and writing are the important in employeecompetencies. Besides that, reasoning and reading were also important and most needed insuccessful employee. Rather than that, employee should have a good attitudes towards theirworks. A survey made by the Advisory Council Of Technical and Vocational Educations inTexas reveal why employer rejects some job applicants or terminate the employee from their 7
  • positions. The reasons are little interest for wanting the job, past history of job hopping, poorcommunications skills , health problem, immaturity, personal appearances, poor mannerism,personality, lack of job related skills and poor completed applications form. Zakaria (1988) studied the perceptions of Malaysian employers regarding essentialemployee traits and employability skills. Employers rated arrive on time, demonstrate a sense ofresponsibility, cooperate with the supervisor, and possess a positive attitude toward work as themajor desirable employee traits. From The Employment and Training Administration of the U.S. Department of Laborand the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) survey of employers seekingpotential employees (Passmore, 1994), they founds that employers take attention on basicliteracy. Some more, they also said that employee with motivation to learn, could communicate,through listening and oral communication, could adapt through creative thinking and problem-solving skills, possessed effective personal management skills, had interpersonal, negotiating,and teamwork skills will made them effective workgroup members and could influence others toact through leadership skills.Solutions This journal come with a solutions that employee has to get them self fits to the new eraby having the right knowledge and competencies. It is mentions in the studies that employer ismaking every history of his employee is to be told detail. It is important to the employee to havethe mentions competencies as communication and interpersonal skills so that they are compatibleto the current world. Besides that others skills include critical- and problem-solving skills,self-motivation, and management skills are also important. They requires knowledgeable, skilled,dynamic, creative, and innovative human resources in to ensure that they can become successfulin their future profession. The journal writers also giving some recommendation on how employer can fits theirworkers with the present challenge. Identify future knowledge and competencies, invest inhuman capital to make sure that workers are up to date with the world surroundings.The useful of this journal for school teacher ( employee ) 8
  • This studies in this journal shows that employee in an organizations either it is profitableor non profitable are demand its employee to have the essential skills and competencies incertain area and are good in it. As for teacher, I can see that this journal will help them to get theright and desire competencies to deal with the environment. The environments are different fromone to another. So, teacher had to be flexible in making decisions and not straight away makingjudgment on their students. Teacher had to listen to his students problems, land them a hand ifthey did not understands the subjects and guide them. Teachers are like a role model to the students. They must be good in basic skills likewriting, reading and arimethics. This is the basic knowledge that leads to other knowledge.Teachers have to masters this basic skill in way to educate the students so that the students willnot look down at teachers. In this presents world, teachers are lack skills in IT. That is what Iobserved when I’m at school. So the teachers are like supposed to sits in top hierarchy andstudents at the bottom. If the teachers has no knowledge on presents technology, students willhave the confident to learnt from that teacher. Teacher should have the essential skills that followthe world progression as the students also are more cleverer this days.Bibliografi 9
  • 1. http://pubs.aged.tamu.edu/jae/pdf/Vol45/45-03-022.pdf2. http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JOTS/v30/v30n3/pdf/mustapha.pdf 10