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English grammar revision (1)

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Uses and structure of verb tenses

Uses and structure of verb tenses

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  • 1. English grammarREVISION (1) Present Simple PresentContinuous Past Simple Past Continuous Present Perfect PastPerfect Future Tense Modal verbs
  • 2. VERB TO BEAFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVEI AM I’M NOT AM I...?YOU ARE YOU AREN’T ARE YOU...?HE IS HE ISN’T IS HE ...?SHE IS SHE ISN’T IS SHE...?IT IS IT ISN’T IS IT...?WE ARE WE AREN’T ARE WE...?YOU ARE YOU AREN’T ARE YOU...?THEY ARE THEY AREN’T ARE THEY...?
  • 3. VERB TO BE (PAST)AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVEI WAS I WASN’T WAS I...?YOU WERE YOU WEREN’T WERE YOU...?HE WAS HE WASN’T WAS HE...?SHE WAS SHE WASN’T WAS SHE...?IT WAS IT WASN’T WAS IT...?WE WERE WE WEREN’T WERE WE...?YOU WERE YOU WERE WERE YOU...?THEY WERE THEY WEREN’T WERE THEY...?
  • 4. PRESENT SIMPLEUSAGE L’utlitzem per parlar de RUTINES i veritats generalsEXAMPLES: Mary goes to school every day Peter doesn’t study French, he studies English Water boils at 100º C My parents work in a bank in the mornings
  • 5. PRESENT SIMPLEFORM:  AFFIRMATIVE Subject + verb + complements (I/ you/we/they) Subject + verb-s/ -es + complements (he/she/it)Verb _ o : go – goes Verb_ consonant + y  Verb_ i + es _ ss: kiss – kisses study  studies _ sh: wash - washes _ch: watch – watches Verb_ vowel + y  Verb _ y +s _ x: fix – fixes play plays
  • 6. PRESENT SIMPLE  NEGATIVE Subject + DON’T + verb + complements (I/ you/ we/they) Subject + DOESN’T + verb + complements (He/she/it) They DON’T play tennis She DOESN’T eat meat.  INTERROGATIVE (wh-word) + DO + subject + verb + complements? (I/you/we/they) (wh-word) + DOES + subject + verb + complements? (he/she/it) Where DO you study? How often DOES your sister go to the gym?
  • 7. PRESENT SIMPLEADVERBS OF EXPRESSIONS OFFREQUENCY FREQUENCYAlways  sempre Every day  cada diaUsually normalment Once a day un cop al diaOften sovint Twice a week  dos cops a la …Sometimes a vegades Every now and then tot sovintHardly ever gairebé maiNever mai
  • 8. PRESENT SIMPLEPOSITIONS WITHIN THE SENTENCE: ADVERBS OF FREQUENCYSubject + verb TO BE + adverb + complementSubject + adverb + verb + complementSubject + verb TO BE + NOT + adverb + complementsSubject + DON’T/ DOESN’T + adverb + verb + complementsVerb TO BE + subject + adverb + complements?(wh-word) + DO/DOES + subject + adverb + verb + complements?
  • 9. PRESENT SIMPLE EXPRESSIONS OF FREQUENCY:SUBJECT + VERB + COMPLEMENTS + EXPRESSION OF FREQUENCY(ALWAYS at the end of the sentence) My friends have karate lessons twice a week She doesn’t go to the gym every day
  • 10. PRESENT CONTINUOUS USAGEL’utilitzem per parlar sobre coses que estan passant en el precís moment en el que es diu/parla, és a dir, ARA. EXAMPLES: Emily is having a coffee now The students are taking notes right now My father is not reading the newspaper, he’s reading a magazine.
  • 11. PRESENT CONTINUOUS AFFIRMATIVE Subject + VERB TO BE + Verb_ing + complements NEGATIVE Subject + VERB TO BE + NOT + Verb_ing + complements INTERROGATIVE (wh-word) + VERB TO BE + subject + Verb_ing + complements?
  • 12. PRESENT CONTINUOUS SPELLING CHANGES WHEN ADDING _ING1.- Verb _ ie  Verb_ y + ing 2.- Verb_e  Verb_ + ing lie  lying dance dancing3.- Verb _CVC  Verb_CVCC + ing traveltravelling run running
  • 13. PRESENT CONTINUOUS Some verbs can never be used with the ING form COST BELIEVE THINK (when it means to have an opinion) LOVE LIKE HATE ENJOY DISLIKE UNDERSTAND, COMPREHEND…
  • 14. PAST SIMPLE• USAGEL’utilitzem per parlar sobre coses que van passar en un punt del passat. Són accions completades i acabades.• EXAMPLES• Emily BROKE her arm last summer• The students HAD an exam yesterday• My father WASHED his car two days ago
  • 15. PAST SIMPLE REGULAR VERBS AFFIRMATIVE Subject + VERB + _ed + complements NEGATIVESubject + DIDN’T + VERB (infinitive)+ complements INTERROGATIVE (wh-word) + DID + subject + Verb (infinitive) + complements?
  • 16. PAST SIMPLE IRREGULAR VERBS AFFIRMATIVE Subject + VERB (2nd column)+ complements NEGATIVE Subject + DIDN’T+ VERB (infinitive) + complements INTERROGATIVE(wh-word) + DID + subject + VERB (infinitive) + complements?
  • 17. PAST SIMPLE• CLUES – Yesterday ahir – Last _____  passat (last week setmana passada) – _____ ago enrere/ fa (three years ago fa tres anys) – Data en passat  in 1999
  • 18. PAST CONTINUOUS • USAGE1.- L’utilitzem per parlar sobre accions llargues que ocorren en un punt ESPECÍFIC del passat (us diran una hora, una part del dia…)My sister watched TV yesterday (past simple)My sister WAS WATCHING TV Yesterday at 9 (past continuous)
  • 19. PAST CONTINOUS2.- També per dues accions llargues que passen SIMULTÀNIAMENT (generalment unides per while/meanwhile/ whereas…)My mother was cooking WHILE I was setting the table
  • 20. PAST CONTINUOUS3.- També l’utilitzem per parlar sobre accions llargues (past continous) que són interrompudes per una acció curta (past simple)Catherine was sleeping WHEN the phone rangPeter arrived WHILE they were having dinner
  • 21. PAST CONTINUOUS AFFIRMATIVE Subject + WAS/WERE + Verb_ing + Complement NEGATIVESubject + WASN’T/ WEREN’T + Verb_ing + complements INTERROGATIVE (Wh-word) + WAS/WERE + Subject + Verb_ing + Complement?
  • 22. PAST CONTINUOUS• WHILE + Una frase en PAST CONTINOUS• WHEN + Una frase en PAST SIMPLE • CLUES • Un moment específic del passat • While  mentre
  • 23. PRESENT PERFECT USAGE(a) L’utilitzem per parlar sobre accions que van començar en el passat i segueixen en el present(b) També per accions que fa tan poc que han acabat que no es poden considerar passades, però tampoc presents. Generalement es diferencien perquè els resultats són encara visibles. EXAMPLES(e) They have lived in this house since 1999.(f) Look! The ground is wet. It has rained!
  • 24. PRESENT PERFECT AFFIRMATIVE Subject + HAVE/HAS + Verb _ed/3rd column + complements NEGATIVESubject + HAVEN’T/HASN’T+ Verb_ed/3rd column+complements INTERROGATIVE (wh-word) +HAVE/HAS+ subject + Verb_ed/3rd column+ complements?
  • 25. PRESENT PERFECTADVERBS (Clues) NEVER/EVER  maiNever  in affirmative sentences (she has NEVER lived in China)Ever in negative and interrogative sentences (She hasn’t ever lived in China) (Has she ever lived in China?) ALREADY/JUST  ja/ acabat de...In affirmative sentences only (she has already/just bought an icecream) YET  encara no...In negative and interrogative sentences and at the end of sentences(she hasn’t finished her homework yet./ Has she finished her homework yet?)
  • 26. PAST PERFECT USAGEQuan tenim dues accions en passat, una succeeix abans que l’altra. Doncs bé, aquesta s’expresa en past perfect (1st action)EXAMPLES When the police ARRIVED (2nd action), the thieves HAD LEFT (1st action) She HAD EATEN DINNER (1st action) when James GOT home (2nd action)
  • 27. PAST PERFECT AFFIRMATIVE Subject + HAD+ Verb _ed/3rd column + complements NEGATIVE Subject + HADN’T+ Verb_ed/3rd column+complements INTERROGATIVE(wh-word) +HAD+ subject + Verb_ed/3rd column+ complements?
  • 28. PAST PERFECTADVERBS (Clues) SINCE/FOR  des de / durantEmily hasn’t painted her house since 2010/ Emily hasn’t painted her house for an year. NEVER/EVER  maiNever  in affirmative sentences (she has NEVER lived in China)Ever in negative and interrogative sentences (She hasn’t ever lived in China) (Has she ever lived in China?) ALREADY/JUST  ja/ acabat de...In affirmative sentences only (she has already/just bought an icecream) YET  encara no...In negative and interrogative sentences and at the end of sentences(she hasn’t finished her homework yet./ Has she finished her homework yet?)
  • 29. FUTUREHi ha tres tipus de futur: - will/won’t - be going to - present continous
  • 30. FUTURE WILL/WON’T L’utilitzem per parlar sobre accions futures que NO han estat planejadesE.g: She thinks she will go to Italy També per parlar sobre prediccions que NO es basen en cap evidència presentE.g: (it’s a sunny day). I think it will rain
  • 31. FUTURE AFFIRMATIVE Subject+ WILL+ Verb (infinitive) + complement NEGATIVESubject+ WON’T/ WILL NOT+ Verb (infinitive) + complements INTERROGATIVE (Wh-word)+ WILL/WON’T+ subject+ Verb (infinitive)+ complements
  • 32. FUTUREAFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVEI will study I won’t study Will I study?You will study You won’t study Will you study?He will study He won’t study Will he study?She will study She won’t study Will she study?It will study It won’t study Will it study?We will study We won’t study Will we study?You will study You won’t study Will you study?They will study They won’t study Will they study? won’t = will not
  • 33. FUTURE BE GOING TO L’utilitzem per parlar sobre accions futures que SI han estat planejadesE.g: She is going to go to Italy (she has planned it) També per parlar sobre prediccions que SI es basen en cap evidència presentE.g: (it’s a cloudy day). It is going to rain
  • 34. FUTURE AFFIRMATIVESubject+ AM/IS/ARE+ GOING TO+ Verb (infinitive) + complement NEGATIVE Subject+ AM/IS/ARE+ NOT+ GOING TO+ Verb (infinitive) + complements INTERROGATIVE (Wh-word)+ AM/IS/ARE+ subject+ GOING TO+Verb (infinitive)+ complements
  • 35. FUTUREAFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVEI am going to buy I’m not going to buy Am I going to buy?You are going to buy You aren’t going to buy Are you going to buy?He is going to buy He isn’t going to buy Is he going to buy?She is going to buy She isn’t going to buy Is she going to buy?It is going to buy It isn’t going to buy Is it going to buy?We are going to buy We aren’t going to buy Are we going to buy?You are going to buy You aren’t going to buy Are you going to buy?They are going to buy They aren’t going to buy Are they going to buy?
  • 36. FUTURE PRESENT CONTINUOUS L’utilitzem per parlar sobre accions que SEGUR tindran lloc.E.g. The wedding is taking place on Sunday at 1
  • 37. FUTURE AFFIRMATIVESubject+ IS/ARE/AM+ Verb_ing + complement NEGATIVE Subject+ AM/IS/ARE +NOT+ Verb_ing + complements INTERROGATIVE(Wh-word)+ AM/IS/ARE+ subject+ Verb_ing+ complements
  • 38. FUTUREAFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVEI am travelling I’m not travelling Am I travelling?You are travelling You aren’t travelling Are you travelling?He is travelling He isn’t travelling Is he travelling?She is travelling She isn’t travelling Is she travelling?It is travelling It isn’t travelling Is it travelling?We are travelling We aren’t travelling Are we travelling?You are travelling You aren’t travelling Are you travelling?They are travelling They aren’t travelling Are they travelling?
  • 39. MODAL VERBSHi ha 5 tipus de MODAL VERBS: TO EXPRESS ABILITY TO EXPRESS POSSIBILITY TO EXPRESS OBLIGATION TO EXPRESS PROHIBITION TO GIVE ADVICE
  • 40. MODAL VERBS TO EXPRESS ABILTYPresent Past FutureCan/ Can’t Could/couldn’t Will be able topuc/pots... Podia/podies/podíem... podré Subject + MODAL VERB + verb + complement She can’t fly
  • 41. MODAL VERBS TO EXPRESS POSSIBILITY MAY/ MIGHT és possible que...Subject + MODAL VERB + verb + complement They may come to the party
  • 42. MODAL VERBS TO EXPRESS OBLIGATIONPRESENT PAST FUTUREMust/ Have to Had to Will have toHe de.../has de... Havia de... Haurà de.... Subject + MODAL VERB + verb + complement She has to clean the floor I must do the project
  • 43. MODAL VERBS TO EXPRESS PROHIBITION MUSTN’T tens prohibit...Subject + MODAL VERB + verb + complementYou mustn’t take photos
  • 44. MODAL VERBS TO GIVE ADVICEAFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVEShould Shouldn’tOught to Ought not to Subject + MODAL VERB + verb + complement She shouldn’t smoke You ought to go to the doctor
  • 45. CONDITIONALSTHERE ARE 4 CONDITIONALS - ZERO CONDITIONAL - FIRST CONDITIONAL - SECOND CONDITIONAL - THIRD CONDITIONAL
  • 46. CONDITIONALS ZERO CONDITIONAL (EXPRESSA FETS QUE OCORREN SEGUR DONADA LA CONDICIÓ NECESSÀRIA) If____________, _______________ present simple present simpleE.g. If you heat water at 100º C, it boils
  • 47. CONDITIONALS FIRST CONDITIONAL(EXPRESSA FETS QUE ÉS MOLT POSSIBLE QUE OCORRIN DONADA LA CONDICIÓ NECESSÀRIA) If____________, _______________ present simple future (will/won’t)E.g. If you study hard, you will pass your exams
  • 48. CONDITIONALS SECOND CONDITIONAL (EXPRESSA FETS FETS IRREALS, HIP`ÒTESIS, SOMNIS) If____________, _______________ past simple (-ed/2nd column) would/wouldn’t + verbE.g. If she was rich, she would buy a house If I WERE you, I wouldn’t go to the party
  • 49. Present Passive Voice Subject + verb + complementAgent complement + IS/ARE/AM + by subject + Verb_ed/ 3rd column
  • 50. Past Passive VoiceSubject + verb + complementAgent complement + WAS/WERE + by subject + Verb_ed/ 3rd column
  • 51. Future Passive VoiceSubject + verb + complementAgent complement + WILL BE + by subject + Verb_ed/ 3rd column

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