Towards a personalised virtual library:
        indications from navigational
      and personal information behaviour
   ...
Overview
1. Introduction

2. Literature Review

3. Purpose and significance of the study

4. Hypothesis and research quest...
1. Introduction
• Study of information behaviour:
   – Social and economic perspective:
               • Informational soc...
2. Literature review
• Research on information behaviour:
   – Human actions in relation to information souces and channel...
3. Purpose and significance of the study
• This research work is focused on:

   – Information actions: search, but also m...
3. Purpose and significance of the study
• Life-wide learning in knowledge society:
   – Students: personal/professional r...
CONTEXTS
Basis                        Academic
                             Workplace
                             Daily l...
4. Work hypothesis and questions
 Hypothesis 1: The navigation behaviour of the users of a
 virtual library generates info...
4. Work hypothesis and questions
Hypothesis 2: E-learning students can adopt different personal
information behavioural pa...
5. Methodology
                        Multiple research strategies     Publications
                     - Process of des...
6. Hypothesis 1. Paper I
 FERRAN, N.; MOR, E.; MINGUILLÓN, J. “Towards personalization in
 digital libraries through ontol...
6. Hypothesis 1. Research strategies
•    Basic steps to design ontologies (Denny, 2002):




                            ...
6. Hypothesis 1. Results (User Model)




                                        13
6. Hypothesis 1. Results (Navigation Model)




                                              14
6. Hypothesis 1. Paper II
 FERRAN, N.; CASADESÚS, J.; KRAKOWSKA, M.; MINGUILLÓN, J.
 “Enriching e-learning metadata throug...
6. Hypothesis 1. Research strategies
• Data gathered automatically:
   – Non intrusive and without filters
   – Raw data g...
6. Hypothesis 1. Results
•   Log file analysis of the navigational behaviour of LO:

        – Some resources were never u...
6. Hypothesis 1. Results (time pattern)
•   Examples of Resource usage: Navigation differs over time
               • Numb...
6. Hypothesis 1. Results (Learning plan)
• Examples of learning process' monitoring
             • Evolution of total numb...
6. Hypothesis 1. Results
•    Authoritative / non-authoritative metadata

•    Selection of LOM non-authoritative fields t...
6. Hypothesis 1. Results
• Example of metadata enrichment through LO usage:

  LO described as independent chunks of infor...
6. Hypothesis 1. Summary
                     Academic
                     Workplace
                     Daily life
    ...
7. Hypothesis 2. Paper III
FERRAN, N.; GUERRERO-ROLDÁN, A.; MOR, E.; MINGUILLÓN, J.
“User Centered Design of a Learning Ob...
7. Hypothesis 2. Paper IV
FERRAN, N.; PÉREZ-MONTORO, M. La Gestión de la Información
Personal en usuarios intensivos de la...
7. Hypothesis 2. Research strategies
•    Random selection of the population under some criteria:
      – gender, age, pro...
7. Hypothesis 2. Research strategies
• Codebook
       Categories involved in the             Information
                ...
7. Hypothesis 2. Research strategies
• Access to information:
     – Gather and retrieve information. Needs

• Management:...
7. Hypothesis 2. Research strategies
• Information-related competencies (expert / non-expert):
   – knowledge, experience,...
7. Hypothesis 2. Results
• Access to information vs context:
   – Academic: “The university gives me everything so I do no...
7. Hypothesis 2. Results
• Use of information (communication) vs contexts:
   – Academic: email
   – Workplace: Everything...
7. Hypothesis 2. Results
• Attitude (Implicated / Uninvolved) vs context:
   – Half of the participants had an implicated ...
7. Hypothesis 2. Results
Behaviour patterns: 75% of participants were either disciplinated-implicated
or chaotic-uninvolve...
7. Hypothesis 2. Results
• Information Behavioural Patterns (cognitive style / attitude)
  EXHAUSTIVE: Disciplined / Impli...
7. Hypothesis 2. Results
                                  Disciplined



                        EX
                     ...
7. Hypothesis 2. Results
• Information Behavioural Patterns (cognitive style / attitude)

   PASSIVE: Chaotic / Uninvolved...
7. Hypothesis 2. Results
                                  Disciplined



                        EX
                     ...
7. Hypothesis 2. Results
• Information Behavioural Patterns (cognitive style / attitude)

   REACTIVE: Disciplined / Uninv...
7. Hypothesis 2. Results
                                  Disciplined



                        EX
                     ...
7. Hypothesis 2. Results
• Information Behavioural Patterns (cognitive style / attitude)

      PROACTIVE: Chaotic / Impli...
Academic
                   Workplace
                   Daily life   Hypothesis 2. Summary
                              ...
8. Conclusions
• Hypothesis 1: The navigation behaviour of the users of a
  virtual library generates information for offe...
8. Conclusions
 a) Using the information relevant to the process of searching and
 browsing, the elements that determine t...
8. Conclusions
• Hypothesis 1: The navigation behaviour of the users of a
  virtual library generates information for offe...
8. Conclusions
b) Regarding the resources involved in the learning process, they can be
rated in an automated way based on...
8. Conclusions
  - More advanced potentialities are limited by the
  anonymity of the students. In this sense, a more in d...
8. Conclusions
• Hypothesis 1: The navigation behaviour of the users of a
  virtual library generates information for offe...
8. Conclusions
c) From the evaluation of the interactions between users and contents, a
   selection of Learning Object Me...
8. Conclusions
•    Hypothesis 2: E-learning students can adopt different
    personal information behaviour patterns in t...
8. Conclusions
d) As the first step towards the design of a personalised information
   delivery system, a User Centred De...
8. Conclusions
•    Hypothesis 2: E-learning students can adopt different
    personal information behaviour patterns in t...
8. Conclusions
e) The personal information behaviour of e-learning students can be
  classified into four patterns taking ...
8. Conclusions
•    Hypothesis 2: E-learning students can adopt different
    personal information behaviour patterns in t...
8. Conclusions
f) There is some transfer of information-related competencies between
     workplace, daily life and academ...
8. Conclusions
•   The relationship between information-related competencies’ expertise,
      attitude and cognitive appr...
8. Conclusions
•   There is a regular pattern involving the cognitive approach and
    attitude. If people are implicated,...
PhD Defense

Towards a personalised virtual library:
indications from navigational and personal
information behaviour of e...
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PhD Defence Nuria Ferran

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Presentation of the Defence of the PhD Dissertation "Towards a personalised virtual library: indications from navigational and personal information behaviour of e-learning students".

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  • From a social and economic perspective, the study of human behaviour in terms of information and its further use is important, since we are immersed in the informational society in which the generation, processing and transmission of information becomes the fundamental sources of productivity and power due to the technological conditions of this historic period. And from an individual point of view, the analysis of information behaviour actions related to personal information management is crucial in the design of virtual environments that can support and promote the activities that a person carries out to acquire, avoid, create, store, organise, maintain, retrieve, use and distribute the information to complete tasks in order to fulfil different roles and responsabilities, for example bieng a mother, student and worker. Overall, this PhD pretends to understand the concept of the new user involved in the new digital revolution where Internet is the collective shared intelligence and users are looking for information but also for new experiences, entertainment, and are connected day and night thorough multiple devices and platforms. The dissertation provides some indications toward a personalised design of information delivery system. A personalised service to meet user requirements through using the power of the community of users.
  • This dissertation research how people search, but also manage and use information. Specifically the information behaviour of e-learning students is investigated in their academic context but also in their workplace and daily life environments. Information behaviour: Wilson 2000 actions in relation to information sources and channels. Furthermore, this dissertation studies the knowledge, attitude and skills that allow individuals behave informationally in a particular manner. Info behaviour and ifo literacy are linked because in order to become literate, one has to acquire an appropiate information behaviour. The acquisition of information literacy may take place in a context and later transferred to the others contexts.
  • This dissertation research how people search, but also manage and use information. Specifically the information behaviour of e-learning students is investigated in their academic context but also in their workplace and daily life environments. Information behaviour: Wilson 2000 actions in relation to information sources and channels. Furthermore, this dissertation studies the knowledge, attitude and skills that allow individuals behave informationally in a particular manner. Info behaviour and ifo literacy are linked because in order to become literate, one has to acquire an appropiate information behaviour. The acquisition of information literacy may take place in a context and later transferred to the others contexts.
  • This dissertation addresses the concept lifewide learning, where students pursue knowledge for either personal or professional reasons. Lifelong learning can no longer be confined to a classroom or in a formal education setting, since it takes place throughout life and in a wide range of situations. Learning should not discriminate between a place and a time to acquire knowledge or the place and the time to apply the acquired knowledge. In front of the overload of information there is ta challenge for information delivery systems to increase the effectiveness and efficiency. Personalisation is a way to meet user requirements for provide precise information that best suit the user's need and to provide useful recommendations. However, in order to implement personalised information delivery systems, they must be addressed from a user centered design and therefore address aspects such as behaviour and context of action.
  • This slide summarizes the Hypothesis 1, that is to say the navigation behaviour of the users of a virtual library generates information for offering personalised services. The learning process is produced by the relation of Users/Information Systems/Contents In this 1 st Hypothesis we have studied the User and the navigation actions with the Contents in order to provide a User model for the desired personalised information delivery system. This User model includes the user profile (including their navigational history and user preferences) and the information collected from the navigational behaviour of users in the DL. This model has been able to propose through a qualitative analyses that provided micro-scenarious of library users and from a quantitative approach that monitored the navigational actions of users. From this information a selection of metadata to be generated authomatically from the LO usage is provided to enrich the description of LO inside repositories. This descriptions will help the recommendations for personalisation purposes and the evaluation of LO.
  • This PhD dissertation is a compilation of 4 academic publications. The first 2 papers addres the first hypothesis related with the personalisation aspects. In this first part the employed research tecniques were: - Use of the process for buiding ontologiesand focus group for defining the requirements of a personalised information delivery system. - and log analysis for studyng the real navigation behaviour. In papers 3 and 4, second hypothesis more focused on information literacy, the tehcniques used were interviews, incident cases and content analysis.
  • The article published in Library Management Journal was based on the basic premise that the efforts for finding an information resource in a digital library can be stored in a structured way and then shared by future users with similar necessities. This article describe the elements for buiding a personalised information deliverys system integrated in a VLE. The description of the relarionships between those elements by means of an ontology is provided.
  • More precisely, the methodology used for designing ontologies is applied in order to define the requirements of a personalised information delivery system. Therefore the b asic steps for designing an ontology (Denny, 2002) were followed. - For assembling the appropriate information and defining all terms, several experts from the UOC (students, librarians, members of the department of educational technology and usability experts) were requested to get involved in a focus group session. The focus group was centred on discussing several possible micro scenarios of use of the UOC virtual library. - Afterwards, to organize the ontology, the identification of the principal concepts and properties was established, and then the relationships among such concepts. Finally, the definition of actions performed between the concepts was stated.
  • Two elements determine the functionalities of the desired personalised system. The user profile and the navigation behaviour. This table provides the basic User Profile Attributes to buid the User Model. For each attribute, it was determined - whether it could be or should be explicitly given by the user - the relative importance for navigation and for the recommender system - and the user profiles more involved. For instance, the socio-demographical attribute may include information about the languages spoken or understood by the user, information that can be used as an additional filtering when browsing or searching for documents. This attribute has a medium importance with respect to personalization of navigational actions, and a low importance for the recommendation system (for the other user, knowing the difficulties with a language by another fellow it does not matter for navigational purposes). On the other hand, other attributes which express user preferences and interests have a high importance for both navigational and recommendation system actions. Recommendations are generated using the knowledge extracted from the searching and browsing profiles of users with similar interests, knowledge integrated in the ontology such as course bibliography, or by following citations of similar documents, for example.
  • The formal model of navigational behaviour of digital library users is shown in this table. This model covered all the current information sources present in the digital library, the basic actions that could be taken by library users and the influence of those actions on the personalised information delivery system. For instance the action of asking a book loan has a higher impact on the navigationa actions records than executing a search. Then the onology is built through crossing both tables by describing the relationships for recommendation purposes.
  • The second article, published in The Electronic Library Journal studies the interaction between users and content in a virtual learning environment. The purpose was to propose and evaluate an automated technique for obtaingin useful information from learning object usage for improving the quality of the metadata used to describe such LO. In this articule the actions of students with their didactical material were tracked and analysed.
  • An experiment was performed with 350 students of 2 classrooms of the Open University of Catalonia during the 2 nd semester of 2006.
  • Some resources which are proposed in the Learning Plan and therefore suggested by the lecturer of the subject were never used This may mean that: - need for more metadata fields for description - not relevant for the achievement of their learning goals The lack of use may be useful when revising the feaching plan for further semesters
  • The usage pattern of a given LO can also be determined over time. As shown in this figure, there are LO with a specific life cycle which indicates that the resource is useful at a specific stage and irrelevant in other moments. In this case it is useful at the beginning of the semester, It is dowloaded following an exponential decrease. It also indicates that the usage pattern is related to the calendar (holidays and weekends). This results could have direct implications in the design of an intelligence tutor system.
  • Tracking the activity of users with LO it also indicates if they follow the planned learning path. As an example, we compared the temporal patterns of accesses to statements of exercises with that of the accesses to the correponding solutions. The data shown in this figure show that students indeed followed the learning plan, as the accesses progressed as expected, and statements of the exercises were preiously downloaded to their solutions, except for the last few days. This results could help lecturers to know if students are following the classes.
  • Data coming from the usage of users with LO can enrich the description of these LO. Librarians describe the resources in the catalogue, collections and repositories with authoritative metadata: title, author and similar fileds. But there is another type of metada called non-authoritative which is generated indirectly by final users as a result of their navigational actions. Following the LOM base schema a proposal of selected non-authoritative LOM fields was proposed with information extracted from usage.
  • Just to propose and example. Usually the description of LO is done as independent chunks of information because they are supose to be indivisible. But, usage data may reveal relationships with other LO and this fact can be used to create collections hierarchical, linear or networked structures between them. This information created from the usage could be authomatically added to LOM 1.7. Structure and 1.8 Aggregation level
  • The 3 rd Paper was published in Lecture Notes in Computer Science Its purpose is to describe the...
  • The 4 th Paper was published in El Profesional de la Información. This article widers the context of action and it is not only focused in the Academic Context, but also takes in consideration the professional and private area. A part from data focuses in the concept of Personal Information Management. Its purpose was to offer an analytical model...
  • Both papers, 3 rd and 4 th, shared the same qualitative approach. First of all we contact the participants following a random selection following criteria related with gender/age/profession/studies/semesters/subjects and IL. Although the representation of the popularion was not a purpose in itself we wanted to have informants with different features. Participants were contacted by phone. Once accepted the intervew a form through email was sent in order to get 3 incident case for each context of analysis (AC, WP, DL). Then 24 semi-structured in depth interviews conducted to students of the UOC in October 2007. A trial was performed structuring the intervew for information actions or by context. The actions were the best options at the end. Afterwards the interviews were used as raw data for the content analysis process. 2 coders performed that part which they did not take part in the interview process with the support of the Qualitative Research Software NVIVO. A reliability test was performed. A codebook of 10 variables was used for the content analysis.
  • All the categories of the analysis come from the literature review therefore the codification is substantive. The main categories that are involved in the different patterns of information behaviour are the ones in the first column. In the second a set of categories following information actions were stablished. And finally every codifications was linked to the context of action: AC, WP or DL. IRC: skills, knowledge, experience and behaviour that an individual needs to find, evaluated and use infomration effectively. Vyrkus approach. Attitude: it is a category related to IL and Info behaviour. Besides is linked to relational patterns (interpersonal/intergropu) and personality traits (instinct, need, etc.). From this categorization two main values could be stablished Implicated/Uninvolved. Implicated are those essentially motivated to learn or to seek information. Uninvolved need a reward or avoid punishment to act. Two main subcategories could be stablished under Cognitive approach. Disciplined are meticulous, organized, methodical and focused on the process. Those with chaotic feastures are anarchic, following hteir own rules and more focused on the results. ICT use perceptions follows the repertoires stablished by Savolainen. Enthusiastic with ICT see this technologies as enablers. Realistic gives no priority to Internet in depends on the situation. Criticals have reservations about ICTs.
  • All the categories of the analysis come from the literature review therefore the codification is substantive. The main categories that are involved in the different patterns of information behaviour are the ones in the first column. In the second a set of categories following information actions were stablished. And finally every codifications was linked to the context of action: AC, WP or DL. IRC: skills, knowledge, experience and behaviour that an individual needs to find, evaluated and use infomration effectively. Vyrkus approach. Attitude: it is a category related to IL and Info behaviour. Besides is linked to relational patterns (interpersonal/intergropu) and personality traits (instinct, need, etc.). From this categorization two main values could be stablished Implicated/Uninvolved. Implicated are those essentially motivated to learn or to seek information. Uninvolved need a reward or avoid punishment to act. Two main subcategories could be stablished under Cognitive approach. Disciplined are meticulous, organized, methodical and focused on the process. Those with chaotic feastures are anarchic, following hteir own rules and more focused on the results. ICT use perceptions follows the repertoires stablished by Savolainen. Enthusiastic with ICT see this technologies as enablers. Realistic gives no priority to Internet in depends on the situation. Criticals have reservations about ICTs.
  • All the categories of the analysis come from the literature review therefore the codification is substantive. The main categories that are involved in the different patterns of information behaviour are the ones in the first column. In the second a set of categories following information actions were stablished. And finally every codifications was linked to the context of action: AC, WP or DL. IRC: skills, knowledge, experience and behaviour that an individual needs to find, evaluated and use infomration effectively. Vyrkus approach. Attitude: it is a category related to IL and Info behaviour. Besides is linked to relational patterns (interpersonal/intergropu) and personality traits (instinct, need, etc.). From this categorization two main values could be stablished Implicated/Uninvolved. Implicated are those essentially motivated to learn or to seek information. Uninvolved need a reward or avoid punishment to act. Two main subcategories could be stablished under Cognitive approach. Disciplined are meticulous, organized, methodical and focused on the process. Those with chaotic feastures are anarchic, following hteir own rules and more focused on the results. ICT use perceptions follows the repertoires stablished by Savolainen. Enthusiastic with ICT see this technologies as enablers. Realistic gives no priority to Internet in depends on the situation. Criticals have reservations about ICTs.
  • This a Academic: idea that every needed material will be provided by the university. There is no time to look elsewhere. Workplace: The importance of the corridor Presential meetings and phone are the sources of information. The corridor is a recursive communication communciation ecosystem. Daily Life: “I control the Internet; it is not the Net who controls me” In front of the huge amount of Information, using search engines appears to be the way to control the reception of information. RSS, newsletters, podcasts (push services) are seen as that a way of loosing control.
  • AC: Use of the tools in purposes unexpected when designed For managing the bibliographic references, they use word files. Excel used for creating data bases or generating calendars. Workplace : “We cannot risk” Only very reliable sources are used. Cut&Paste and printing are the most popular actions. No worries on preservation as its not their responsibility. Daily Life: “No need for managing” Important things kept in paper, digital is not classified as it is easier to find them again on the Net,
  • Variables / Subvariables
  • Variables / Subvariables
  • Explicar paper III goglized behaviour, fase previa estudi paper IV on es va més a fons amb les variables del comportament.
  • Variables / Subvariables
  • Explicar paper III goglized behaviour, fase previa estudi paper IV on es va més a fons amb les variables del comportament.
  • Variables / Subvariables
  • Explicar paper III goglized behaviour, fase previa estudi paper IV on es va més a fons amb les variables del comportament.
  • Variables / Subvariables
  • Explicar paper III goglized behaviour, fase previa estudi paper IV on es va més a fons amb les variables del comportament.
  • This slide summarizes the Hypothesis 1, that is to say the navigation behaviour of the users of a virtual library generates information for offering personalised services. The learning process is produced by the relation of Users/Information Systems/Contents In this 1 st Hypothesis we have studied the User and the navigation actions with the Contents in order to provide a User model for the desired personalised information delivery system. This User model includes the user profile (including their navigational history and user preferences) and the information collected from the navigational behaviour of users in the DL. This model has been able to propose through a qualitative analyses that provided micro-scenarious of library users and from a quantitative approach that monitored the navigational actions of users. From this information a selection of metadata to be generated authomatically from the LO usage is provided to enrich the description of LO inside repositories. This descriptions will help the recommendations for personalisation purposes and the evaluation of LO.
  • PhD Defence Nuria Ferran

    1. 1. Towards a personalised virtual library: indications from navigational and personal information behaviour of e-learning students Defence of the Doctoral Dissertation PhD student: Núria Ferran Ferrer PhD Supervisors: Dr. Julià Minguillón and Dr. Mario Pérez-Montoro Doctorat en Informació i documentació en l'era digital Programa interuniversitari de doctorat 2006-2008 (UB-UAB) Barcelona 9th of February, 2010
    2. 2. Overview 1. Introduction 2. Literature Review 3. Purpose and significance of the study 4. Hypothesis and research questions 5. Methodology 6. Hypothesis 1 (Papers I and II): research strategies and results 7. Hypothesis 2 (Papers III and IV): research strategies and results 8. Conclusions 2
    3. 3. 1. Introduction • Study of information behaviour: – Social and economic perspective: • Informational society (Castells, 1999) – Individual perspective: • Personal Information Management (Jones, 2007) Design of virtual environments • Better understanding of the new user in the new digital revolution (Rowland and Nicholas, 2009) 3
    4. 4. 2. Literature review • Research on information behaviour: – Human actions in relation to information souces and channels, including both passive and active information seeking and the use of it (Fisher and Julien, 2009) or its transfer (Wilson, 1999), as well as the behaviour aimed at avoiding information (Case, 2002) – Three consitutent elements: Need / Search process / Use – Focused on searching in academic/research contexts • Study of information literacy: – Rare to find info behaviour and info literacy together – Literates: acquired appropriate info. behaviour (Boon, 2007) – The acquisition of this expertise may take place in a context and then be transferred to the others (Lloyd, 2006). No studies about transfer of competencies between contexts 4
    5. 5. 3. Purpose and significance of the study • This research work is focused on: – Information actions: search, but also manage and use – Contexts: academic, but also workplace and daily life – Information behaviour linked to information literacy – Transfer of information-related competencies between contexts 5
    6. 6. 3. Purpose and significance of the study • Life-wide learning in knowledge society: – Students: personal/professional reasons, wide range situations, through life – Information literate individuals are ready for LLL, employment, active citizens • Overload of information: – Personalised information delivery systems: • Effectiveness and effiency • User satisfaction, needs and requirements • Power of user community • Need for usable desings according to the context and behaviour 6
    7. 7. CONTEXTS Basis Academic Workplace Daily life USERS Virtual Learning Environment Learning process INFO. CONTENTS SERVICES (personalised) 7
    8. 8. 4. Work hypothesis and questions Hypothesis 1: The navigation behaviour of the users of a virtual library generates information for offering personalised services. a) How can the elements of a personalisation system of a virtual library be semantically represented by the data coming from users' navigational behaviour? b) How can the information behaviour of e-learning students be reused for rating learning objects? c) What metadata fields can be automatically filled from analysing user interactions with learning objects? 8
    9. 9. 4. Work hypothesis and questions Hypothesis 2: E-learning students can adopt different personal information behavioural patterns in their academic, workplace and daily life contexts, while the information-related competencies acquired in any of the contexts are transferred to the other contexts. d) What are the variables involved in the different patterns of information behaviour of e-learning students? e) What are the personal information behaviour patterns of e-learning students in all their contexts of action? f) Is it possible the transfer of information-related competencies from/to academic, daily life and workplace contexts? 9
    10. 10. 5. Methodology Multiple research strategies Publications - Process of designing ontologies Paper I - Focus Group Hypothesis 1 - Log analysis Paper II - In-depth interviews Paper III Hypothesis 2 - Incident cases - Content analysis Paper IV Multiple methodology approach: • Quantitative: Way of doing. Real information behaviour • Qualitative: Way of being. Reasons of the behaviour 10
    11. 11. 6. Hypothesis 1. Paper I FERRAN, N.; MOR, E.; MINGUILLÓN, J. “Towards personalization in digital libraries through ontologies”, Library Management Journal, 2005, vol. 25, no. 4/5, p. 206-217. ISSN 0143-5125 • Purpose To describe those elements to buid a personalised info. delivery system integrated in VLE • Approach Use of ontologies to describe the relationship between all those which take part in a DL scenario of use 11
    12. 12. 6. Hypothesis 1. Research strategies • Basic steps to design ontologies (Denny, 2002): 12
    13. 13. 6. Hypothesis 1. Results (User Model) 13
    14. 14. 6. Hypothesis 1. Results (Navigation Model) 14
    15. 15. 6. Hypothesis 1. Paper II FERRAN, N.; CASADESÚS, J.; KRAKOWSKA, M.; MINGUILLÓN, J. “Enriching e-learning metadata through digital library usage analysis”, The Electronic Library, 2007, vol. 25, no. 2, p. 148-165. ISSN 0264-0473 • Purpose To propose and evaluate an automated technique to obtain non-authoritative metadata to rate LO in order to improve their description and support personalisation • Approach Tracking user navigation behaviour with LO 15
    16. 16. 6. Hypothesis 1. Research strategies • Data gathered automatically: – Non intrusive and without filters – Raw data generated by Virtual Campus web server (Apache) by default • 2 million log lines per month (Feb-June 2006), 38,000 users • Custom made application • Focusing on the records of 2 virtual classrooms: 350 students • Each session was analysed regarding access to the classroom and what actions were performed in the DL • Interactions with specific LOs were analysed in detail • Real information behaviour: no partialities of laboratory, not asking for active participation, natural environment • Privacy assured by identifying only HTTP sessions, not users 16
    17. 17. 6. Hypothesis 1. Results • Log file analysis of the navigational behaviour of LO: – Some resources were never used: • Poor description • Not useful for the learning process – Navigation followed time patterns – Students followed the learning plan 17
    18. 18. 6. Hypothesis 1. Results (time pattern) • Examples of Resource usage: Navigation differs over time • Number of downloads per day of 2 LOs: Drop/sustained Weekends Holidays 18
    19. 19. 6. Hypothesis 1. Results (Learning plan) • Examples of learning process' monitoring • Evolution of total number of downloads to 2 LOs: 4/5 days between LO accesses 19
    20. 20. 6. Hypothesis 1. Results • Authoritative / non-authoritative metadata • Selection of LOM non-authoritative fields that may be enriched from user navigation data: 1.5. Keyword 5.8. Difficulty 1.7. Structure 5.9. Typical learning time 1.8. Aggregation level 3. Metadata 7. Relation 5. Educational 9. Classification 5.1. Interactivity type 5.3. Interactivity level 20
    21. 21. 6. Hypothesis 1. Results • Example of metadata enrichment through LO usage: LO described as independent chunks of information Usage data: may reveal relationships with other LO's LOM 1.7. Structure and 1.8. Aggregation level 21
    22. 22. 6. Hypothesis 1. Summary Academic Workplace Daily life actions User preferences/features Model profile Virtual Learning USERS Environment Navigational behaviour Learning Qualitative: micro-scenarios Interaction library uses process Quantitative: log analysis INFO. CONTENTS SERVICES Repositories Metadata 22
    23. 23. 7. Hypothesis 2. Paper III FERRAN, N.; GUERRERO-ROLDÁN, A.; MOR, E.; MINGUILLÓN, J. “User Centered Design of a Learning Object Repository”. M. Kurosu (ed.): Human Centered Design, HCII 2009, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, no. 5619, p. 679–688. ISBN 978-3-642-02805-2 • Purpose To describe how to obtain information about user information behaviour to improve the design of LOR through UCD • Approach Qualitative approach (interviews and content analysis) 23
    24. 24. 7. Hypothesis 2. Paper IV FERRAN, N.; PÉREZ-MONTORO, M. La Gestión de la Información Personal en usuarios intensivos de las TIC, El Profesional de la Información, 2009, vol. 18, no. 4, p. 365-373. ISSN 1386-6710 • Purpose To offer an analytical model of information behaviour patterns of e- learning students in their three contexts (AC, WP, DL) • Approach: Qualitative (interviews and content analysis) 24
    25. 25. 7. Hypothesis 2. Research strategies • Random selection of the population under some criteria: – gender, age, profession, disciplines, semesters, num. subjects, family responsibilities and information literacy – Short phone interview to generate sample. Email incident cases (3 contexts) • 24 in-depth semi-structured interviews on e-learning students UOC (60-90 min each), Oct 07. 2 set trials (behaviour/context) • Content analysis: 2 coders, NVIVO 7.0, reliability test (Krippendorff, 2004). Codebook with 10 categories 25
    26. 26. 7. Hypothesis 2. Research strategies • Codebook Categories involved in the Information Contexts different information patterns actions Information-related competencies Access Academic (expert / non-expert) Attitude Management Workplace (implicated / uninvolved) Cognitive style Use Daily life (disciplined / chaotic) ICT use perceptions (enthusiastic / realistic / critical) 26
    27. 27. 7. Hypothesis 2. Research strategies • Access to information: – Gather and retrieve information. Needs • Management: – Treatment: applying existing organisation or classification systems – Integration: interpreting and representing information – Evaluation: quality, relevance, usefulness and efficiency of info • Use: – Creation: generate info, adapting, designing, inventing... – Communication: effective transmission using appropriate media, according to specific aims or recipients and to understand issues of copyright and plagiarism • Contexts: Academic, Workplace and Daily life 27
    28. 28. 7. Hypothesis 2. Research strategies • Information-related competencies (expert / non-expert): – knowledge, experience, skills, etc. to find, evaluate and use information effectively • Attitude: – related with relational patterns (interpersonal / intergroup) and personality traits (instinct, need, etc.): • Implicated: essentially motivated to learn or seek • Uninvolved: need a reward or punishment • Cognitive style: – personality aspect in relation with knowledge creation • Disciplined: meticulous, focus on process • Chaotic: follow their own rules, focus on results • ICT perceptions (ICT as enabler, no priority or reservations) • Enthusiastic, Realistic and Critical 28
    29. 29. 7. Hypothesis 2. Results • Access to information vs context: – Academic: “The university gives me everything so I do not need to bother about searching for more” – Workplace: The importance of the corridor – Daily Life: “I control the Internet; it is not the Net which controls me” • Management of information vs context: – Academic: Use of the tools in purposes unexpected when designed – Workplace: “We cannot take risks” – Daily Life: “No need for managing it” 29
    30. 30. 7. Hypothesis 2. Results • Use of information (communication) vs contexts: – Academic: email – Workplace: Everything is informal – Daily life: Fridge-door as a communication platform • Information-related competencies vs context: – There is a strong relationship between the IL in Daily Life and Workplace contexts – There is no association between being expert or non-expert in the academic context and the other two contexts 30
    31. 31. 7. Hypothesis 2. Results • Attitude (Implicated / Uninvolved) vs context: – Half of the participants had an implicated attitude in the three contexts at the same time – The other half were found to be implicated in the professional and daily life contexts while uninvolved in the academic • Cognitive style (Disciplined / Chaotic) vs context: – Clearly different upon the context: • Workplace: disciplined style prevails • Daily life: the chaotic predominates • Academic: both styles are equally abundant • ICT Perceptions: • Almost all cases coincident in being enthusiastic 31
    32. 32. 7. Hypothesis 2. Results Behaviour patterns: 75% of participants were either disciplinated-implicated or chaotic-uninvolved in the academic context. Cognitive style ⋅ attitude = FOUR information behaviour patterns Disciplined EX HA E U IV CT ST EA IV E R Attitude Implicated Uninvolved E PA T IV SS AC IV PRO E Chaotic Cognitive style 32
    33. 33. 7. Hypothesis 2. Results • Information Behavioural Patterns (cognitive style / attitude) EXHAUSTIVE: Disciplined / Implicated: – Active when searching, managing and using information, finding attractive these activities – When they learn or improve some skill in one context they are very talented for transferring them to the other contexts – They use newish and innovatory tools – But they need a roadmap, they appreciate guidelines and knowing the process for getting the expected results “...if I follow the marked steps, I am successful” 33
    34. 34. 7. Hypothesis 2. Results Disciplined EX HA E IV U CT ST EA IV R E Attitude Implicated Uninvolved E PA T IV SS AC IV PRO E Chaotic Cognitive style 34
    35. 35. 7. Hypothesis 2. Results • Information Behavioural Patterns (cognitive style / attitude) PASSIVE: Chaotic / Uninvolved – Users that are inconstant with procedures – Need to adapt their internal rules to the regulations of the contexts – “I receive the didactical material at home but I do not need to open the package” – They need an environment that allows them to choose from a wide range of processes to reach similar results 35
    36. 36. 7. Hypothesis 2. Results Disciplined EX HA E IV U CT ST EA IV R E Attitude Implicated Uninvolved E PA T IV SS AC IV PRO E Chaotic Cognitive style 36
    37. 37. 7. Hypothesis 2. Results • Information Behavioural Patterns (cognitive style / attitude) REACTIVE: Disciplined / Uninvolved – They need to feel secure with the tools, feel that they have the knowledge and skills – They act when “the teacher tells me which activities are useful for evaluation” – They transfer processes between contexts, but they use the predetermined tools offered by each context 37
    38. 38. 7. Hypothesis 2. Results Disciplined EX HA E IV U CT ST EA IV R E Attitude Implicated Uninvolved E PA T IV SS AC IV PRO E Chaotic Cognitive style 38
    39. 39. 7. Hypothesis 2. Results • Information Behavioural Patterns (cognitive style / attitude) PROACTIVE: Chaotic / Implicated – They apply different processes and tools to different contexts, not for standardizing their behaviour but as a personal feature – They use the newish tools if they are more open, flexible and agile – “I do not keep a directory, the Internet is already the directory” 39
    40. 40. Academic Workplace Daily life Hypothesis 2. Summary Actions User profile Preferences/ USERS Model features Virtual Learning Info. behaviour Environment EXHAUSTIVE Patterns PROACTIVE REACTIVE PASSIVE Learning Qualitative: interviews and process Interaction content analysis INFO. CONTENTS Quantitative: usage log SERVICES mining Repositories Metadata UCD Competencies 40
    41. 41. 8. Conclusions • Hypothesis 1: The navigation behaviour of the users of a virtual library generates information for offering personalised services. Research question: a) How can the elements of a personalisation system of a virtual library be semantically represented by the data coming from users' navigational behaviour? (Paper I) 41
    42. 42. 8. Conclusions a) Using the information relevant to the process of searching and browsing, the elements that determine the requisites of a personalised virtual library embedded in an e-learning environment are the following: – User profile: including personal information, user preferences and navigational history. – Navigational profiles: data from the navigational behaviour of the digital library users. 42
    43. 43. 8. Conclusions • Hypothesis 1: The navigation behaviour of the users of a virtual library generates information for offering personalised services. Research question: b) How can the information behaviour of e-learning students be reused for rating learning objects? (Paper II) 43
    44. 44. 8. Conclusions b) Regarding the resources involved in the learning process, they can be rated in an automated way based on registering navigational actions of students. In this way, their information behaviour within each session in the virtual campus can be analysed and the access to each particular learning object can be studied: – Even without the special recording utilities in the virtual campus, the interaction of students with learning objects can be tracked by analysing server log files where all HTTP requests are recorded by default. 44
    45. 45. 8. Conclusions - More advanced potentialities are limited by the anonymity of the students. In this sense, a more in depth analysis would require recording an unambiguous identification of the student in each session, not just his or her IP address, while dealing with privacy concerns. 45
    46. 46. 8. Conclusions • Hypothesis 1: The navigation behaviour of the users of a virtual library generates information for offering personalised services. Research question: c) What metadata fields can be automatically filled from analysing user interactions with learning objects?(Paper II) 46
    47. 47. 8. Conclusions c) From the evaluation of the interactions between users and contents, a selection of Learning Object Metadata (LOM) fields can be automatically generated and be further used as non-authoritative metadata for rating those learning objects. – These are the selected LOM fields: 1.5. Keyword 5.8. Difficulty 1.7. Structure 5.9. Typical learning time 1.8. Aggregation level 3. Metadata 7. Relation 5. Educational 9. Classification 5.1. Interactivity type 5.3. Interactivity level 47
    48. 48. 8. Conclusions • Hypothesis 2: E-learning students can adopt different personal information behaviour patterns in their academic, workplace and daily life contexts, while the information-related competencies acquired in any of the contexts are transferred to the other contexts. Research question: d) What are the variables involved in the different patterns of information behaviour of e-learning students? (Paper III) 48
    49. 49. 8. Conclusions d) As the first step towards the design of a personalised information delivery system, a User Centred Design (UCD) approach can be applied for planning and developing a learning object repository: • Interviews and log analyses are complementary methodologies for gathering user requirements to obtain a service adapted to user profile and context of use. 49
    50. 50. 8. Conclusions • Hypothesis 2: E-learning students can adopt different personal information behaviour patterns in their academic, workplace and daily life contexts, while the information-related competencies acquired in any of the contexts are transferred to the other contexts. Research question: e) What are the personal information behaviour patterns of e-learning students in all their contexts of action? (Paper IV) 50
    51. 51. 8. Conclusions e) The personal information behaviour of e-learning students can be classified into four patterns taking into account their attitudes and cognitive approaches: • This user categorisation can be stored in the user profile to feed the personalised information delivery system. • Other analysed variables such as gender, number of semesters of enrolment with a virtual university and family responsibilities do not determine differences in the personal information behaviour of e- learning students. 51
    52. 52. 8. Conclusions • Hypothesis 2: E-learning students can adopt different personal information behaviour patterns in their academic, workplace and daily life contexts, while the information-related competencies acquired in any of the contexts are transferred to the other contexts. Research question: f) Is it possible the transfer of information-related competencies from/to academic, daily life and workplace contexts? (Paper IV) 52
    53. 53. 8. Conclusions f) There is some transfer of information-related competencies between workplace, daily life and academic contexts, but this is only at a basic level of information literacy expertise: • The cognitive approach (disciplined / chaotic) is not relevant for behaving as expert or non-expert in information-related competencies in all of the three contexts. 53
    54. 54. 8. Conclusions • The relationship between information-related competencies’ expertise, attitude and cognitive approach is different for each context: – In the workplace, being expert in information literacy is associated with having an implicated attitude and a disciplined cognitive approach. – In daily life, the information-related competencies do not show any clear relationship with cognitive approach. – In the academic context, the observed low level of information literacy seems to be related with a prevalent uninvolved attitude with chaotic features. 54
    55. 55. 8. Conclusions • There is a regular pattern involving the cognitive approach and attitude. If people are implicated, they will also develop a disciplined cognitive approach, while if they are uninvolved, they behave informationally chaotic. 55
    56. 56. PhD Defense Towards a personalised virtual library: indications from navigational and personal information behaviour of e-learning students Thank you for your attention.

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