From The States General until the Fall of the Bastille (14 th July 1789)
The National Constituent Assembly(1789-1791)
The Constitutional Monarchy (1791-1792)
The radical Stage:
The Girondin Convention(1792-1793)
The Jacobin Convention (1793-1795)
The Directory (1795-1799)
Causes of the French Revolution- 1789
Economic crisis: bad harvest, rising bread prices…because of hard winters
Financial crisis: the bankrupt of administration. The third estate was inable to pay more taxes and the only exit was that the privileged estates would pay, but the refused to do it, so the king convoked the Estates General in order to change the taxation system
Influence of American Revolution. The involvement of France in the American war of Independence caused a new financial crisis .
In 1789, on May, the Estates General met. The third Estate , most of them bourgeois, asked to change the voting system from the vote for each Estate to the vote for each person. The other Estates didn´t agree and the representatives of the third Estate gave themselves the name of National Assembly, which represented the people of France. Some of the nobles and many clergy joined with them.
The beginning (1788-1789)
When the king shut them from Versailles, they took the Tennis Court Oath on June 20, pledging themselves not to separate until they had give France a constitution. The Revolution had began.
On July 14, the Royal prison of Bastille was stormed by people, because they thought that the king wanted to detent the Assembly.This date was considered the real start of the Revolution
The National Constituent Assembly (1789-1791)
While the representatives wrote the Constitution, on August 26 The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was approved, which signalled the end of the Ancien Régime. It was the moment in which the Estates disappeared for ever.
The economic crisis led to a radicalitation of the political atmosphere. In October 1791, Louis moved from Versailles to Paris to approved the First Constitution of France.
Constitutional Monarchy (1792-1792)
After Louis XVI approved the Constitution, he dedicated all of his interest in deny all the new laws the new Assembly made.
Austria and Prussia declared the war on France in 1792. Meanwhile the king attempted to flee, unsuccessfully from Paris to Varennes in June 1791, but he was captured by the revolutionaries. The Austro-prussians threatened the French if they touch the kings.
Now , the sansculottes, that means, the most poor and radical people, attacked the Tulleiries Palace, where the kings lived and that was the end of the Monarchy in France.
Now , the two republican political parties, the Girondins, moderate republicans, and the Jacobins, more radical and supported by sansculottes and leaded by Robespierre, took the political. control
The Girondin Convention (1792-1793)
The Legislative Assembly was replaced by a more radical one called the National Convention. The Republic was proclaimed due to the royal attitude. Louis XVI was executed on January 1793.
War was declared on Great Britain and France became involved in wars with several countries and against the counterrevolutionaries inside France.
The Committee of Public Safety was instituted in order to judge the counter revolutionaries
The Jacobin Convention : The Terror (1793-1795)
The new Convention approved a Constitution, never applied. They created a great Army and they stopped the enemies. Robespierre established a maximum for prices in some basic articles like bread.
With the jacobins and Robespierre all political enemies were exterminated . This period was called The Reign of Terror. It was a dictatorship. But a coup d´etat ended with the Terror and the moderates took control after executed Robespierre.
The Directory (1795-1799)
The Convention was replaced in 1795 by the Directory, a moderate republican government. They made another Constitution, more moderate, and tried to bring peace. They won against Allied States, thanks to a brilliant general called Napoleon Bonaparte.
In 1799 , after a coup d´etat by Napoleon, the Directory was abolished and the power given to three consules , one of them Napoleon, because the Directory didn´t satisfied anybody.
Try to put the following events in the right date: Waterloo, First Constitution, Fall of Bastille, War of Independence in Spain, Reign of Terror, Flight to Varennes, Abolition of Feudal System, First Republic, declaration of Rights of Men and Citizen, the Directory, Coup d´etat of Napoleon, Napoleon proclaimed himself as Emperor.
14 July 4 August 26 August June October September 1793 1795 1799 1804 1808 1815
1789 1789 1791 1792 1794
Napoleon´s Age has two different stages:
The consulate 1799- 1804.
1815 –Empire of the Hundred Days
Napoleon the Consulate
After the coup d´etat France was ruled by a Consulate of 3 men leaded by Napoleon. He was supported by the high bourgeoisie.
He introduced several revolutionaries ideas in his reforms: he did the Civil Code, he improved education and he created the National Bank of France.
Napoleon: The Empire
Napoleon declared himself Emperor of the French in 1804. He concentrated the authority in his own person and he dreamt of creating a European Empire. He invaded some states in Europe and he wanted to spread, as an Enlightened Despot, the liberal ideas through the whole Europe.
Some states were invaded easely but , others , like Spain or Russia, offered a hard resistence.
Their enemies formed a Coalition to fight against him.
After his first defeat he was send to Elba but he returned from exile with the help of his unconditionals: this period was called The Hundred Days ´
Napoleon : the end
Napoleon was finally defeated in the battle of Waterloo, 1815 (Belgium) by a league of Absolutists countries (Austria, Russia, Prussia and Great Britain). Considered by his enemies as a danger, Napoleon was sent to exile in St Helena´s Island , in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.
THE ORGANISATION OF EUROPE AFTER NAPOLEON (1815-1830)
After Napoleon there was no turning back because:
the Feudalism was dying
In France and some other European countries the church was losing power.
The concept of State became linked to the concept of nation
The bourgeoisie became the most powerful social class.
Congress of Vienna and Restoration (1815-1830)
The countries that had fought against Napoleon tried to turn back to the Ancient Regime.
The Absolutist monarchs met at the Vienna of Congress: Austria, Russia, Prussia, Great Britain. They decided to:
Return the frontiers of France in 1789
Restore legitimate monarchs to every European country
Try to create a balance of power to avoid another revolution
Agree to intervene in a conflict in any state if the monarch was in danger.
Austria, Prussia and Russia founded the Holly Alliance, a coalition to instill the Christian values in European political life, but in practice, chanceller Metternich from Austria, made it a bastion against revolution. The monarchs of these countries used this in order to prevent revolutionary influence. Later, the Alliance included United Kingdom and France.