TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS

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TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING

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TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS

  1. 1. FUNDAMENTALS OF RP TYPES OF RP SLAFDM SLS 3D PRINTER
  2. 2. INPUT, METHOD, MATERIAL, APPLICATION
  3. 3. Figure 2.1: The Rapid Prototyping Wheel depicting the 4 major aspects of RP
  4. 4.  Input refers to the electronic information required to describe the physical object with 3D data.  There are two possible starting points – a computer model or a physical model.  The computer model created by a CAD system can be either a surface model or a solid model.
  5. 5.  On the other hand, 3D data from the physical model is not at all straightforward.  It requires data acquisition through a method known as reverse engineering.  In reverse engineering, a wide range of equipment digitizer, to capture data points of the physical model and “reconstruct” it in CAD system.
  6. 6.  While they are currently more than 20 vendors for RP systems, the method employed by each vendor can be generally classified into the following categories: ◦ photo-curing, ◦ cutting and glueing/joining, ◦ melting and solidifying/fusing and joining/binding.
  7. 7.  Photo-curing can be further divided into categories of ◦ single laser beam, ◦ double laser beams and ◦ masked lamp
  8. 8.  The initial state of material can come in either ◦ solid, liquid or powder state.  In solid state, it can come in various forms such ◦ a pallets, wire or laminates.  The current range materials include ◦ paper, nylon, wax, resins, metals and ceramics.
  9. 9.  Most of the RP parts are finished or touched up before they are used for their intended applications.  Applications can be grouped into: ◦ Design ◦ Engineering, Analysis and Planning ◦ Tooling and Manufacturing
  10. 10.  A wide range of industries can benefit from RP and these include, but are not limited to, ◦ aerospace, ◦ automotive, ◦ biomedical, consumer, ◦ electrical and electronics products.
  11. 11. LIQUID BASED, SOLID BASED, POWDER BASED
  12. 12.  Liquid-based RP systems have the initial form of its material in liquid state.  Through a process commonly known as curing, the liquid is converted into the solid state.  The following RP systems fall into this category: 1) 3D Systems’ Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) 2) Cubital’s Solid Ground Curing (SGC) 3) Sony’s Solid Creation System (SCS) 4) CMET’s Solid Object Ultraviolet-Laser Printer (SOUP)
  13. 13. 5) Autostrade’s E-Darts 6) Teijin Seiki’s Soliform System 7) Meiko’s Rapid Prototyping System for the Jewelry Industry 8) Denken’s SLP 9) Mitsui’s COLAMM 10)Fockele & Schwarze’s LMS 11)Light Sculpting 12)Aaroflex 13)Rapid Freeze 14)Two Laser Beams 15)Micro-fabrication
  14. 14.  As is illustrated in the RP Wheel in Figure 2.1, three methods are possible under the “Photo-curing” method. ◦ The single laser beam method is most widely use and includes all the above RP systems with the exception of (2), (11), (13) and (14). ◦ Cubital (2) and Light Sculpting (11) use the masked lamp method, while the two laser beam method is still not commercialized. ◦ Rapid Freeze (13) involves the freezing of water droplets and deposits in a manner much like FDM to create the prototype.  .
  15. 15.  Except for powder, solid-based RP systems are meant to encompass all forms of material in the solid state.  In this context, the solid form can include the shape in the form of ◦ a wire, a roll, laminates and pallets.  The following RP systems fall into this definition: 1)Cubic Technologies’ Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) 2)Stratasys’ Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
  16. 16. 3) Kira Corporation’s Paper Lamination Technology (PLT) 4) 3D Systems’ Multi-Jet Modeling System (MJM) 5) Solidscape’s ModelMaker and PatternMaster 6) Beijing Yinhua’s Slicing Solid Manufacturing (SSM), Melted Extrusion Modeling (MEM) and Multi-Functional RPM Systems (M-RPM) 7) CAM-LEM’s CL 100 8) Ennex Corporation’s Offset Fabbers
  17. 17.  Referring to the RP Wheel in Figure 2.1, two methods are possible for solid-based RP systems.  RP systems (1), (3), (4) and (9) belong to the Cutting and Glueing/Joining method,  while the Melting and Solidifying/Fusing method used RP systems (2), (5), (6), (7) and (8).
  18. 18.  In a strict sense, powder is by-and-large in the solid state.  However, it is intentionally created as a category outside the solid-based RP systems to mean powder in grain-like form.  The following RP systems fall into this definition: 1) 3D Systems’s Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) 2) EOS’s Corporation EOSINT Systems 3) Z Corporation’s Three-Dimensional Printing (3DP) 4) Optomec’s Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS)
  19. 19. 5) Soligen’s Direct Shell Production Casting (MJS) 6) Fraunhofer’s Multiphase Jet Solidifcation (MJS) 7) Acram’s Electron Beam Melting (EBM) 8) Aeromet Corporation’s Lasform Technology 9) Precision Optical Manufacturing’s Direct Metal Deposition (DMDTM ) 10)Generis’ RP System (GS) 11)Therics Inc.’s Theriform Technology 12)Extrude Hone’s PrometalTM 3D Printing Process  
  20. 20.  All the above RP systems employ the Joining/Binding method.  The method of joining/binding differs for the above systems in that some employ a laser while others use a binder/glue to achieve the joining effect.
  21. 21. PROCESS, MATERIAL, ADVANTAGES, LIMITATIONS
  22. 22.  History: ◦ Worldwide first RP-technology at all ◦ Patented 1984 ◦ Commercialized 1988 by 3D-Systems Inc.  The generative approach: ◦ Production of parts by addition of material instead of removal (like for example by cutting,etc) ◦ Layer-by-layer build up >>bottom-to-top<< ◦ Easy manufacture of undercuts, complex structures, internal holes  
  23. 23.  Realization by Stereolithography ◦ Local solidification of a light-sensitive liquid resin (photopolymer) using an UV laser ◦ Scanning of the cross-section areas to be hardened with the laser focus.
  24. 24.  Layer – by – layer curing of a liquid photopolymer by a laser  Control of laser by a scan-mirror system
  25. 25.  Process steps ◦ Lowering of table by the thickness of one layer ◦ Application/leveling of liquid resin ◦ Scanning with laser ◦ Again lowering of table  Supports ◦ Needed for manufacture of undercuts ◦ Build up with part similar to a honey-bee-structure
  26. 26.  Process chain of SLA
  27. 27.  Process chain of SLA (Cont..)
  28. 28.  Only photopolymer of different qualities available ◦ temp.-proof, ◦ flexible, ◦ transparent etc)
  29. 29.  High part complexity  High accuracy  Support structure required
  30. 30.  Part size: 250x250x250 mm3 to 1000x800x500 mm3  Accuracy: 0.05 mm  Facility costs: 50 000 – 605 000 US$
  31. 31. PROCESS, MATERIAL, ADVANTAGES, LIMITATIONS
  32. 32.  
  33. 33.  Melting of a wire-shaped plastic material and deposition with a xy-plotter mechanism  Characteristics ◦ Limited part complexity ◦ Two different material for part and support
  34. 34.  Thermoplastics ◦ ABS, ◦ Nylon, ◦ Wax etc)
  35. 35.  Fabrication of functional parts  Minimal wastage  Ease of support removal  Ease of material change
  36. 36.  Restricted accuracy – filament diameter 1.27mm  Slow process  Unpredictable shrinkage  Part size: 600x500x600 mm3  Accuracy: +/- 0.1 mm  Facility costs: 66 500 – 290 000 US$
  37. 37. PROCESS, MATERIAL, ADVANTAGES, LIMITATIONS
  38. 38.  TYPE 1 ◦ Produced by 3 D Systems, USA ◦ Developed & patented by Univ of Texas, Austin ◦ Material: only technology directly process thermoplastic, metallic, ceramic & thermoplastic composites ◦ Model: sinter station 2000, 2500 & 2500plus , Vanguard  
  39. 39.  TYPE 2 ◦ Produced by EOS, Germany ◦ First European for plastics, & manufacturer ◦ Capable to produce 700 x 380 x 580 (mm) ◦ First worldwide system for direct laser sintering ◦ Model:  EOSINT P – thermoplastic ( eg nylon )  EOSINT M – metal  EOSINT P 700 – plastic  
  40. 40.  Local melting/sintering of a powder by a laser  Direct: the powder particles melt together  Indirect: the powder particles are coated with a thermoplastic binder which melts up  Characteristics ◦ High part complexity ◦ Many materials available ◦ Burning out of the binder and infiltration might be required ◦ Relatively high porosity and surface roughness ◦ Usually no supports needed
  41. 41.  Wax  Thermoplastics  Metal  Casting sand  Ceramics
  42. 42.  TYPE 1 (3D System) ◦ Good part stability –precise controlled environment ◦ Wide range of processing materials – nylon, polycarbonates, metals etc ◦ No part supports required – material as support ◦ Little post-processing required - blasting & sanding ◦ No post-curing required – model solid enough
  43. 43.  TYPE 2 (EOS) ◦ Good part stability –precise controlled environment ◦ Wide range of processing materials – polyamide, polystyrene, metals etc ◦ No part supports required or only simplified support – reduce building time ◦ Little post-processing required – good model finishing ◦ High accuracy – low shrinkage & in separation building ◦ No post-curing required – model solid enough ◦ Built large part – large build volume (700x380x580)
  44. 44.  Part size: 250x250x150 to 720x500x450 mm3  Accuracy: +/- 0.1 mm  Facility costs: 275 000 – 850 000 US$
  45. 45.  TYPE 1 (3D System) ◦ Large physical size of the unit – need big space. ◦ High power consumption – high wattage of laser for sintering. ◦ Poor surface finish – use large particle powder  TYPE 2 (EOS) ◦ Dedicated systems – for plastic, metal & sand only. ◦ High power consumption – high laser power for metal sintering. ◦ large physical size of unit – use large space
  46. 46. PROCESS, MATERIAL, ADVANTAGES, LIMITATIONS
  47. 47.  Produced by Z Corporation, USA  Core Technology invented & patented by MIT  Materials: starch & plaster formulations  Model: ◦ Z 400 – entry level & education ◦ Z 406/ 510 – Color Printer builds ◦ Z 810 - large build volume  
  48. 48.  Local bonding of starch powder by a binder using an ink jet (patent of MIT)  Characteristics ◦ Very high building speeds ◦ Easy handling ◦ Binder available in different colors ◦ Infiltration necessary ◦ Ideal for fast visualization
  49. 49.  Process steps ◦ Spread a layer of powder ◦ Print the cross section of the part ◦ Spread another layer of powder ◦ Parts are printed with no supports to remove ◦ Refer z corp.doc
  50. 50.  Starch powder (Z Corp.)  Other manufactures offer systems for ceramics or metals
  51. 51.  High speed – layer printed in seconds  Versatile - used for automotive, aerospace, footwear, packaging, etc  simple to operate - straightforward  No wastage of material – can recycle  colour – enable complex colour scheme
  52. 52.  Part size: 200x250x200 mm  Resolution 600 dpi in x-y-direction  Facility costs: 49 000 – 67 500 US$  Limited functional parts – models are weak  limited materials – starch & plaster-based only  poor surface finish – need post-processing

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