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TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS
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TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - ADDITIVE PROCESS

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TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING

TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING

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  • 1. FUNDAMENTALS OF RP TYPES OF RP SLAFDM SLS 3D PRINTER
  • 2. INPUT, METHOD, MATERIAL, APPLICATION
  • 3. Figure 2.1: The Rapid Prototyping Wheel depicting the 4 major aspects of RP
  • 4.  Input refers to the electronic information required to describe the physical object with 3D data.  There are two possible starting points – a computer model or a physical model.  The computer model created by a CAD system can be either a surface model or a solid model.
  • 5.  On the other hand, 3D data from the physical model is not at all straightforward.  It requires data acquisition through a method known as reverse engineering.  In reverse engineering, a wide range of equipment digitizer, to capture data points of the physical model and “reconstruct” it in CAD system.
  • 6.  While they are currently more than 20 vendors for RP systems, the method employed by each vendor can be generally classified into the following categories: ◦ photo-curing, ◦ cutting and glueing/joining, ◦ melting and solidifying/fusing and joining/binding.
  • 7.  Photo-curing can be further divided into categories of ◦ single laser beam, ◦ double laser beams and ◦ masked lamp
  • 8.  The initial state of material can come in either ◦ solid, liquid or powder state.  In solid state, it can come in various forms such ◦ a pallets, wire or laminates.  The current range materials include ◦ paper, nylon, wax, resins, metals and ceramics.
  • 9.  Most of the RP parts are finished or touched up before they are used for their intended applications.  Applications can be grouped into: ◦ Design ◦ Engineering, Analysis and Planning ◦ Tooling and Manufacturing
  • 10.  A wide range of industries can benefit from RP and these include, but are not limited to, ◦ aerospace, ◦ automotive, ◦ biomedical, consumer, ◦ electrical and electronics products.
  • 11. LIQUID BASED, SOLID BASED, POWDER BASED
  • 12.  Liquid-based RP systems have the initial form of its material in liquid state.  Through a process commonly known as curing, the liquid is converted into the solid state.  The following RP systems fall into this category: 1) 3D Systems’ Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) 2) Cubital’s Solid Ground Curing (SGC) 3) Sony’s Solid Creation System (SCS) 4) CMET’s Solid Object Ultraviolet-Laser Printer (SOUP)
  • 13. 5) Autostrade’s E-Darts 6) Teijin Seiki’s Soliform System 7) Meiko’s Rapid Prototyping System for the Jewelry Industry 8) Denken’s SLP 9) Mitsui’s COLAMM 10)Fockele & Schwarze’s LMS 11)Light Sculpting 12)Aaroflex 13)Rapid Freeze 14)Two Laser Beams 15)Micro-fabrication
  • 14.  As is illustrated in the RP Wheel in Figure 2.1, three methods are possible under the “Photo-curing” method. ◦ The single laser beam method is most widely use and includes all the above RP systems with the exception of (2), (11), (13) and (14). ◦ Cubital (2) and Light Sculpting (11) use the masked lamp method, while the two laser beam method is still not commercialized. ◦ Rapid Freeze (13) involves the freezing of water droplets and deposits in a manner much like FDM to create the prototype.  .
  • 15.  Except for powder, solid-based RP systems are meant to encompass all forms of material in the solid state.  In this context, the solid form can include the shape in the form of ◦ a wire, a roll, laminates and pallets.  The following RP systems fall into this definition: 1)Cubic Technologies’ Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) 2)Stratasys’ Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
  • 16. 3) Kira Corporation’s Paper Lamination Technology (PLT) 4) 3D Systems’ Multi-Jet Modeling System (MJM) 5) Solidscape’s ModelMaker and PatternMaster 6) Beijing Yinhua’s Slicing Solid Manufacturing (SSM), Melted Extrusion Modeling (MEM) and Multi-Functional RPM Systems (M-RPM) 7) CAM-LEM’s CL 100 8) Ennex Corporation’s Offset Fabbers
  • 17.  Referring to the RP Wheel in Figure 2.1, two methods are possible for solid-based RP systems.  RP systems (1), (3), (4) and (9) belong to the Cutting and Glueing/Joining method,  while the Melting and Solidifying/Fusing method used RP systems (2), (5), (6), (7) and (8).
  • 18.  In a strict sense, powder is by-and-large in the solid state.  However, it is intentionally created as a category outside the solid-based RP systems to mean powder in grain-like form.  The following RP systems fall into this definition: 1) 3D Systems’s Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) 2) EOS’s Corporation EOSINT Systems 3) Z Corporation’s Three-Dimensional Printing (3DP) 4) Optomec’s Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS)
  • 19. 5) Soligen’s Direct Shell Production Casting (MJS) 6) Fraunhofer’s Multiphase Jet Solidifcation (MJS) 7) Acram’s Electron Beam Melting (EBM) 8) Aeromet Corporation’s Lasform Technology 9) Precision Optical Manufacturing’s Direct Metal Deposition (DMDTM ) 10)Generis’ RP System (GS) 11)Therics Inc.’s Theriform Technology 12)Extrude Hone’s PrometalTM 3D Printing Process  
  • 20.  All the above RP systems employ the Joining/Binding method.  The method of joining/binding differs for the above systems in that some employ a laser while others use a binder/glue to achieve the joining effect.
  • 21. PROCESS, MATERIAL, ADVANTAGES, LIMITATIONS
  • 22.  History: ◦ Worldwide first RP-technology at all ◦ Patented 1984 ◦ Commercialized 1988 by 3D-Systems Inc.  The generative approach: ◦ Production of parts by addition of material instead of removal (like for example by cutting,etc) ◦ Layer-by-layer build up >>bottom-to-top<< ◦ Easy manufacture of undercuts, complex structures, internal holes  
  • 23.  Realization by Stereolithography ◦ Local solidification of a light-sensitive liquid resin (photopolymer) using an UV laser ◦ Scanning of the cross-section areas to be hardened with the laser focus.
  • 24.  Layer – by – layer curing of a liquid photopolymer by a laser  Control of laser by a scan-mirror system
  • 25.  Process steps ◦ Lowering of table by the thickness of one layer ◦ Application/leveling of liquid resin ◦ Scanning with laser ◦ Again lowering of table  Supports ◦ Needed for manufacture of undercuts ◦ Build up with part similar to a honey-bee-structure
  • 26.  Process chain of SLA
  • 27.  Process chain of SLA (Cont..)
  • 28.  Only photopolymer of different qualities available ◦ temp.-proof, ◦ flexible, ◦ transparent etc)
  • 29.  High part complexity  High accuracy  Support structure required
  • 30.  Part size: 250x250x250 mm3 to 1000x800x500 mm3  Accuracy: 0.05 mm  Facility costs: 50 000 – 605 000 US$
  • 31. PROCESS, MATERIAL, ADVANTAGES, LIMITATIONS
  • 32.  
  • 33.  Melting of a wire-shaped plastic material and deposition with a xy-plotter mechanism  Characteristics ◦ Limited part complexity ◦ Two different material for part and support
  • 34.  Thermoplastics ◦ ABS, ◦ Nylon, ◦ Wax etc)
  • 35.  Fabrication of functional parts  Minimal wastage  Ease of support removal  Ease of material change
  • 36.  Restricted accuracy – filament diameter 1.27mm  Slow process  Unpredictable shrinkage  Part size: 600x500x600 mm3  Accuracy: +/- 0.1 mm  Facility costs: 66 500 – 290 000 US$
  • 37. PROCESS, MATERIAL, ADVANTAGES, LIMITATIONS
  • 38.  TYPE 1 ◦ Produced by 3 D Systems, USA ◦ Developed & patented by Univ of Texas, Austin ◦ Material: only technology directly process thermoplastic, metallic, ceramic & thermoplastic composites ◦ Model: sinter station 2000, 2500 & 2500plus , Vanguard  
  • 39.  TYPE 2 ◦ Produced by EOS, Germany ◦ First European for plastics, & manufacturer ◦ Capable to produce 700 x 380 x 580 (mm) ◦ First worldwide system for direct laser sintering ◦ Model:  EOSINT P – thermoplastic ( eg nylon )  EOSINT M – metal  EOSINT P 700 – plastic  
  • 40.  Local melting/sintering of a powder by a laser  Direct: the powder particles melt together  Indirect: the powder particles are coated with a thermoplastic binder which melts up  Characteristics ◦ High part complexity ◦ Many materials available ◦ Burning out of the binder and infiltration might be required ◦ Relatively high porosity and surface roughness ◦ Usually no supports needed
  • 41.  Wax  Thermoplastics  Metal  Casting sand  Ceramics
  • 42.  TYPE 1 (3D System) ◦ Good part stability –precise controlled environment ◦ Wide range of processing materials – nylon, polycarbonates, metals etc ◦ No part supports required – material as support ◦ Little post-processing required - blasting & sanding ◦ No post-curing required – model solid enough
  • 43.  TYPE 2 (EOS) ◦ Good part stability –precise controlled environment ◦ Wide range of processing materials – polyamide, polystyrene, metals etc ◦ No part supports required or only simplified support – reduce building time ◦ Little post-processing required – good model finishing ◦ High accuracy – low shrinkage & in separation building ◦ No post-curing required – model solid enough ◦ Built large part – large build volume (700x380x580)
  • 44.  Part size: 250x250x150 to 720x500x450 mm3  Accuracy: +/- 0.1 mm  Facility costs: 275 000 – 850 000 US$
  • 45.  TYPE 1 (3D System) ◦ Large physical size of the unit – need big space. ◦ High power consumption – high wattage of laser for sintering. ◦ Poor surface finish – use large particle powder  TYPE 2 (EOS) ◦ Dedicated systems – for plastic, metal & sand only. ◦ High power consumption – high laser power for metal sintering. ◦ large physical size of unit – use large space
  • 46. PROCESS, MATERIAL, ADVANTAGES, LIMITATIONS
  • 47.  Produced by Z Corporation, USA  Core Technology invented & patented by MIT  Materials: starch & plaster formulations  Model: ◦ Z 400 – entry level & education ◦ Z 406/ 510 – Color Printer builds ◦ Z 810 - large build volume  
  • 48.  Local bonding of starch powder by a binder using an ink jet (patent of MIT)  Characteristics ◦ Very high building speeds ◦ Easy handling ◦ Binder available in different colors ◦ Infiltration necessary ◦ Ideal for fast visualization
  • 49.  Process steps ◦ Spread a layer of powder ◦ Print the cross section of the part ◦ Spread another layer of powder ◦ Parts are printed with no supports to remove ◦ Refer z corp.doc
  • 50.  Starch powder (Z Corp.)  Other manufactures offer systems for ceramics or metals
  • 51.  High speed – layer printed in seconds  Versatile - used for automotive, aerospace, footwear, packaging, etc  simple to operate - straightforward  No wastage of material – can recycle  colour – enable complex colour scheme
  • 52.  Part size: 200x250x200 mm  Resolution 600 dpi in x-y-direction  Facility costs: 49 000 – 67 500 US$  Limited functional parts – models are weak  limited materials – starch & plaster-based only  poor surface finish – need post-processing

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