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  • 1. OPEN SHORTEST PATH FIRST (OSPF) I. Tujuan 1. Mahasiswa memahami tentang cara kerja protokol routing dinamis. 2. Mahasiswa dapat melakukan konfigurasi protokol OSPF pada cisco router. II. Peralatan 1. PC dengan software Packet Tracer III. Teori Dasar Routing Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) adalah salah satu protokol pada keluarga IP, untuk routing dinamik, dan juga sebuah routing protocol standard terbuka yang telah diimplementasikan oleh sejumlah besar vendor jaringan. Alasan untuk mengkonfigurasi OSPF dalam sebuah topologi adalah untuk mengurangi overhead (waktu pemrosesan) routing, mempercepat convergance,serta membatasi ketidakstabilan network disebuah area dalam suatu network. Keunggulan OSPF, yaitu konsep jaringan hirarki yang membuat proses update informasinya lebih termanajemen dengan baik. Dalam menerapkan konsep hirarki ini, OSPF menggunakan pembagian jaringan berdasarkan konsep area-area. Pembagian berdasarkan area ini yang juga merupakan salah satu kelebihan OSPF. OSPF adalah routing protocol berbasis link state, termasuk dalam Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). Menggunakan algoritma Dijkstra untuk menghitung Shortest Path First (SPF). Menggunakan cost sebagai routing metric. OSPF di desain oleh IETF ( Internet Engineering Task Force ) yang pada mulanya dikembangkan dari algoritma SPF (shortest path first). OSPF diturunkan dari beberapa periset seperti Bolt, Beranek, Newmans. Protokol ini bersifat open yang berarti dapat diadopsi oleh siapa pun. OSPF dipublikasikan pada RFC nomor 1247. Karakteristik Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) : • Menggunakan Algoritma link-state • Membutuhkan waktu CPU dan memori yang besar • Tidak menyebabkan routing loop • Dapat membentuk heirarki routing menggunakan konsep area • Cepat mengetahui perubahan pada jaringan • Dapat menggunakan beberapa metrik 1
  • 2. Dengan kemampauan melayani jaringan lokal berskala besar. Artinya OSPF haruslah memiliki nilai skalabilitas yang tinggi, tidak mudah habis atau “mentok” karena jaringan yang semakin diperbesar. Namun nyatanya pada penerapan OSPF biasa, beberapa kejadian juga dapat membuat router OSPF kewalahan dalam menangani jaringan yang semakin membesar. Router OSPF akan mencapai titik kewalahan ketika:  Semakin membesarnya area jaringan yang dilayaninya akan semakin banyak informasi yang saling dipertukarkan. Semakin banyak router yang perlu dilayani untuk menjadi neighbour dan adjacence. Dan semakin banyak pula proses pertukaran informasi routing terjadi. Hal ini akan membuat router OSPF membutuhkan lebih banyak sumber memory dan processor. Jika router tersebut tidak dilengkapi dengan memory dan processor yang tinggi, maka masalah akan terjadi pada router ini.  Topology table akan semakin membesar dengan semakin besarnya jaringan. Topology table memang harus ada dalam OSPF karena OSPF termasuk routing protocol jenis Link State. Topology table menrupakan tabel kumpulan informasi state seluruh link yang ada dalam jaringan tersebut. Dengan semakin membesarnya jaringan, maka topology table juga semakin membengkak besarnya. Pembengkakan ini akan mengakibatkan router menjadi lama dalam menentukan sebuah jalur terbaik yang akan dimasukkan ke routing table. Dengan demikian, performa forwarding data juga menjadi lamban.  Topology table yang semakin membesar akan mengakibatkan routing table semakin membesar pula. Routing table merupakan kumpulan informasi rute menuju ke suatu lokasi tertentu. Namun, rute-rute yang ada di dalamnya sudah merupakan rute terbaik yang dipilih menggunakan algoritma Djikstra. Routing table yang panjang dan besar akan mengakibatkan pencarian sebuah jalan ketika ingin digunakan menjadi lambat, sehingga proses forwarding data juga semakin lambat dan menguras tenaga processor dan memory. Performa router menjadi berkurang. 2
  • 3. Gambar 1. Contoh topologi OSPF Pada R1: router ospf 1 network 131.108.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 1 network 131.108.4.0 0.0.0.127 area 1 network 131.108.5.0 0.0.0.31 area 1 Pada R2: router ospf 2 network 131.108.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 1 network 131.108.5.32 0.0.0.31 area 1 network 131.108.6.1 0.0.0.0 area 1 network 131.108.6.2 0.0.0.0 area 1 3
  • 4. IV. Percobaan 1. Percobaan point to point (p2p). a. Bentuk topologi jaringan seperti pada gambar berikut ! b. Lakukan konfigurasi interface pada tiap-tiap router seperti keterangan topologi ! 1) Konfigurasi interface pada Router pertama. Router 0: Router(config)#int loopback 0 %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Loopback0, changed state to up %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Loopback0, changed state to up Router(config-if)#ip add 3.3.3.3 255.255.255.255 Router(config-if)#int s0/0/0 Router(config-if)#ip add 1.1.1.2 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#router ospf 1 Router(config-router)#network 1.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 2) Konfigurasi interface pada Router kedua. Router(config)#int loopback 0 Router(config-if)#ip add 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.255 Router(config-if)#int s0/0/0 Router(config-if)# Router(config-if)#ip add 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#clock rate 2000000 Router(config-if)#router ospf 1 Router(config-router)#network 1.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 c. Lakukan konfigurasi Router OSPF pada semua router. 1) Konfigurasi OSPF pada router pertama. a) Show ip ospf neighbor. Router#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID Pri State Address Interface 2.2.2.2 0 FULL/ 1.1.1.1 Serial0/0/0 Dead Time - 00:00:36 b) show ip ospf interface serial. 4
  • 5. Router#show ip ospf interface serial 0/0/0 Serial0/0/0 is up, line protocol is up Internet address is 1.1.1.2/24, Area 0 Process ID 1, Router ID 3.3.3.3, Network Type POINT-TO-POINT, Cost: 64 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT-TO-POINT, Priority 0 No designated router on this network No backup designated router on this network Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:01 Index 1/1, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1 , Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 2.2.2.2 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) c) show ip protocol. Router#sh ip protocol Routing Protocol is "ospf 1" Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set Router ID 3.3.3.3 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa Maximum path: 4 Routing for Networks: 1.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 Routing Information Sources: Gateway Distance Last Update 2.2.2.2 110 00:08:03 3.3.3.3 110 00:08:03 Distance: (default is 110) d) show ip ospf. Router#sh ip ospf Routing Process "ospf 1" with ID 3.3.3.3 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes Supports opaque LSA SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000 Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000 Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0 5
  • 6. Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa External flood list length 0 Area BACKBONE(0) Number of interfaces in this area is 1 Area has no authentication SPF algorithm executed 3 times Area ranges are Number of LSA 2. Checksum Sum 0x009ea0 Number of opaque link LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000 Number of DCbitless LSA 0 Number of indication LSA 0 Number of DoNotAge LSA 0 Flood list length 0 e) show ip ospf interface Router#sh ip ospf interface Serial0/0/0 is up, line protocol is up Internet address is 1.1.1.2/24, Area 0 Process ID 1, Router ID 3.3.3.3, Network Type POINT-TO-POINT, Cost: 64 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT-TO-POINT, Priority 0 No designated router on this network No backup designated router on this network Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:02 Index 1/1, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1 , Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 2.2.2.2 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) f) show ip ospf neighbor detail. Router#sh ip ospf neighbor detail Neighbor 2.2.2.2, interface address 1.1.1.1 In the area 0 via interface Serial0/0/0 Neighbor priority is 0, State is FULL, 6 state changes DR is 0.0.0.0 BDR is 0.0.0.0 Options is 0x00 Dead timer due in 00:00:30 Neighbor is up for 00:10:19 Index 1/1, retransmission queue length 0, number of retransmission 0 6
  • 7. First 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last retransmission scan length is 0, maximum is 0 Last retransmission maximum is 0 msec scan time is 0 g) show ip ospf database. Router#sh ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (3.3.3.3) (Process ID 1) Router Link States (Area 0) Link ID ADV Router Age Checksum Link count 3.3.3.3 3.3.3.3 0x80000003 0x001e7e 2 2.2.2.2 2.2.2.2 0x80000002 0x008022 2 msec, Seq# 640 640 2) Konfigurasi pada Router kedua. a) show ip ospf neighbor. Router(config-if)#do sh ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID Pri State Address Interface 3.3.3.3 0 FULL/ 1.1.1.2 Serial0/0/0 Dead Time - 00:00:30 b) show ip interface serial. Router(config-if)#do sh ip ospf interface serial 0/0/0 Serial0/0/0 is up, line protocol is up Internet address is 1.1.1.1/24, Area 0 Process ID 1, Router ID 2.2.2.2, Network Type POINT-TO-POINT, Cost: 64 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT-TO-POINT, Priority 0 No designated router on this network No backup designated router on this network Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:07 Index 1/1, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1 , Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 3.3.3.3 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) c) show ip protocol. Router#sh ip protocol 7
  • 8. Routing Protocol is "ospf 1" Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set Router ID 2.2.2.2 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa Maximum path: 4 Routing for Networks: 1.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 Routing Information Sources: Gateway Distance Last Update 2.2.2.2 110 00:15:39 3.3.3.3 110 00:15:39 Distance: (default is 110) d) show ip ospf interface. Router#sh ip ospf interface Serial0/0/0 is up, line protocol is up Internet address is 1.1.1.1/24, Area 0 Process ID 1, Router ID 2.2.2.2, Network Type POINT-TO-POINT, Cost: 64 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT-TO-POINT, Priority 0 No designated router on this network No backup designated router on this network Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:05 Index 1/1, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1 , Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 3.3.3.3 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) e) show ip ospf. Router#sh ip ospf Routing Process "ospf 1" with ID 2.2.2.2 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes Supports opaque LSA SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000 Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000 8
  • 9. Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0 Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa External flood list length 0 Area BACKBONE(0) Number of interfaces in this area is 1 Area has no authentication SPF algorithm executed 1 times Area ranges are Number of LSA 2. Checksum Sum 0x009ea0 Number of opaque link LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000 Number of DCbitless LSA 0 Number of indication LSA 0 Number of DoNotAge LSA 0 Flood list length 0 f) show ip neighbor detail. Router#sh ip ospf neighbor detail Neighbor 3.3.3.3, interface address 1.1.1.2 In the area 0 via interface Serial0/0/0 Neighbor priority is 0, State is FULL, 7 state changes DR is 0.0.0.0 BDR is 0.0.0.0 Options is 0x00 Dead timer due in 00:00:30 Neighbor is up for 00:17:40 Index 1/1, retransmission queue length 0, number of retransmission 0 First 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last retransmission scan length is 0, maximum is 0 Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec g) show ip ospf database. Router#sh ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (2.2.2.2) (Process ID 1) Router Link States (Area 0) Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count 2.2.2.2 2.2.2.2 1080 0x80000002 0x008022 2 3.3.3.3 3.3.3.3 1080 0x80000003 0x001e7e 2 d. Ping dari Router 0 menuju ke loopback router1. Router#ping 2.2.2.2 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2.2.2.2, timeout is 2 seconds: 9
  • 10. ..... Success rate is 0 percent (0/5) e. Hasil table routing. 1) Router pertama Router#sh ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 1.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 1.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0 3.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 3.3.3.3 is directly connected, Loopback0 2) Router kedua Router(config-if)#do sh ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 1.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 1.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0 2.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 2.2.2.2 is directly connected, Loopback0 2. Percobaan ospf pada broadcasting. a. Bentuk topologi jaringan seperti pada gambar berikut ! 10
  • 11. V. ANALISA DAN KESIMPULAN Daerah jaringan backbone harus menggunakan area 0 atau 0.0.0.0 misalnya Internet address is 1.1.1.2/24, Area 0.Perintah “router ospf 1” 1 adalah ID dari router tersebut, kemudian “network 10.252.101.0 0.0.0.255 area 0” artinya mendaftarkan network 10.252.101.0/24 di area 0 (backbone). Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) adalah routing protocol berbasis link state yang digunakan untuk jaringan dengan skala besar. Mengurangi overhead (waktu pemrosesan) routing, mempercepat convergance,serta membatasi ketidakstabilan network disebuah area dalam suatu network. OSPF membuat proses update informasinya lebih termanajemen dengan baik. Dalam menerapkan konsep hirarki ini, OSPF menggunakan pembagian jaringan berdasarkan konsep area-area. Dalam konfigurasi OSPF tidak jauh beda dengan protokol routing dinamis yang lain seperti EIGRP yang menggunakan wildcard, namun OSPF memiliki perbedaan yaitu penggunaan area pada saat konfigurasi dilakukan. 11
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