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Assigmnt 1 n 2   final submission Assigmnt 1 n 2 final submission Document Transcript

  • NAME / CONTACT NO GROUP IC / MATRIKS NONURHAFIZAH BINTI AJLAN0197166070UPSI 01 801204-14-5448D20102040807BIP 3023 – MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE LANGUAGECLASSROOM ASSESSMENTASSIGNMENT 1 AND 2JOURNAL/ ARTICLE REVIELESSON PLANS OF A MATERIAL ( USING SONGS IN TEACHINGLANGUAGE )LECTURERDR INTAN SAFINAS BINTI MOHD ARIFF ALBAKRI
  • ARTICLE 1LESSON OUTLINESYear 11; Issue 2; April 2009, ISSN1755-9715Using Songs in the English ClassroomHans Mol, AustraliaHans Mol is a writer, trainer and teacher working from Australia. He ispublished worldwide for young learners, teens and adults. His next book(Grammar for Young Learners) is published by OUP in 2009. He is co-director of www.supasongs.com and fracasenglish.com. E-mail:hans@fracasenglish.com, connexxions@bigpond.comMenuSongs in the classroom: a useful toolTypes of songsWhich learners like songs?Why are songs so suitable?What can you do with songs in the classroom?Practical tips and tasks for using songsReferencesSongs in the classroom: a useful toolSongs are part of daily life for most people. Who doesn’t enjoy music athome, while travelling or studying, or even at work? Language teachers canuse songs to open or close their lessons, to illustrate themes and topics, toadd variety or a change of pace, present new vocabulary or recycle knownlanguage. But how do songs actually benefit your students? In the first partof this article we look at the theoretical background to these questions; inthe second half we look at what we can do with songs in the classroom.There is strong practical evidence supporting the use of music in the Englishlanguage classroom; there is also a growing body of research confirmingthat songs are a useful tool in language acquisition. In fact musical andlanguage processing occur in the same area of the brain. (Medina, 1993)Types of songsThere are many types of songs which can be used in the classroom,ranging from nursery rhymes to contemporary pop music. There is also a lotof music written specifically for English language teaching. A criticism of thelatter is that they often lack originality and musical appeal but there are goodexamples to be found of stimulating, modern, ‘cool’ music, appealing to thereal tastes of language learners. ‘Real’ music that the children hear and playevery day can be extremely motivating in the classroom, too. However, the
  • lyrics may not always be suitable: they may, for instance, contain slang oroffensive words, there may be grammatical mistakes and they may onlymarginally teach the language points you want to focus on.Which learners like songs?Howard Gardner once said: “It’s not how intelligent you are, but how youare intelligent.” No two students learn in exactly the same way. In anyclassroom there will be a mix of learning styles, and one student may ‘use’more than one style, depending on what the task or topic is. To appeal tothese differences is a huge teaching challenge. Gardner distinguished eightstyles of learning, and students in his ‘aural/musical’ category will have a lotof benefit from learning through songs. They are strong in singing, pickingup sounds, remembering melodies and rhythms; they like to sing, hum, playinstruments and listen to music.This is not to say that learners with other learning styles cannot benefit fromsongs. Of course they can, because in the activities we develop with songswe can dance and act (physical learning style), read, draw and do puzzles(spatial intelligence) tell stories, and write (verbal learning styles).Why are songs so suitable?We can’t generalise, but research has found that pop songs havecharacteristics that help learning a second language: they often containcommon, short words; they are written at about 5thgrade level (US); thelanguage is conversational, time and place are usually imprecise; the lyricsare often sung at a slower rate than spoken words and there is repetition ofwords and grammar. (Murhpy, 1992). Furthermore, songs are also known tolower the “affective filter” or, in other words, to motivate learners to learn.So, what positive contributions to language learning can songs make?Socio-emotional growthYou’ll often find learners of any age singing together socially – when theyare visiting friends, at a party or in karaoke bars. Teenagers and youngadults seem to know an endless number of songs by heart and share themcontinuously through the Internet and portable music players. Even thoughit’s not always easy to copy this spontaneous love of music in theclassroom, singing songs in and with a class is a social act which allowslearners to participate in a group and express their feelings, no matter whattheir English is like.Physical developmentSongs provide a great opportunity for young learners to move around.Clapping, dancing and playing instruments stimulate memory, which makesit possible for learners to hear chunks of language as they sing and usethem in different situations later. Older learners can also benefit fromclapping, dancing, rocking, tapping, and snapping their fingers to music andsongs.
  • Cognitive trainingWe all know the phenomenon of the song-that-is-stuck-in-my-head. With theright kind of song it is easy to simulate that in the classroom. Interacting withsongs again and again is as important to language learners as repeatedlypracticing a tennis technique is for a tennis player. The skill which developsfrom this is called ‘automaticity’. Learners get to know what to say and toproduce language rapidly without pausing.Cultural literacyNow that most music is accessible to almost anyone anywhere, eitherthrough radio, CDs, DVDs and downloads from the Internet, learners canenjoy songs from all corners of the globe. Songs used in English classescan, in that way, shed light on interesting musical traditions in countries, butcan also teach teens, young adults and adults to appreciate other cultures.For adult learners they can be “a rich mine of information about humanrelations, ethics, customs, history, humor, and regional and culturaldifferences’ (Lems, 2001).Language learningIn a world where non-native speakers of English are likely to produce themajority of songs in English, learners have the opportunity to listen topronunciation in a wide range of varieties of the language. Songs will helplearners become familiar with word stress and intonation, and the rhythmwith which words are spoken or sung also helps memorization. Again, thiswill enable learners to remember chunks of language which they can thenuse in conversations or in writing. As language teachers, we can use songsto practice listening, speaking, reading and writing.What can you do with songs in the classroom?The sky is the limit! There are a few things to keep in mind: simple,repetitive songs often contain a recurrent grammatical pattern which isuseful to teach (especially with younger children). More difficult songs oftencontain interesting vocabulary and idioms. Also there is often a message, atheme, or a story underlying a song which students can discuss, explain,debate, and write about at almost any level.Practical tips and tasks for using songsFocus itStart with a focusing activity: anything that will get students thinking aboutthe subject of the song. Have them think about the title of the song, ingroups of pairs. Find a picture that relates to the subject of the song andhave students make guesses about it.Highlight itPut a selection of important words from the song on your board. Havestudents ask each other what the words mean. Then, have students ingroups write or tell a quick story that uses the words. You can also get
  • students to circle, underline or highlight specific words or word categories.Stop itAgain, write a selection of words on the board. Students must shout STOPany time they hear one of the new words. You could also stop the songbefore a word you want them to guess.Lip sync itHave students lip sync the song before a team of judges in a Class Idolshow. This allows them to become familiar with the words, rhythm, stressand intonation before actually singing the words out loud.Strip itCut the song into strips. Give each student one strip to memorize. Studentsput the strips in their pockets. They get up and tell each other their part ofthe song, without looking at their part or showing their part to anyone else.Students then organize themselves in the right order, speak the song andthen listen and check. You can also have students put the strips on a tablein order.Question itHave students ask each other questions about the song (about the words,about the topics or about characters in the song). For more advancedstudents you could choose two songs of a similar theme, and split the classinto two teams. Have each group listen to their song and draw up a list of(open or True/False) questions. Pair each student with a member of theopposite team and have them take turns asking their questions.Gap itYou can prepare a gapped version of the lyrics and let students completethem before listening and then check afterwards.Write itHave students write a letter to the main character or the singer, send ananswer to a person referred to in the song, rewrite the song as a story, writea story which began before the story in the song and led to it, or write astory which will continue after the song.Change itChange words (adjectives, adverbs, nouns -names, places or feelings), andinvent new lyrics for the melody. If you have karaoke versions of the songsyou can then let students sing their own versions.Draw itGet students to draw or collage the song and compare the visualisations inclass.The possibilities are endless. Music and songs are fun, and most people
  • enjoy them. Make songs a regular feature in your lessons!ReferencesLems, Kirsten, Using Music in the Adult ESL Classroom, ERIC Digest, 2001.Medina, Suzanne L, The Effect of Music on Second Language VocabularyAcquisition, ‘National Network for Early Language Learning’, Vol 6-3, 1993.Murphy, T (1992), The discourse op pop songs, TESOL Quarterly 26”(4),770-774.Please check the Methodology and Language for Primary Teacherscourse at Pilgrims website.Please check the Methodology and Language for Secondary Teacherscourse at Pilgrims website.Please check the Teaching through Music and Visual Art course at Pilgrimswebsite.
  • SUMMARY OF ARTICLE 1This article is telling us about the usage of songs in teaching English Language and thegrammar as well in order to get the children to learn English better. Based on the article, there are alot of benefits of using songs in teaching grammar ( part of language ). One of the benefit is to letthe children feel enjoyable to learn grammar because children are commonly like to listen to thesongs . In addition, most of the teachers use songs at two stages of learning, there are during theintroduction and the ending of the lesson too. Furthermore, songs can motivate the children byattracting their interest towards learning grammar as well as the language too. According to thearticle, most of the people recently like to listen to contemporary pop music which is it is a newphenomenon in education especially in English Language Learning. The pop songs have certainshort words which are conversational, time and place are imprecise. This is happens because wehave different types of learners which involving the mix abilities people such as the beginner,medium and fast learners. This kind of varieties would be one of the factor why the usage of songs isgood in learning grammar. A lot of reasons why do we use songs to teach grammar. Firstly, the lyricsare sung with its slower rate then the spoken words. This is telling that this material is consideringthe beginner learners too in order to master the grammar items. Unforgotten, the repetition of thewords make them familiar with the language as well as the grammar items too. Regardless thesongs are suitable to be used especially when the children or people visiting their friends at somespecial occasions such as parties and karaoke. The teenagers and the young adults also usuallyshare the songs continuously through the Internet and any portable music players. Basically, the useof songs allow the students to move around because it needs them to do some actions such asclapping, dancing, playing instruments and so on and it also attract the older to do the same things.So, songs need a bit physical movements to enjoy the songs and the content of the grammar itemsincluded in the songs. And at the same time, to make the songs are meaningful and related to thegrammar items. There are so many activities can be used in teaching grammar. For instance, step1, by asking some questions for brainstorming the ideas about the songs heard. Another activity isby drawing pictures to visualize the content or man points of the songs, stripping the sentences ofthe lyrics to have the sequencing activity and gapping activity which is allowing the pupils to fill in theblanks with the correct words highlighted from the lyrics of the songs.
  • ARTICLE 2Chinese Culture UniversityThis workshop demonstrated how to use movie songs to make grammar teaching more appealing tothe learners and more effective in language acquisition. Despite widespread adoption in EFLclasses, songs have rarely been used with specific reference to the acquisition of grammar. Basedon the presenters’ experience of using songs in EFL classes, this workshop showed how to teachboth word and sentence grammar in a number of ways. Techniques demonstrated included blankfilling, multiple choice, matching, dialogue, and sentence making. Numerous movie songs in DVDformat were gleaned to meet the illustrative purposes of this workshop. Rationale and guidelines withrespect to using these various ways of using songs to teach grammar were also provided for bestteaching and learning effect.Introduction: A Personal TestimonyInspired by the encouraging suggestions of their students, the presenters of this workshop began touse songs in their English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes fourteen years ago at ChineseCulture University, Taipei, Taiwan. Since then, their use of songs in the classroom has undergonethree stages of development and maturation. The first stage was the one in whichthey adopted music straightforwardly and was with only a general purpose in mind. That is, songswere employed mostly for relaxation, for fun, and for hearing something different from the teacher’slecturing.As years went by, the presenters, sensing that the direct use of songs seemed insufficient forapparent instructional effects, started seeking more meaningful ways of using songs in the EFLclassroom, although they were still deemed as supplementary or subordinate to the textbook. At thisstage, the adoption of songs for instruction was made mainly out of the presenters’ own creation orimagination. One of the most frequently designed activities was blank filling, in which the studentsare asked to listen to the songs and fill out the missing words. The purposes attached to the songactivities were quite limited, mainly for pronunciation or listening drills.Over the past five years, the presenters commenced looking for reinforcement from theprofessionals, which sent them into the third stage of using music in the EFL classroom. Forexample, in May 2001, in Taipei they attended a workshop held by the world-renowned CarolynGraham on using songs in the EFL classroom. In addition, they read widely those journal articles
  • and books on teaching English through music. The use of songs now became more professional,focused on one specific segment or aspect of language learning for each song. Moreover, specialemphasis was placed on not only enhancement of student motivation but also relevancy of songs tothe course objectives.What we have known and done about adoption of songs for language acquisition is quite meager,and more possibilities and effective ways are still to be unveiled. This workshop aimed to introduceDVD technology and different sources of songs, and to demonstrate how to design various types ofactivities for using songs to teach grammar.Literature on Using Songs to Teach GrammarLike ice and fire, both grammar and songs are divergent in nature: One is full of regularities andeven ice-cold boredom, while the other is full of fire-like emotions and inspirational melodies thatenchant one. Nevertheless, the marrying of these two radically different elements into the family oflanguage instruction has been proved successful. One of the examples is Learning English bySinging in which Professor Shih (1997) of Taiwan collected 101 songs with commentaries andgeneral instructional guidelines. This book was targeted at the children or EFL beginners, althoughnot specifically referring to grammar instruction. Another book Singing, Chanting, Telling Tales byCarolyn Graham (1992) also examined the use of songs to teach functions and structures.Moreover, in her Using Authentic video in English Language Teaching: Tips for Taiwan’s Teachers,Professor Katchen (1996) of National Tsing-hwaTSAI & LIN:USING MUSIC TO TEACH GRAMMARUniversity in northern Taiwan examined music videos. She devoted one chapter to discussing theuse of music videos for instruction in general, although grammar was only peripherally mentioned(99). Professor Fox (1995), in his “On Common Ground: Why and How to Use Music as a TeachingAid,” pointed out the close tie between music and language acquisition from the perspective oftherapy and religion. He also discussed how three EFL textbooks use songs to teach grammar(100). Celce-Murcia and Hilles (1988) went a step further to deepen the relationship of grammar andsongs, providing useful selection guidelines, teaching procedure and examples. Perhaps nowherehas the bond between songs and grammar been more tightly bridged than Cranmer and Laroy(1993) who devoted one chapter to exploration of using music to teach grammar in their MusicalOpenings: Using Music in the Language Classroom. Eight types of using songs to teach grammarare enumerated with preparation, procedure, and suggestions very usefully and clearly made.DVD TechnologyThe movie songs in the DVD format have the following four fundamental functions:
  • The Subtitles FunctionThis allows the user to select any of the subtitles already available on a given disc. Press the“Subtitles” button and use the guide arrow to choose the desired subtitle option. Not every musicdick, however, is installed with the subtitle function.The Language FunctionThis allows for a selection of the output language type. Unfortunately, it can only produce thelanguage as labeled on the cover page of the disc. There are always limitations according to eachproduct sold. In English Karaoke, there are two choices, one with only English subtitles and rhyme,the other with English subtitles and sound.The Advance FunctionThe Use of this function enables the user to skip to individual scenes or chapters on the disc. MostDVDs include a scene index, providing easy location of the required scene/chapter. The buttonlabeled “Go To” or “Forward” typically provides the advance function. This function may also proveuseful for various student-centered activities, such as asking learners to forward the chapter to afavorite song that they would like to learn.Chapter Repeating FunctionIf the teacher intends to show a song many times with or without visual support, this function doeshelp. When the song is being played for the first time, press this button, and it will be repeated asmany times as needed.TSAI & LIN:USING MUSIC TO TEACH GRAMMARThis very powerful function enables the teacher to continuously repeat a single scene.Different Sources of SongsSongs are available from two main sources:1. the audio channel, such as cassette tapes, CDs and DVDs2. both audio and video channels, such as the musical DVDs and DVD filmsTheme Songs in the Special/Extra FeaturesMost DVDs provide the function of extra/special features, such as theme songs, costumes galleries,behind the screens, posters, actors’ background information, and commentaries. In the movie“Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon,” for instance, inserted in DVD format is the theme song titled “ALove Before Time” sung by Co Co Lee in MTV style.
  • Live Concert in DVD FormatMost songs are presented by the original singers, for instance, “Charlotte Church: Voice of an Angel,Pavarotti” and “The Corrs.” The students enjoy learning songs from the live concerts as they canwitness the singers on the screen. As the live concert DVD musicals usually do not provide Englishsubtitles or written scripts, the teacher can assign students to do the lyrics of their favorite songs. It isrecommended that the song be played three times, first with sound and image, next with sound only,and the third time with both or either.English KaraokeSongs in this type of DVD musical, sung by the original singers only in audio channel, are presentedwith background images either with sounds and subtitles or only with English subtitles, word byword, for the viewer to sing. Much cheaper than the live concert DVDs, the Karaoke DVD discsprovide a wider variety and combination of songs, such as pop songs, movie them songs, and oldlove songs. Besides, they provide English subtitles which students can take advantage of for singingand learning English.Theme Songs in the FilmMost feature films present songs with the plot going on, so that the viewer can understand thebackground information of the song. However, this type of song usually is not shown in its entirety,so audiotapes or CDs are needed to play the complete song. It is recommended that this type ofsongs be played first with sound and image and the second or third times only with the soundthrough audio channel.The four movie songs selected for this workshop are: “A Love Before Time” (“Crouching Tiger,Hidden Dragon”); “Green, Green Grass of Home”; “How Do I Live” (“Con Air”); and “Smoke Gets inYour Eyes” (“Greasy”).TSAI & LIN:USING MUSIC TO TEACH GRAMMARFour Steps of Using Music to Teach Grammar1. Pre-use or getting into media stage: Teacher selects grammatical points and song lyrics anddesign appropriate tasks or exercises.2. Input or working from media stage: Teacher presents/elicits designated grammatical points.3. Focus or working with media stage: Teacher plays the song and students are asked to do theexercise while listening to the tapes.
  • 4. Transfer or working out of media stage: Teacher checks the answers and makes necessaryexplanation. Class discussion follows. Students are encouraged to ask questions and asked todo follow-up assignment by using what the media has just presented. (Adapted from Donna M.Brinton, 459)Activity DesignFive types of activities based on the lyrics are introduced here: blank-filling, multiple-choice,matching, dialogues, and sentence making. The former three types are mechanic drills aimed at theconceptual instill and habituation of the targeted grammar, while the other two are communicativetypes of drills aimed at enhancing students’ active and natural use of the language learned from thelyrics.Blank-fillingMost widely used by the EFL teachers, the blank-filling exercise is especially suitable for recognizingthe eight parts of speech. Each may be focused on practice of one or more grammatical points.Usually each blank has only one word to be filled, and the word may be guessed through bothcontext and grammatical relationship. The blank may be followed by a cue in the parentheses. Forexample:Fill in the blank with the appropriate verb form:If the sky _________(open) up for me, and the mountains __________ (disappear),If the seas _________(run) dry, __________(turn) to dust and the sun __________(refuse) torise,I would still find my way, by the light I see in your eyes.The world I know _______(fade) away, but you stay. (“A Love Before Time”)Multiple-choiceThe multiple choice activity, which seems easier than blank-filling to design and to do, may bedevised with two or more choices, and may be done before, during or after listening to the music. Forexample:TSAI & LIN: USING MUSIC TO TEACH GRAMMAR How do I get through one night withoutyouIf I (have, had) to live without youWhat kind of life (will, would) that beOh and I, I need you in my armsNeed you to holdYou’re my world, my heart, my soulIf you ever (leave, left)Baby you would take away everything good in my life. (“How Do I Live”)
  • MatchingAnother mechanical but frequently used exercise; the matching exercise usually consists of a list ofwords that have to go with the blanks in the selected lyric. The following example is a drill onrecognizing the three types of clauses.Match each underlined clause with one of the three types of clauses listed in the front:A. Noun ClauseB. Adjective ClauseC. Adverbial ClauseThey asked me how I know ( )My true love was true.Oh, I of course repliedSomething here insideCannot be denied.They said someday you’ll findAll who love ( ) are blind.Oh, when your heart’s on fire ( )You must realizeSmoke gets in your eyes ( ). (“Smoke Gets in Your Eyes”)DialoguesStudents are asked to produce dialogues based on the grammatical elements of the song heard.They have to gain a considerable understanding of the grammatical components of the song beforemaking meaningful dialogues. For example, the dialogue assignment of the song “A Love BeforeTime” may be: Write eight to ten sentences of dialogues between two lovers who would most likelybe talking to each other as revealed in the song. There is much room for students to exercise theirimagination and for the teacher to expect various dialogues.TSAI & LIN:USING MUSIC TO TEACH GRAMMARSentence-makingAimed at putting students’ sense of sentence into practice, this exercise may be designed byimitating some of the grammatical elements or structures of the sentences in the song. The songserves as a point of departure for making similar or better sentences. The sentence structures of thelyrics must be well grasped before they can be used for sentence making by the students. Take“Green, Green Grass of Home.” There is one sentence “Down the road I look, and there runsMary/Hair of gold and lips like cherries,” which includes several grammatical elements that worthbeing drilled, such as the reverse sentence structure (“down the road I look” and “there runs Mary”),
  • the compound sentence, the adjective phrase (“of gold”) and simile (“like cherries”). Students may beasked to make similar sentences by imitating one or more or all of the grammatical components ofthe above sentence.ConclusionIn conclusion, both presenters would like to claim, first, that an EFL teacher does not have to be agood singer or musician to use songs in the classroom. Next, we recommend that we make everysong pedagogically meaningful and purposeful. Third, it is very important to grasp the fundamentalqualities and special traits of songs before we can make the best of them to meet our demands.Finally, in selection and use of songs, we must take into account such factors as studentbackgrounds and relevancy to the course syllabus, and linguistic skills to be trained. It is only whenthese aspects are aptly weighed can we enhance student learning motivation, and bring Englishlearning by songs from a relaxing and lively process to a fruitful effect.TSAI & LIN: USING MUSIC TO TEACH GRAMMARReferencesCelce-Murcia, M. & Hilles, S. (1988). Techniques and Resources in Teaching Grammar. New York,N. Y.: Oxford University Press.Cranmer, D. & Laroy, C. (1992). Musical Openings: Using Music in the Language Classroom. Essex,England: Longman.Brinton, D. M. (1991). The use of media in language teaching. In Celce-Murcia, M. Ed., TeachingEnglish as a Second or Foreign Language. pp 454-472.Fox, T. R. (1995). On common ground: Why and how to use music as a teaching aid. The Hwa KangJournal of TEFL. No. 1, May 1995, 77-116.Graham, C. (1992). Singing, Chanting, Telling Tales: Arts in the Language Classroom. EnglewoodCliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.Katchen, J. E. (1996). Using Authentic Video in English Language Teaching: Tips for Taiwan’sTeachers. Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co., Ltd., 92-102.Shih, Y. (1997). Learning English by Singing. Taipei: Crane Publishing Ltd.
  • SUMMARY OF ARTICLE 2This article is telling about some ways of teaching grammar which is a part of language. Mostof the ways are related to the people’s interest which are more attracted to listening to the music.There are varieties of activities can be designed to use songs such as multiple choices which is goodto be done. For example, the pupils are asked to choose one of the two provided answers thatrelated to the grammar part ( has and have ). After listen to the song twice, the pupils need to circlethe correct choice which is directly extracted from the lyrics of the song heard. After all, multiplechoices activity is easier than filling in the gap or blanks activity because filling in the gap needsthem to memorize all the words from the lyrics and this is the weakness of it. Despite of having thosekind of activities, songs can be used in matching activity by matching the underlined words to thechoices given. ( Choice A- Adverb. Choice B- Adjectives and Choice C – Nouns ). Other than that,we can create a dialogues based on the songs heard or sung. For example, the song of A LoveBefore Time.. The students are allowed to think and create eight dialogues which are related to acouple who is in love each other. Here, we will be getting varieties of answers or lists of dialoguespertaining to the song heard. Next is the sentence making activity which need the pupils or studentsto use some of the words from the lyrics heard to create some new sentences for example by usingthe similes seen from the lyrics of the songs. Those kind of activities as stated above wouldencourage them to enjoy the songs in term of educational element plus enjoying the feel and thetune of the songs too. The article also has shown that a workshop has been done related to the useof songs in teaching grammar. There are so many types of songs can be used such as video moviesongs, DVD Technology Songs, Live Concert, Karaoke and Theme Songs of Movies. Anyway,based on some testimonial used, it is said that the use of direct song is insufficient anymore.The useof songs now became more professional, focused on one specific segment or aspect of languagelearning for each song. Moreover, special emphasis was placed on not only enhancement of studentmotivation but also relevancy of songs to the course objectives. In conclusion, there are so manyadvantages of using songs in teaching grammar but it all depend on how the process takes placeand use the best steps in order to get a sufficient grammar lesson through the songs heard.
  • ARTICLE 3Songs can be a useful tool when teaching ESL because they give studentsthe opportunity to listen to someone other than you, their teacher.Often students become familiar with how one person sounds and may havedifficulties understanding others. Songs can be a challenge for studentsbecause they are often faster than an instructor’s speech however they canalso be enjoyable and serve to reinforce certain aspects of English.How To Proceed• 1GrammarOften songs can be used to practice particular grammar points. Sometextbooks spend enormous amounts of time on particular topics andcreating new activities may become challenging so songs aresomething you can turn to. You can find song worksheets andsuggestions for certain English grammar points right here,on BusyTeacher.org. Using songs in ESL classes has become quitecommon. For instance, when teaching the present perfecttense (here’s a great article on teaching it!), songs such as “I StillHaven’t Found What I’m Looking For” by U2 and “We Are theChampions” by Queen may be appropriate. Students are unlikely tograsp the entire meaning of the song but giving a brief summary orincluding the translation would be beneficial. When using songs, it is
  • common to have a worksheet where students must fill in certain words.For this present perfect lesson, you can remove the present perfectverbs altogether and have students try to fill in the blanks with theappropriate words. If this is too challenging, including the presenttense of each verb will assist students immensely.• 2Mad LibsMad Libs are a great way to practice parts of speech. You can reallyuse any passage to make a Mad Libs activity but it can be fun to usesongs too. For example, you can use “Frosty the Snowman” to makeyour worksheet. Simply take the song and delete particular wordsleaving blanks for your students, this will be the second worksheet theyreceive. Then make up a list with parts of speech that correspond tothe blanks. If the first blank is “Frosty the ________man” then the firstword in the list would have to be a noun. To conduct this activity, givestudents the list with parts of speech and have them work individually,in pairs, or in groups to complete it. When they have finished, givethem the second sheet and have them fill in the blanks with theirwords. Usually the result is very funny. Seeing as you used a song tocreate this activity, you can finish the class by listening to the song andhaving students write down the missing lyrics.• 3HolidaysUsing songs in your holiday lessons can be fun too! Songs such asRudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer can be easily explained even tobeginner and lower intermediate students. There may not be aparticular point to using the song in your class besides to conduct alistening activity using a popular holiday song, but sometimes that issufficient and your students are sure to enjoy it. If your students arewilling, it may be appropriate to practice singing the song too. Some
  • classes will enjoy such an activity and some certainly will not so it isimportant to gauge how your students will respond.• 4DiscussionCertain songs can be used to lead into discussions. This type ofactivity would be appropriate for more advanced learners. You can usea song such as “Another Day in Paradise” by Phil Collins for thispurpose. Initially, have students listen to the song and complete a fill inthe blank exercise. Listening to the song several times would beappropriate but once the answers have been checked, have studentsread the lyrics trying to understand the meaning of the song. You canask general questions to test comprehension. If you are not exactlysure what kinds of questions will be appropriate, you can start off withvery simple ones such as “Is this a happy song?” and when studentssay “No” ask them why not? This can lead into a discussion aboutpeople’s indifference, homeless people, or something similar.When choosing songs, please be aware of their speed.The song “Last Christmas”, for example, can be useful however if youchoose a version which is much too fast, students will not be able to followalong. This song, by WHAM, is a good speed for ESL learners. Organizingyour worksheets so that the verses are clearly laid out will also helpstudents because even if they get lost during one verse, they can beprepared when the next one begins. Songs should generally be playedat least twicebefore checking the answers and then once again after thecorrect answers have been given so that students can listen carefully toparts they missed.Songs are just another way to add some variety to your lessons andexpose students to a different culture’s music.
  • SUMMARY OF ARTICLE 3Article 3 is telling about steps of using songs in the classroom especially in teaching grammarin English Language. It is said that songs are useful tools because they give the opportunities for thestudents to listen to someone other than the teacher. In fact, students are more familiar with thesounds rather than listening to the same speech in their daily lesson. But, listening to the songs area bit challenging because it is faster than a human’s speech however , they also can be enjoyable toenhance their language. Generally, to proceed the use of songs as our material in teachinglanguage, a few steps need to be done or considered such as the grammar part of the songs. Forexample, the use of textbooks are enormous amount of time but not the songs. This is because,songs are something that can be turn to some enjoyable or fun elements. For example, when theteacher is teaching Present Perfect Tense, songs such as I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking Forby U2 and We Are The Champions by Queen could be appropriate or suitable to be used in theclassroom. In fact, the students are unlikely to get the meaning of the entire of the songs but they areable to give some brief summary of the songs heard or sung and relate them to the content of thelesson on that particular time for example in learning Present Perfect Tense. The next step is usingMad Libs which is really practical and useful because it is one of the great way to practice parts ofspeech. Some words can be deleted and the students are required to fill in the blanks with thesuitable or correct words pertaining to the songs. But, the most important thing is, the teacher shouldfocus on certain topic or item that the teacher wants to stress on. For example, if the teacher isfocusing on Nouns, so the teacher needs to delete the noun words and leave them blanks. So that, itis easier for the students to guess the answer by refreshing the words which are under the nounscategories. Next step is by singing out the song. It is very suitable for the beginner and theintermediate students in order to gauge their respond and interest toward learning grammar. This iseasier to be done because the students feel enjoyable and interested to sing the song too and at thesame time, they are gaining something and practicing the grammar items found from the lyrics of thesongs. The last step is discussion on the content of the songs which leads them to talk about thecontent of the songs that the writer wants to say. This kind of session will test their comprehensionskill whether they are having a meaningful listening and understanding the songs too. In conclusion,the three articles are mostly showing the advantages of using songs in teaching language as well asgrammar to the students in schools. I do agree with their points because I have implemented thismaterial in my language class. As a result, majority of the classes are enjoyed in using songs in thelessons and have improved in their reading, listening and speaking, and reading skills.
  • I have gone through the experience of using songs in teaching grammar in my Year 3 class at SKHaji Mat Dahan, Pendang. There are 14 pupils in the class and I really surprised that they reallyenjoyed and have changed in their attitude toward English. This is because, to them, English is acritical and a dull subject. Previously, it was very difficult to get their response or answers in EnglishLanguage. But, is has changed after I have tried this material ( using songs ) in my lessonsespecially in teaching grammar item to the pupils. It is not an easy task since they are averagelearners which come from mix abilities level too. When teaching the singular and plural nouns, I haveused a song of Five Little Ducks in my classroom. At the moment, they were not so attracted towardthe topic of that day. But, after listened to the song of Five Little Ducks, they started to enjoy toimitate the sounds of ducks and finally they were able to repeat after the song correctly. To me, thatis the best chance to me to use the song to get their participation and their response toward thelearning content ( Singular and Plural Nouns ). And, finally, they were enjoyed the lesson and as theresult, they are able to different between singular and plural by creating some simple sentences( written and orally ) which are showing the singular and plural words or nouns. What a big surpriseto me, now, they are able to correct their pronunciation toward the use of plural nouns by notforgetting to say the plural nouns with the sound of /s/ at the end of the words. ( e.g : Five little duckswent out one day…Over the hill and far away..Mother duck said..quack quack quack..But only fourlittle ducks came back. )REFERENCESRetrieved on 7thMay 2013 at http://busyteacher.org/3855-how-to-teach-using-songs.htmlRetrieved on 7thMay 2013 at :http://www.hltmag.co.uk/apr09/less01.htm
  • ASSIGNMENT 2PORTFOLIOA) LESSON PLAN OF ENGLISH KSSR YEAR 3 ( 1st)CLASS / TIME Year 3 / 8.15 am – 9.15 amFocus Listening and Speaking and ReadingTopic Pet’s WorldContent Standard 1.1 By the end of the 6 year primary schooling, pupils willbe able to pronounce words and speak confidently with thecorrect stress, rhythm and intonation.2.2 By the end of the 6 year primary schooling, pupils willbe able to demonstrate understanding of a variety of linearand non linear texts in the form of print and non printmaterials using a range of strategies to construct meaning.( lyrics )Learning Standard 1.1.3 Able to listen to, say aloud and recite rhymes, tonguetwisters and sing songs, paying attention to pronunciation,rhythm and intonation.2.2.2 Able to read and understand phrases and sentencesin linear and non linear texts.Learning outcomes To be able to :i- listen to the song of Five Little Ducks carefully.ii- read the sentences ( lyrics ) of the song with the correctpronunciation, intonation and stress.Teaching aids Props ( hill ), Puppets of ducklings ( made of polysterin ),Masks of flowers and Mother Duck.Reflection / Impact All the Year 3 pupils were able to:a) listen to the song carefully.b) sing the song and pronounce the words correctly andaccurately.ACTIVITIES STRATEGIES NOTES
  • Set Induction ( 5 min )( sounds of ducks quacking )Stage 1 ( 20 min )Stage 2 ( 5 min )Stage 3 ( 25 min )- Listen to the sounds of thequacking.- Pupils try to guess the animalswith the sounds heard.- Talk about the physical of aduck.- Listen to the full version of thesong.- Repeat after the song.- Read the lyrics of the songwith the correct stress,pronunciation and intonation.- Take turn in reading the lyrics( group reading )- Pupils sit in a group of 3 to 4- Discuss on how to sing thesong correctly.- Pupils perform their singing infront of the class ( in groups )- They have to take turn toperform their singing.- While the first group sing outthe song in front of the class,the rest of the groups will listento their singing carefully.- Then, give some comments orcompliments toward theirSome of them imitate thesounds….( quack quack….)Title : Five Little DucksGroup discussionPerform their singingCommenting / Complimenting
  • CLOSURE ( 5 min )singing. ( stressing on theirpronunciation, intonation,rhythm ).- Repeat the same steps fromthe first group to the last group (performing/singing andcommenting/complimenting )- All the groups combine in onegroup ( in front of the class )- Sing out the song joyfully.
  • Lesson Plan ( 2nd)CLASS / TIME Year 3 / 8.15 am – 9.15 amFocus Language Art and GrammarTopic Pet’s WorldContent Standard 4.3 By the end of the 6 year primary schooling, pupils willbe able to plan, organize and produce creative works forenjoyment.5.1 By the end of the 6 year primary schooling, pupils willbe able to use different word classes correctly andappropriately.Learning Standard 4.3.1 Able to produce simple creative works with guidancebased on :( c ) action songs5.1.1 Able to use nouns correctly and appropriately :( c ) singular nouns( d ) plural nounsLearning outcomes To be able to :i- produce and perform an action song of Five Little Ducksin front of the class ( the whole class of Year 3 )ii- use the singular and plural nouns correctly andappropriately using the action song has been created andperformed in front of the class.Teaching aids Props ( hill ), Puppets of ducklings ( made of polysterin ),Masks of flowers and Mother Duck.Reflection / Impact All the Year 3 pupils were able to:a) produce and perform the action song creatively andattractively.b) pronounce the singular and plural nouns correctly toshow the different between singular and pluralc) create 5 simple sentences using any singular and pluralnouns ( written and orally ).
  • ACTIVITIES STRATEGIES NOTESSet Induction ( 5 min )( song of Five Little Ducks –with vocals )Stage 1 ( 20 min )Stage 2 (25 min )- Listen to the song of Five LittleDucks.- Pupils try to sing along.( whole class )- Pupils sit in a big group .- Discuss about the song heardand sung.- Try to think of and talk aboutthe ideas to perform the songaccurately, creatively andattractively.- Make use of some masks andprops given by the teacher tohave a good performance of anaction song.- Body gestures, movementswill be used too.- Divide their own characters orparts. ( the Mother Duck,Ducklings, Flowers )- Work in groupsSing together ( whole class )Title : Five Little DucksGroup discussionMasks and propsPerformance of an action song
  • CLOSURE ( 10 min )- Perform out their action songin front of the class- Teacher helps the pupils torecord the performance.- Finally, watch the recordedperformance and try to correctsome pronunciation ormistakes. ( where necessaryespecially to the pronunciationof the singular and pluralnouns )- Pupils create 5 sentencesusing the other singular andplural nouns ( out of the lyrics ofFive Little Ducks )Post Mortem ( orally )OOrallyAPPENDICES
  • A) LYRICSB) PICTURES ( MASKS, PROPS )Five little ducks went out one dayOver the hill and far awayMother duck said quack quack quackquackOnly four little ducks came back.One little duck went out one dayOver the hill and far awayMother duck said quack quack quack quackNone of the 5 little ducks came back.Four little ducks went out one dayOver the hill and far awayMother duck said quack quack quackquackOnly three little ducks came back.Poor Mother duck went out to findOver the hill and far awayMother duck said quack quackAll of the five little ducks weren’tfoundThree little ducks went out one dayOver the hill and far awayMother duck said quack quack quackquackOnly two little ducks came back.Oh my mother..Oh…my motherWhere are you..Where are youWe cannot find youWe cannot find youWe miss you……We miss youTwo little ducks went out one dayOver the hill and far awayMother duck said quack quack quackquackOnly one little duck came back.Sad mother duck went out one dayOver the hill and far awayMother duck said quack….quackAll of the five little ducks came back…..
  • C) URL OF THE VIDEO ( ACTION SONG )http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0f7JopnepQ8
  • ]ARTICLE 2Chinese Culture UniversityThis workshop demonstrated how to use movie songs to make grammar teaching more appealing tothe learners and more effective in language acquisition. Despite widespread adoption in EFLclasses, songs have rarely been used with specific reference to the acquisition of grammar. Basedon the presenters’ experience of using songs in EFL classes, this workshop showed how to teachboth word and sentence grammar in a number of ways. Techniques demonstrated included blankfilling, multiple choice, matching, dialogue, and sentence making. Numerous movie songs in DVDformat were gleaned to meet the illustrative purposes of this workshop. Rationale and guidelines withrespect to using these various ways of using songs to teach grammar were also provided for bestteaching and learning effect.Introduction: A Personal TestimonyInspired by the encouraging suggestions of their students, the presenters of this workshop began touse songs in their English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes fourteen years ago at ChineseCulture University, Taipei, Taiwan. Since then, their use of songs in the classroom has undergonethree stages of development and maturation. The first stage was the one in which they adoptedmusic straightforwardly and was with only a general purpose in mind. That is, songs were employedmostly for relaxation, for fun, and for hearing something different from the teacher’s lecturing.As years went by, the presenters, sensing that the direct use of songs seemed insufficient forapparent instructional effects, started seeking more meaningful ways of using songs in the EFL
  • classroom, although they were still deemed as supplementary or subordinate to the textbook. At thisstage, the adoption of songs for instruction was made mainly out of the presenters’ own creation orimagination. One of the most frequently designed activities was blank filling, in which the studentsare asked to listen to the songs and fill out the missing words. The purposes attached to the songactivities were quite limited, mainly for pronunciation or listening drills.Over the past five years, the presenters commenced looking for reinforcement from theprofessionals, which sent them into the third stage of using music in the EFL classroom. Forexample, in May 2001, in Taipei they attended a workshop held by the world-renowned CarolynGraham on using songs in the EFL classroom. In addition, they read widely those journal articlesand books on teaching English through music. The use of songs now became more professional,focused on one specific segment or aspect of language learning for each song. Moreover, specialemphasis was placed on not only enhancement of student motivation but also relevancy of songs tothe course objectives.What we have known and done about adoption of songs for language acquisition is quite meager,and more possibilities and effective ways are still to be unveiled. This workshop aimed to introduceDVD technology and different sources of songs, and to demonstrate how to design various types ofactivities for using songs to teach grammar.Literature on Using Songs to Teach GrammarLike ice and fire, both grammar and songs are divergent in nature: One is full of regularities andeven ice-cold boredom, while the other is full of fire-like emotions and inspirational melodies thatenchant one. Nevertheless, the marrying of these two radically different elements into the family oflanguage instruction has been proved successful. One of the examples is Learning English bySinging in which Professor Shih (1997) of Taiwan collected 101 songs with commentaries andgeneral instructional guidelines. This book was targeted at the children or EFL beginners, althoughnot specifically referring to grammar instruction. Another book Singing, Chanting, Telling Tales byCarolyn Graham (1992) also examined the use of songs to teach functions and structures.Moreover, in her Using Authentic video in English Language Teaching: Tips for Taiwan’s Teachers,Professor Katchen (1996) of National Tsing-hwaUniversity in northern Taiwan examined music videos. She devoted one chapter to discussing theuse of music videos for instruction in general, although grammar was only peripherally mentioned(99). Professor Fox (1995), in his “On Common Ground: Why and How to Use Music as a TeachingAid,” pointed out the close tie between music and language acquisition from the perspective oftherapy and religion. He also discussed how three EFL textbooks use songs to teach grammar(100). Celce-Murcia and Hilles (1988) went a step further to deepen the relationship of grammar andsongs, providing useful selection guidelines, teaching procedure and examples. Perhaps nowherehas the bond between songs and grammar been more tightly bridged than Cranmer and Laroy(1993) who devoted one chapter to exploration of using music to teach grammar in their Musical
  • Openings: Using Music in the Language Classroom. Eight types of using songs to teach grammarare enumerated with preparation, procedure, and suggestions very usefully and clearly made.DVD TechnologyThe movie songs in the DVD format have the following four fundamental functions:The Subtitles FunctionThis allows the user to select any of the subtitles already available on a given disc. Press the“Subtitles” button and use the guide arrow to choose the desired subtitle option. Not every musicdick, however, is installed with the subtitle function.The Language FunctionThis allows for a selection of the output language type. Unfortunately, it can only produce thelanguage as labeled on the cover page of the disc. There are always limitations according to eachproduct sold. In English Karaoke, there are two choices, one with only English subtitles and rhyme,the other with English subtitles and sound.The Advance FunctionThe Use of this function enables the user to skip to individual scenes or chapters on the disc. MostDVDs include a scene index, providing easy location of the required scene/chapter. The buttonlabeled “Go To” or “Forward” typically provides the advance function. This function may also proveuseful for various student-centered activities, such as asking learners to forward the chapter to afavorite song that they would like to learn.Chapter Repeating FunctionIf the teacher intends to show a song many times with or without visual support, this function doeshelp. When the song is being played for the first time, press this button, and it will be repeated asmany times as needed.This very powerful function enables the teacher to continuously repeat a single scene.Different Sources of SongsSongs are available from two main sources:1. the audio channel, such as cassette tapes, CDs and DVDs2. both audio and video channels, such as the musical DVDs and DVD filmsTheme Songs in the Special/Extra FeaturesMost DVDs provide the function of extra/special features, such as theme songs, costumes galleries, behind the screens,posters, actors’ background information, and commentaries. In the movie “Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon,” forinstance, inserted in DVD format is the theme song titled “A Love Before Time” sung by Co Co Lee in MTV style.Live Concert in DVD FormatMost songs are presented by the original singers, for instance, “Charlotte Church: Voice of an Angel, Pavarotti” and“The Corrs.” The students enjoy learning songs from the live concerts as they can witness the singers on the screen. Asthe live concert DVD musicals usually do not provide English subtitles or written scripts, the teacher can assignstudents to do the lyrics of their favorite songs. It is recommended that the song be played three times, first with soundand image, next with sound only, and the third time with both or either.
  • English KaraokeSongs in this type of DVD musical, sung by the original singers only in audio channel, are presented with backgroundimages either with sounds and subtitles or only with English subtitles, word by word, for the viewer to sing. Muchcheaper than the live concert DVDs, the Karaoke DVD discs provide a wider variety and combination of songs, such aspop songs, movie them songs, and old love songs. Besides, they provide English subtitles which students can takeadvantage of for singing and learning English.Theme Songs in the FilmMost feature films present songs with the plot going on, so that the viewer can understand the background informationof the song. However, this type of song usually is not shown in its entirety, so audiotapes or CDs are needed to play thecomplete song. It is recommended that this type of songs be played first with sound and image and the second or thirdtimes only with the sound through audio channel.The four movie songs selected for this workshop are: “A Love Before Time” (“Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon”);“Green, Green Grass of Home”; “How Do I Live” (“Con Air”); and “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes” (“Greasy”).This very powerful function enables the teacher to continuously repeat a single scene.Different Sources of SongsSongs are available from two main sources:1. the audio channel, such as cassette tapes, CDs and DVDs2. both audio and video channels, such as the musical DVDs and DVD filmsTheme Songs in the Special/Extra FeaturesMost DVDs provide the function of extra/special features, such as theme songs, costumes galleries, behind the screens,posters, actors’ background information, and commentaries. In the movie “Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon,” forinstance, inserted in DVD format is the theme song titled “A Love Before Time” sung by Co Co Lee in MTV style.Live Concert in DVD FormatMost songs are presented by the original singers, for instance, “Charlotte Church: Voice of an Angel, Pavarotti” and“The Corrs.” The students enjoy learning songs from the live concerts as they can witness the singers on the screen. Asthe live concert DVD musicals usually do not provide English subtitles or written scripts, the teacher can assignstudents to do the lyrics of their favorite songs. It is recommended that the song be played three times, first with soundand image, next with sound only, and the third time with both or either.English KaraokeSongs in this type of DVD musical, sung by the original singers only in audio channel, are presented with backgroundimages either with sounds and subtitles or only with English subtitles, word by word, for the viewer to sing. Muchcheaper than the live concert DVDs, the Karaoke DVD discs provide a wider variety and combination of songs, such aspop songs, movie them songs, and old love songs. Besides, they provide English subtitles which students can takeadvantage of for singing and learning English.Theme Songs in the FilmMost feature films present songs with the plot going on, so that the viewer can understand the background informationof the song. However, this type of song usually is not shown in its entirety, so audiotapes or CDs are needed to play thecomplete song. It is recommended that this type of songs be played first with sound and image and the second or thirdtimes only with the sound through audio channel.The four movie songs selected for this workshop are: “A Love Before Time” (“Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon”);“Green, Green Grass of Home”; “How Do I Live” (“Con Air”); and “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes” (“Greasy”).
  • Four Steps of Using Music to Teach Grammar1. Pre-use or getting into media stage: Teacher selects grammatical points and song lyrics and designappropriate tasks or exercises.2. Input or working from media stage: Teacher presents/elicits designated grammatical points.3. Focus or working with media stage: Teacher plays the song and students are asked to do theexercise while listening to the tapes.4. Transfer or working out of media stage: Teacher checks the answers and makes necessaryexplanation. Class discussion follows. Students are encouraged to ask questions and asked to dofollow-up assignment by using what the media has just presented. (Adapted from Donna M.Brinton, 459)Activity DesignFive types of activities based on the lyrics are introduced here: blank-filling, multiple-choice, matching,dialogues, and sentence making. The former three types are mechanic drills aimed at the conceptualinstill and habituation of the targeted grammar, while the other two are communicative types of drillsaimed at enhancing students’ active and natural use of the language learned from the lyrics.Blank-fillingMost widely used by the EFL teachers, the blank-filling exercise is especially suitable for recognizing theeight parts of speech. Each may be focused on practice of one or more grammatical points. Usually eachblank has only one word to be filled, and the word may be guessed through both context andgrammatical relationship. The blank may be followed by a cue in the parentheses. For example:Fill in the blank with the appropriate verb form:If the sky _________(open) up for me, and the mountains __________ (disappear),If the seas _________(run) dry, __________(turn) to dust and the sun __________(refuse) torise,I would still find my way, by the light I see in your eyes.The world I know _______(fade) away, but you stay. (“A Love Before Time”)Multiple-choiceThe multiple choice activity, which seems easier than blank-filling to design and to do, may be devisedwith two or more choices, and may be done before, during or after listening to the music. For example:How do I get through one night without youIf I (have, had) to live without youWhat kind of life (will, would) that beOh and I, I need you in my armsNeed you to holdYou’re my world, my heart, my soulIf you ever (leave, left)Baby you would take away everything good in my life. (“How Do I Live”)MatchingAnother mechanical but frequently used exercise; the matching exercise usually consists of a list of wordsthat have to go with the blanks in the selected lyric. The following example is a drill on recognizing thethree types of clauses.Match each underlined clause with one of the three types of clauses listed in the front:A. Noun ClauseB. Adjective Clause
  • C. Adverbial ClauseThey asked me how I know ( )My true love was true.Oh, I of course repliedSomething here insideCannot be denied.They said someday you’ll findAll who love ( ) are blind.Oh, when your heart’s on fire ( )You must realizeSmoke gets in your eyes ( ). (“Smoke Gets in Your Eyes”)DialoguesStudents are asked to produce dialogues based on the grammatical elements of the song heard. Theyhave to gain a considerable understanding of the grammatical components of the song before makingmeaningful dialogues. For example, the dialogue assignment of the song “A Love Before Time” may be:Write eight to ten sentences of dialogues between two lovers who would most likely be talking to eachother as revealed in the song. There is much room for students to exercise their imagination and for theteacher to expect variousSentence-makingAimed at putting students’ sense of sentence into practice, this exercise may be designed by imitatingsome of the grammatical elements or structures of the sentences in the song. The song serves as a pointof departure for making similar or better sentences. The sentence structures of the lyrics must be wellgrasped before they can be used for sentence making by the students. Take “Green, Green Grass ofHome.” There is one sentence “Down the road I look, and there runs Mary/Hair of gold and lips likecherries,” which includes several grammatical elements that worth being drilled, such as the reversesentence structure (“down the road I look” and “there runs Mary”), the compound sentence, theadjective phrase (“of gold”) and simile (“like cherries”). Students may be asked to make similar sentencesby imitating one or more or all of the grammatical components of the above sentence.ConclusionIn conclusion, both presenters would like to claim, first, that an EFL teacher does not have to be a goodsinger or musician to use songs in the classroom. Next, we recommend that we make every songpedagogically meaningful and purposeful. Third, it is very important to grasp the fundamental qualitiesand special traits of songs before we can make the best of them to meet our demands. Finally, inselection and use of songs, we must take into account such factors as student backgrounds and relevancyto the course syllabus, and linguistic skills to be trained. It is only when these aspects are aptly weighedcan we enhance student learning motivation, and bring English learning by songs from a relaxing andlively process to a fruitful effect.
  • ReferencesCelce-Murcia, M. & Hilles, S. (1988). Techniques and Resources in Teaching Grammar. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press.Cranmer, D. & Laroy, C. (1992). Musical Openings: Using Music in the Language Classroom. Essex,England: Longman.Brinton, D. M. (1991). The use of media in language teaching. In Celce-Murcia, M. Ed., TeachingEnglish as a Second or Foreign Language. pp 454-472.Fox, T. R. (1995). On common ground: Why and how to use music as a teaching aid. The Hwa KangJournal of TEFL. No. 1, May 1995, 77-116.Graham, C. (1992). Singing, Chanting, Telling Tales: Arts in the Language Classroom. Englewood Cliffs,New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.Katchen, J. E. (1996). Using Authentic Video in English Language Teaching: Tips for Taiwan’s Teachers.Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co., Ltd., 92-102.Shih, Y. (1997). Learning English by Singing. Taipei: Crane Publishing Ltd.