1. NAME / CONTACT NO GROUP IC / MATRIKS NONURHAFIZAH BINTI AJLAN0197166070UPSI 01 801204-14-5448D20102040807BIP 3023 – MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE LANGUAGECLASSROOM ASSESSMENTASSIGNMENT 1 AND 2JOURNAL/ ARTICLE REVIELESSON PLANS OF A MATERIAL ( USING SONGS IN TEACHINGLANGUAGE )LECTURERDR INTAN SAFINAS BINTI MOHD ARIFF ALBAKRI
2. ARTICLE 1LESSON OUTLINESYear 11; Issue 2; April 2009, ISSN1755-9715Using Songs in the English ClassroomHans Mol, AustraliaHans Mol is a writer, trainer and teacher working from Australia. He ispublished worldwide for young learners, teens and adults. His next book(Grammar for Young Learners) is published by OUP in 2009. He is co-director of www.supasongs.com and fracasenglish.com. E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.comMenuSongs in the classroom: a useful toolTypes of songsWhich learners like songs?Why are songs so suitable?What can you do with songs in the classroom?Practical tips and tasks for using songsReferencesSongs in the classroom: a useful tool
3. Songs are part of daily life for most people. Who doesn’t enjoy music athome, while travelling or studying, or even at work? Language teachers canuse songs to open or close their lessons, to illustrate themes and topics, toadd variety or a change of pace, present new vocabulary or recycle knownlanguage. But how do songs actually benefit your students? In the first partof this article we look at the theoretical background to these questions; inthe second half we look at what we can do with songs in the classroom.There is strong practical evidence supporting the use of music in the Englishlanguage classroom; there is also a growing body of research confirmingthat songs are a useful tool in language acquisition. In fact musical andlanguage processing occur in the same area of the brain. (Medina, 1993)Types of songsThere are many types of songs which can be used in the classroom,ranging from nursery rhymes to contemporary pop music. There is also a lotof music written specifically for English language teaching. A criticism of thelatter is that they often lack originality and musical appeal but there are goodexamples to be found of stimulating, modern, ‘cool’ music, appealing to thereal tastes of language learners. ‘Real’ music that the children hear and playevery day can be extremely motivating in the classroom, too. However, thelyrics may not always be suitable: they may, for instance, contain slang oroffensive words, there may be grammatical mistakes and they may onlymarginally teach the language points you want to focus on.Which learners like songs?Howard Gardner once said: “It’s not how intelligent you are, but how youare intelligent.” No two students learn in exactly the same way. In anyclassroom there will be a mix of learning styles, and one student may ‘use’more than one style, depending on what the task or topic is. To appeal tothese differences is a huge teaching challenge. Gardner distinguished eightstyles of learning, and students in his ‘aural/musical’ category will have a lotof benefit from learning through songs. They are strong in singing, pickingup sounds, remembering melodies and rhythms; they like to sing, hum, playinstruments and listen to music.This is not to say that learners with other learning styles cannot benefit fromsongs. Of course they can, because in the activities we develop with songswe can dance and act (physical learning style), read, draw and do puzzles(spatial intelligence) tell stories, and write (verbal learning styles).Why are songs so suitable?
4. We can’t generalise, but research has found that pop songs havecharacteristics that help learning a second language: they often containcommon, short words; they are written at about 5thgrade level (US); thelanguage is conversational, time and place are usually imprecise; the lyricsare often sung at a slower rate than spoken words and there is repetition ofwords and grammar. (Murhpy, 1992). Furthermore, songs are also known tolower the “affective filter” or, in other words, to motivate learners to learn.So, what positive contributions to language learning can songs make?Socio-emotional growthYou’ll often find learners of any age singing together socially – when theyare visiting friends, at a party or in karaoke bars. Teenagers and youngadults seem to know an endless number of songs by heart and share themcontinuously through the Internet and portable music players. Even thoughit’s not always easy to copy this spontaneous love of music in theclassroom, singing songs in and with a class is a social act which allowslearners to participate in a group and express their feelings, no matter whattheir English is like.Physical developmentSongs provide a great opportunity for young learners to move around.Clapping, dancing and playing instruments stimulate memory, which makesit possible for learners to hear chunks of language as they sing and usethem in different situations later. Older learners can also benefit fromclapping, dancing, rocking, tapping, and snapping their fingers to music andsongs.Cognitive trainingWe all know the phenomenon of the song-that-is-stuck-in-my-head. With theright kind of song it is easy to simulate that in the classroom. Interacting withsongs again and again is as important to language learners as repeatedlypracticing a tennis technique is for a tennis player. The skill which developsfrom this is called ‘automaticity’. Learners get to know what to say and toproduce language rapidly without pausing.Cultural literacy
5. Now that most music is accessible to almost anyone anywhere, eitherthrough radio, CDs, DVDs and downloads from the Internet, learners canenjoy songs from all corners of the globe. Songs used in English classescan, in that way, shed light on interesting musical traditions in countries, butcan also teach teens, young adults and adults to appreciate other cultures.For adult learners they can be “a rich mine of information about humanrelations, ethics, customs, history, humor, and regional and culturaldifferences’ (Lems, 2001).Language learningIn a world where non-native speakers of English are likely to produce themajority of songs in English, learners have the opportunity to listen topronunciation in a wide range of varieties of the language. Songs will helplearners become familiar with word stress and intonation, and the rhythmwith which words are spoken or sung also helps memorization. Again, thiswill enable learners to remember chunks of language which they can thenuse in conversations or in writing. As language teachers, we can use songsto practice listening, speaking, reading and writing.What can you do with songs in the classroom?The sky is the limit! There are a few things to keep in mind: simple,repetitive songs often contain a recurrent grammatical pattern which isuseful to teach (especially with younger children). More difficult songs oftencontain interesting vocabulary and idioms. Also there is often a message, atheme, or a story underlying a song which students can discuss, explain,debate, and write about at almost any level.Practical tips and tasks for using songsFocus itStart with a focusing activity: anything that will get students thinking aboutthe subject of the song. Have them think about the title of the song, ingroups of pairs. Find a picture that relates to the subject of the song andhave students make guesses about it.Highlight itPut a selection of important words from the song on your board. Havestudents ask each other what the words mean. Then, have students ingroups write or tell a quick story that uses the words. You can also getstudents to circle, underline or highlight specific words or word categories.
6. Stop itAgain, write a selection of words on the board. Students must shout STOPany time they hear one of the new words. You could also stop the songbefore a word you want them to guess.Lip sync itHave students lip sync the song before a team of judges in a Class Idolshow. This allows them to become familiar with the words, rhythm, stressand intonation before actually singing the words out loud.Strip itCut the song into strips. Give each student one strip to memorize. Studentsput the strips in their pockets. They get up and tell each other their part ofthe song, without looking at their part or showing their part to anyone else.Students then organize themselves in the right order, speak the song andthen listen and check. You can also have students put the strips on a tablein order.Question itHave students ask each other questions about the song (about the words,about the topics or about characters in the song). For more advancedstudents you could choose two songs of a similar theme, and split the classinto two teams. Have each group listen to their song and draw up a list of(open or True/False) questions. Pair each student with a member of theopposite team and have them take turns asking their questions.Gap itYou can prepare a gapped version of the lyrics and let students completethem before listening and then check afterwards.Write itHave students write a letter to the main character or the singer, send ananswer to a person referred to in the song, rewrite the song as a story, writea story which began before the story in the song and led to it, or write astory which will continue after the song.Change itChange words (adjectives, adverbs, nouns -names, places or feelings), and
7. invent new lyrics for the melody. If you have karaoke versions of the songsyou can then let students sing their own versions.Draw itGet students to draw or collage the song and compare the visualisations inclass.The possibilities are endless. Music and songs are fun, and most peopleenjoy them. Make songs a regular feature in your lessons!ReferencesLems, Kirsten, Using Music in the Adult ESL Classroom, ERIC Digest, 2001.Medina, Suzanne L, The Effect of Music on Second Language VocabularyAcquisition, ‘National Network for Early Language Learning’, Vol 6-3, 1993.Murphy, T (1992), The discourse op pop songs, TESOL Quarterly 26”(4),770-774.Please check the Methodology and Language for Primary Teacherscourse at Pilgrims website.Please check the Methodology and Language for Secondary Teacherscourse at Pilgrims website.Please check the Teaching through Music and Visual Art course at Pilgrimswebsite.
8. SUMMARY OF ARTICLE 1This article is telling us about the usage of songs in teaching English Languageand the grammar as well in order to get the children to learn English better. Based onthe article, there are a lot of benefits of using songs in teaching grammar ( part oflanguage ). One of the benefit is to let the children feel enjoyable to learn grammarbecause children are commonly like to listen to the songs . In addition, most of theteachers use songs at two stages of learning, there are during the introduction and theending of the lesson too. Furthermore, songs can motivate the children by attractingtheir interest towards learning grammar as well as the language too. According to thearticle, most of the people recently like to listen to contemporary pop music which is it isa new phenomenon in education especially in English Language Learning. The pop
9. songs have certain short words which are conversational, time and place are imprecise.This is happens because we have different types of learners which involving the mixabilities people such as the beginner, medium and fast learners. This kind of varietieswould be one of the factor why the usage of songs is good in learning grammar. A lot ofreasons why do we use songs to teach grammar. Firstly, the lyrics are sung with itsslower rate then the spoken words. This is telling that this material is considering thebeginner learners too in order to master the grammar items. Unforgotten, the repetitionof the words make them familiar with the language as well as the grammar items too.Regardless the songs are suitable to be used especially when the children or peoplevisiting their friends at some special occasions such as parties and karaoke. Theteenagers and the young adults also usually share the songs continuously through theInternet and any portable music players. Basically, the use of songs allow the studentsto move around because it needs them to do some actions such as clapping, dancing,playing instruments and so on and it also attract the older to do the same things. So,songs need a bit physical movements to enjoy the songs and the content of thegrammar items included in the songs. And at the same time, to make the songs aremeaningful and related to the grammar items. There are so many activities can be usedin teaching grammar. For instance, step 1, by asking some questions for brainstormingthe ideas about the songs heard. Another activity is by drawing pictures to visualize thecontent or man points of the songs, stripping the sentences of the lyrics to have thesequencing activity and gapping activity which is allowing the pupils to fill in the blankswith the correct words highlighted from the lyrics of the songs.
10. ARTICLE 2Chinese Culture UniversityThis workshop demonstrated how to use movie songs to make grammar teaching moreappealing to the learners and more effective in language acquisition. Despitewidespread adoption in EFL classes, songs have rarely been used with specificreference to the acquisition of grammar. Based on the presenters’ experience of usingsongs in EFL classes, this workshop showed how to teach both word and sentencegrammar in a number of ways. Techniques demonstrated included blank filling, multiplechoice, matching, dialogue, and sentence making. Numerous movie songs in DVDformat were gleaned to meet the illustrative purposes of this workshop. Rationale andguidelines with respect to using these various ways of using songs to teach grammarwere also provided for best teaching and learning effect.Introduction: A Personal TestimonyInspired by the encouraging suggestions of their students, the presenters of thisworkshop began to use songs in their English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classesfourteen years ago at Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan. Since then, their useof songs in the classroom has undergone three stages of development and maturation.The first stage was the one in whichthey adopted music straightforwardly and was with only a general purpose in mind. Thatis, songs were employed mostly for relaxation, for fun, and for hearing somethingdifferent from the teacher’s lecturing.As years went by, the presenters, sensing that the direct use of songs seemedinsufficient for apparent instructional effects, started seeking more meaningful ways ofusing songs in the EFL classroom, although they were still deemed as supplementary orsubordinate to the textbook. At this stage, the adoption of songs for instruction wasmade mainly out of the presenters’ own creation or imagination. One of the mostfrequently designed activities was blank filling, in which the students are asked to listento the songs and fill out the missing words. The purposes attached to the song activitieswere quite limited, mainly for pronunciation or listening drills.
11. Over the past five years, the presenters commenced looking for reinforcement fromthe professionals, which sent them into the third stage of using music in the EFLclassroom. For example, in May 2001, in Taipei they attended a workshop held by theworld-renowned Carolyn Graham on using songs in the EFL classroom. In addition,they read widely those journal articles and books on teaching English through music.The use of songs now became more professional, focused on one specific segment oraspect of language learning for each song. Moreover, special emphasis was placed onnot only enhancement of student motivation but also relevancy of songs to the courseobjectives.What we have known and done about adoption of songs for language acquisition isquite meager, and more possibilities and effective ways are still to be unveiled. Thisworkshop aimed to introduce DVD technology and different sources of songs, and todemonstrate how to design various types of activities for using songs to teach grammar.Literature on Using Songs to Teach GrammarLike ice and fire, both grammar and songs are divergent in nature: One is full ofregularities and even ice-cold boredom, while the other is full of fire-like emotions andinspirational melodies that enchant one. Nevertheless, the marrying of these tworadically different elements into the family of language instruction has been provedsuccessful. One of the examples is Learning English by Singing in which Professor Shih(1997) of Taiwan collected 101 songs with commentaries and general instructionalguidelines. This book was targeted at the children or EFL beginners, although notspecifically referring to grammar instruction. Another book Singing, Chanting, TellingTales by Carolyn Graham (1992) also examined the use of songs to teach functions andstructures. Moreover, in her Using Authentic video in English Language Teaching: Tipsfor Taiwan’s Teachers, Professor Katchen (1996) of National Tsing-hwaTSAI & LIN:USING MUSIC TO TEACH GRAMMARUniversity in northern Taiwan examined music videos. She devoted one chapter todiscussing the use of music videos for instruction in general, although grammar wasonly peripherally mentioned (99). Professor Fox (1995), in his “On Common Ground:
12. Why and How to Use Music as a Teaching Aid,” pointed out the close tie between musicand language acquisition from the perspective of therapy and religion. He alsodiscussed how three EFL textbooks use songs to teach grammar (100). Celce-Murciaand Hilles (1988) went a step further to deepen the relationship of grammar and songs,providing useful selection guidelines, teaching procedure and examples. Perhapsnowhere has the bond between songs and grammar been more tightly bridged thanCranmer and Laroy (1993) who devoted one chapter to exploration of using music toteach grammar in their Musical Openings: Using Music in the Language Classroom.Eight types of using songs to teach grammar are enumerated with preparation,procedure, and suggestions very usefully and clearly made.DVD TechnologyThe movie songs in the DVD format have the following four fundamental functions:The Subtitles FunctionThis allows the user to select any of the subtitles already available on a given disc.Press the “Subtitles” button and use the guide arrow to choose the desired subtitleoption. Not every music dick, however, is installed with the subtitle function.The Language FunctionThis allows for a selection of the output language type. Unfortunately, it can onlyproduce the language as labeled on the cover page of the disc. There are alwayslimitations according to each product sold. In English Karaoke, there are two choices,one with only English subtitles and rhyme, the other with English subtitles and sound.The Advance FunctionThe Use of this function enables the user to skip to individual scenes or chapters on thedisc. Most DVDs include a scene index, providing easy location of the requiredscene/chapter. The button labeled “Go To” or “Forward” typically provides the advance
13. function. This function may also prove useful for various student-centered activities,such as asking learners to forward the chapter to a favorite song that they would like tolearn.Chapter Repeating FunctionIf the teacher intends to show a song many times with or without visual support, thisfunction does help. When the song is being played for the first time, press this button,and it will be repeated as many times as needed.TSAI & LIN:USING MUSIC TO TEACH GRAMMARThis very powerful function enables the teacher to continuously repeat a single scene.Different Sources of SongsSongs are available from two main sources:1. the audio channel, such as cassette tapes, CDs and DVDs2. both audio and video channels, such as the musical DVDs and DVD filmsTheme Songs in the Special/Extra FeaturesMost DVDs provide the function of extra/special features, such as theme songs,costumes galleries, behind the screens, posters, actors’ background information, andcommentaries. In the movie “Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon,” for instance, inserted inDVD format is the theme song titled “A Love Before Time” sung by Co Co Lee in MTVstyle.Live Concert in DVD Format
14. Most songs are presented by the original singers, for instance, “Charlotte Church: Voiceof an Angel, Pavarotti” and “The Corrs.” The students enjoy learning songs from the liveconcerts as they can witness the singers on the screen. As the live concert DVDmusicals usually do not provide English subtitles or written scripts, the teacher canassign students to do the lyrics of their favorite songs. It is recommended that the songbe played three times, first with sound and image, next with sound only, and the thirdtime with both or either.English KaraokeSongs in this type of DVD musical, sung by the original singers only in audio channel,are presented with background images either with sounds and subtitles or only withEnglish subtitles, word by word, for the viewer to sing. Much cheaper than the liveconcert DVDs, the Karaoke DVD discs provide a wider variety and combination ofsongs, such as pop songs, movie them songs, and old love songs. Besides, theyprovide English subtitles which students can take advantage of for singing and learningEnglish.Theme Songs in the FilmMost feature films present songs with the plot going on, so that the viewer canunderstand the background information of the song. However, this type of song usuallyis not shown in its entirety, so audiotapes or CDs are needed to play the complete song.It is recommended that this type of songs be played first with sound and image and thesecond or third times only with the sound through audio channel.The four movie songs selected for this workshop are: “A Love Before Time” (“CrouchingTiger, Hidden Dragon”); “Green, Green Grass of Home”; “How Do I Live” (“Con Air”);and “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes” (“Greasy”).TSAI & LIN:USING MUSIC TO TEACH GRAMMARFour Steps of Using Music to Teach Grammar
15. 1. Pre-use or getting into media stage: Teacher selects grammatical points and songlyrics and design appropriate tasks or exercises.2. Input or working from media stage: Teacher presents/elicits designatedgrammatical points.3. Focus or working with media stage: Teacher plays the song and students areasked to do the exercise while listening to the tapes.4. Transfer or working out of media stage: Teacher checks the answers and makesnecessary explanation. Class discussion follows. Students are encouraged to askquestions and asked to do follow-up assignment by using what the media has justpresented. (Adapted from Donna M. Brinton, 459)Activity DesignFive types of activities based on the lyrics are introduced here: blank-filling, multiple-choice, matching, dialogues, and sentence making. The former three types aremechanic drills aimed at the conceptual instill and habituation of the targeted grammar,while the other two are communicative types of drills aimed at enhancing students’active and natural use of the language learned from the lyrics.Blank-fillingMost widely used by the EFL teachers, the blank-filling exercise is especially suitable forrecognizing the eight parts of speech. Each may be focused on practice of one or moregrammatical points. Usually each blank has only one word to be filled, and the wordmay be guessed through both context and grammatical relationship. The blank may befollowed by a cue in the parentheses. For example:Fill in the blank with the appropriate verb form:If the sky _________(open) up for me, and the mountains __________(disappear),If the seas _________(run) dry, __________(turn) to dust and the sun__________(refuse) to rise,I would still find my way, by the light I see in your eyes.The world I know _______(fade) away, but you stay. (“A Love Before Time”)
16. Multiple-choiceThe multiple choice activity, which seems easier than blank-filling to design and to do,may be devised with two or more choices, and may be done before, during or afterlistening to the music. For example:TSAI & LIN: USING MUSIC TO TEACH GRAMMAR How do I get through onenight without youIf I (have, had) to live without youWhat kind of life (will, would) that beOh and I, I need you in my armsNeed you to holdYou’re my world, my heart, my soulIf you ever (leave, left)Baby you would take away everything good in my life. (“How Do I Live”)MatchingAnother mechanical but frequently used exercise; the matching exercise usuallyconsists of a list of words that have to go with the blanks in the selected lyric. Thefollowing example is a drill on recognizing the three types of clauses.Match each underlined clause with one of the three types of clauses listed in thefront:A. Noun ClauseB. Adjective ClauseC. Adverbial ClauseThey asked me how I know ( )My true love was true.Oh, I of course repliedSomething here insideCannot be denied.They said someday you’ll findAll who love ( ) are blind.
17. Oh, when your heart’s on fire ( )You must realizeSmoke gets in your eyes ( ). (“Smoke Gets in Your Eyes”)DialoguesStudents are asked to produce dialogues based on the grammatical elements of thesong heard. They have to gain a considerable understanding of the grammaticalcomponents of the song before making meaningful dialogues. For example, thedialogue assignment of the song “A Love Before Time” may be: Write eight to tensentences of dialogues between two lovers who would most likely be talking to eachother as revealed in the song. There is much room for students to exercise theirimagination and for the teacher to expect various dialogues.TSAI & LIN:USING MUSIC TO TEACH GRAMMARSentence-makingAimed at putting students’ sense of sentence into practice, this exercise may bedesigned by imitating some of the grammatical elements or structures of the sentencesin the song. The song serves as a point of departure for making similar or bettersentences. The sentence structures of the lyrics must be well grasped before they canbe used for sentence making by the students. Take “Green, Green Grass of Home.”There is one sentence “Down the road I look, and there runs Mary/Hair of gold and lipslike cherries,” which includes several grammatical elements that worth being drilled,such as the reverse sentence structure (“down the road I look” and “there runs Mary”),the compound sentence, the adjective phrase (“of gold”) and simile (“like cherries”).Students may be asked to make similar sentences by imitating one or more or all of thegrammatical components of the above sentence.ConclusionIn conclusion, both presenters would like to claim, first, that an EFL teacher does nothave to be a good singer or musician to use songs in the classroom. Next, werecommend that we make every song pedagogically meaningful and purposeful. Third,
18. it is very important to grasp the fundamental qualities and special traits of songs beforewe can make the best of them to meet our demands. Finally, in selection and use ofsongs, we must take into account such factors as student backgrounds and relevancy tothe course syllabus, and linguistic skills to be trained. It is only when these aspects areaptly weighed can we enhance student learning motivation, and bring English learningby songs from a relaxing and lively process to a fruitful effect.TSAI & LIN: USING MUSIC TO TEACH GRAMMARReferencesCelce-Murcia, M. & Hilles, S. (1988). Techniques and Resources in Teaching Grammar.New York, N. Y.: Oxford University Press.Cranmer, D. & Laroy, C. (1992). Musical Openings: Using Music in the LanguageClassroom. Essex, England: Longman.Brinton, D. M. (1991). The use of media in language teaching. In Celce-Murcia, M. Ed.,Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. pp 454-472.Fox, T. R. (1995). On common ground: Why and how to use music as a teaching aid.The Hwa Kang Journal of TEFL. No. 1, May 1995, 77-116.Graham, C. (1992). Singing, Chanting, Telling Tales: Arts in the Language Classroom.Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.Katchen, J. E. (1996). Using Authentic Video in English Language Teaching: Tips forTaiwan’s Teachers. Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co., Ltd., 92-102.Shih, Y. (1997). Learning English by Singing. Taipei: Crane Publishing Ltd.
19. SUMMARY OF ARTICLE 2This article is telling about some ways of teaching grammar which is a part oflanguage. Most of the ways are related to the people’s interest which are more attractedto listening to the music. There are varieties of activities can be designed to use songssuch as multiple choices which is good to be done. For example, the pupils are asked tochoose one of the two provided answers that related to the grammar part ( has andhave ). After listen to the song twice, the pupils need to circle the correct choice which isdirectly extracted from the lyrics of the song heard. After all, multiple choices activity iseasier than filling in the gap or blanks activity because filling in the gap needs them tomemorize all the words from the lyrics and this is the weakness of it. Despite of havingthose kind of activities, songs can be used in matching activity by matching theunderlined words to the choices given. ( Choice A- Adverb. Choice B- Adjectives andChoice C – Nouns ). Other than that, we can create a dialogues based on the songsheard or sung. For example, the song of A Love Before Time.. The students are allowedto think and create eight dialogues which are related to a couple who is in love eachother. Here, we will be getting varieties of answers or lists of dialogues pertaining to thesong heard. Next is the sentence making activity which need the pupils or students touse some of the words from the lyrics heard to create some new sentences for exampleby using the similes seen from the lyrics of the songs. Those kind of activities as statedabove would encourage them to enjoy the songs in term of educational element plusenjoying the feel and the tune of the songs too. The article also has shown that aworkshop has been done related to the use of songs in teaching grammar. There are so
20. many types of songs can be used such as video movie songs, DVD Technology Songs,Live Concert, Karaoke and Theme Songs of Movies. Anyway, based on sometestimonial used, it is said that the use of direct song is insufficient anymore.The use ofsongs now became more professional, focused on one specific segment or aspect oflanguage learning for each song. Moreover, special emphasis was placed on not onlyenhancement of student motivation but also relevancy of songs to the courseobjectives. In conclusion, there are so many advantages of using songs in teachinggrammar but it all depend on how the process takes place and use the best steps inorder to get a sufficient grammar lesson through the songs heard.ARTICLE 3Songs can be a useful tool when teaching ESL because they givestudents the opportunity to listen to someone other than you, theirteacher.Often students become familiar with how one person sounds andmay have difficulties understanding others. Songs can be achallenge for students because they are often faster than an
21. instructor’s speech however they can also be enjoyable and serveto reinforce certain aspects of English.How To Proceed• 1GrammarOften songs can be used to practiceparticular grammar points. Some textbooks spendenormous amounts of time on particular topics and creatingnew activities may become challenging so songs aresomething you can turn to. You can find songworksheets and suggestions for certain English grammarpoints right here, on BusyTeacher.org. Using songs in ESLclasses has become quite common. For instance, whenteaching the present perfect tense (here’s a great articleon teaching it!), songs such as “I Still Haven’t Found WhatI’m Looking For” by U2 and “We Are the Champions” byQueen may be appropriate. Students are unlikely to graspthe entire meaning of the song but giving a brief summary orincluding the translation would be beneficial. When usingsongs, it is common to have a worksheet where studentsmust fill in certain words. For this present perfect lesson, youcan remove the present perfect verbs altogether and havestudents try to fill in the blanks with the appropriate words. If
22. this is too challenging, including the present tense of eachverb will assist students immensely.• 2Mad LibsMad Libs are a great way to practice parts of speech. Youcan really use any passage to make a Mad Libs activity but itcan be fun to use songs too. For example, you can use“Frosty the Snowman” to make your worksheet. Simply takethe song and delete particular words leaving blanks for yourstudents, this will be the second worksheet they receive.Then make up a list with parts of speech that correspond tothe blanks. If the first blank is “Frosty the ________man”then the first word in the list would have to be a noun. Toconduct this activity, give students the list with parts ofspeech and have them work individually, in pairs, or ingroups to complete it. When they have finished, give themthe second sheet and have them fill in the blanks with theirwords. Usually the result is very funny. Seeing as you useda song to create this activity, you can finish the class bylistening to the song and having students write down themissing lyrics.• 3
23. HolidaysUsing songs in your holiday lessons can be fun too! Songssuch as Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer can be easilyexplained even to beginner and lower intermediate students.There may not be a particular point to using the song in yourclass besides to conduct a listening activity using a popularholiday song, but sometimes that is sufficient and yourstudents are sure to enjoy it. If your students are willing, itmay be appropriate to practice singing the song too. Someclasses will enjoy such an activity and some certainly will notso it is important to gauge how your students will respond.• 4DiscussionCertain songs can be used to lead into discussions. Thistype of activity would be appropriate for more advancedlearners. You can use a song such as “Another Day inParadise” by Phil Collins for this purpose. Initially, havestudents listen to the song and complete a fill in the blankexercise. Listening to the song several times would beappropriate but once the answers have been checked, havestudents read the lyrics trying to understand the meaning ofthe song. You can ask general questions to testcomprehension. If you are not exactly sure what kinds ofquestions will be appropriate, you can start off with verysimple ones such as “Is this a happy song?” and when
24. students say “No” ask them why not? This can lead into adiscussion about people’s indifference, homeless people, orsomething similar.When choosing songs, please be aware of their speed.The song “Last Christmas”, for example, can be useful however ifyou choose a version which is much too fast, students will not beable to follow along. This song, by WHAM, is a good speed forESL learners. Organizing your worksheets so that the verses areclearly laid out will also help students because even if they getlost during one verse, they can be prepared when the next onebegins. Songs should generally be played at least twicebeforechecking the answers and then once again after the correctanswers have been given so that students can listen carefully toparts they missed.Songs are just another way to add some variety to your lessonsand expose students to a different culture’s music.SUMMARY OF ARTICLE 3Article 3 is telling about steps of using songs in the classroom especially inteaching grammar in English Language. It is said that songs are useful tools becausethey give the opportunities for the students to listen to someone other than the teacher.
25. In fact, students are more familiar with the sounds rather than listening to the samespeech in their daily lesson. But, listening to the songs are a bit challenging because itis faster than a human’s speech however , they also can be enjoyable to enhance theirlanguage. Generally, to proceed the use of songs as our material in teaching language,a few steps need to be done or considered such as the grammar part of the songs. Forexample, the use of textbooks are enormous amount of time but not the songs. This isbecause, songs are something that can be turn to some enjoyable or fun elements. Forexample, when the teacher is teaching Present Perfect Tense, songs such as I StillHaven’t Found What I’m Looking For by U2 and We Are The Champions by Queencould be appropriate or suitable to be used in the classroom. In fact, the students areunlikely to get the meaning of the entire of the songs but they are able to give somebrief summary of the songs heard or sung and relate them to the content of the lessonon that particular time for example in learning Present Perfect Tense. The next step isusing Mad Libs which is really practical and useful because it is one of the great way topractice parts of speech. Some words can be deleted and the students are required tofill in the blanks with the suitable or correct words pertaining to the songs. But, the mostimportant thing is, the teacher should focus on certain topic or item that the teacherwants to stress on. For example, if the teacher is focusing on Nouns, so the teacherneeds to delete the noun words and leave them blanks. So that, it is easier for thestudents to guess the answer by refreshing the words which are under the nounscategories. Next step is by singing out the song. It is very suitable for the beginner andthe intermediate students in order to gauge their respond and interest toward learninggrammar. This is easier to be done because the students feel enjoyable and interestedto sing the song too and at the same time, they are gaining something and practicingthe grammar items found from the lyrics of the songs. The last step is discussion on thecontent of the songs which leads them to talk about the content of the songs that thewriter wants to say. This kind of session will test their comprehension skill whether theyare having a meaningful listening and understanding the songs too. In conclusion, thethree articles are mostly showing the advantages of using songs in teaching languageas well as grammar to the students in schools. I do agree with their points because Ihave implemented this material in my language class. As a result, majority of the
26. classes are enjoyed in using songs in the lessons and have improved in their reading,listening and speaking, and reading skills.I have gone through the experience of using songs in teaching grammar in my Year 3class at SK Haji Mat Dahan, Pendang. There are 14 pupils in the class and I reallysurprised that they really enjoyed and have changed in their attitude toward English.This is because, to them, English is a critical and a dull subject. Previously, it was verydifficult to get their response or answers in English Language. But, is has changed afterI have tried this material ( using songs ) in my lessons especially in teaching grammaritem to the pupils. It is not an easy task since they are average learners which comefrom mix abilities level too. When teaching the singular and plural nouns, I have used asong of Five Little Ducks in my classroom. At the moment, they were not so attractedtoward the topic of that day. But, after listened to the song of Five Little Ducks, theystarted to enjoy to imitate the sounds of ducks and finally they were able to repeat afterthe song correctly. To me, that is the best chance to me to use the song to get theirparticipation and their response toward the learning content ( Singular and Plural Nouns). And, finally, they were enjoyed the lesson and as the result, they are able to differentbetween singular and plural by creating some simple sentences ( written and orally )which are showing the singular and plural words or nouns. What a big surprise to me,now, they are able to correct their pronunciation toward the use of plural nouns by notforgetting to say the plural nouns with the sound of /s/ at the end of the words. ( e.g :Five little ducks went out one day…Over the hill and far away..Mother duck said..quackquack quack..But only four little ducks came back. )REFERENCESRetrieved on 7thMay 2013 at http://busyteacher.org/3855-how-to-teach-using-songs.html
27. Retrieved on 7thMay 2013 at :http://www.hltmag.co.uk/apr09/less01.htmASSIGNMENT 2PORTFOLIOA) LESSON PLAN OF ENGLISH KSSR YEAR 3 ( 1st)CLASS / TIME Year 3 / 8.15 am – 9.15 amFocus Listening and Speaking and ReadingTopic Pet’s WorldContent Standard 1.1 By the end of the 6 year primary schooling,pupils will be able to pronounce words and speakconfidently with the correct stress, rhythm andintonation.2.2 By the end of the 6 year primary schooling,pupils will be able to demonstrate understanding ofa variety of linear and non linear texts in the form ofprint and non print materials using a range ofstrategies to construct meaning.( lyrics )Learning Standard 1.1.3 Able to listen to, say aloud and recite rhymes,tongue twisters and sing songs, paying attention topronunciation, rhythm and intonation.2.2.2 Able to read and understand phrases andsentences in linear and non linear texts.
28. Learning outcomes To be able to :i- listen to the song of Five Little Ducks carefully.ii- read the sentences ( lyrics ) of the song with thecorrect pronunciation, intonation and stress.Teaching aids Props ( hill ), Puppets of ducklings ( made ofpolysterin ), Masks of flowers and Mother Duck.Reflection / Impact All the Year 3 pupils were able to:a) listen to the song carefully.b) sing the song and pronounce the words correctlyand accurately.ACTIVITIES STRATEGIES NOTESSet Induction ( 5 min )( sounds of ducksquacking )Stage 1 ( 20 min )- Listen to the sounds of thequacking.- Pupils try to guess theanimals with the soundsheard.- Talk about the physical of aduck.- Listen to the full version ofthe song.- Repeat after the song.- Read the lyrics of the songwith the correct stress,Some of them imitate thesounds….( quackquack….)Title : Five Little Ducks
29. Stage 2 ( 5 min )Stage 3 ( 25 min )pronunciation and intonation.- Take turn in reading thelyrics ( group reading )- Pupils sit in a group of 3 to 4- Discuss on how to sing thesong correctly.- Pupils perform their singingin front of the class ( in groups)- They have to take turn toperform their singing.- While the first group sing outthe song in front of the class,the rest of the groups willlisten to their singing carefully.- Then, give some commentsor compliments toward theirsinging. ( stressing on theirpronunciation, intonation,rhythm ).- Repeat the same steps fromthe first group to the last group( performing/singing andcommenting/complimenting )Group discussionPerform their singingCommenting /Complimenting
30. CLOSURE ( 5 min ) - All the groups combine inone group ( in front of theclass )- Sing out the song joyfully.
31. Lesson Plan ( 2nd)CLASS / TIME Year 3 / 8.15 am – 9.15 amFocus Language Art and GrammarTopic Pet’s WorldContent Standard 4.3 By the end of the 6 year primary schooling,pupils will be able to plan, organize and producecreative works for enjoyment.5.1 By the end of the 6 year primary schooling,pupils will be able to use different word classescorrectly and appropriately.Learning Standard 4.3.1 Able to produce simple creative works withguidance based on :( c ) action songs5.1.1 Able to use nouns correctly and appropriately :( c ) singular nouns( d ) plural nounsLearning outcomes To be able to :i- produce and perform an action song of Five LittleDucks in front of the class ( the whole class of Year3 )ii- use the singular and plural nouns correctly andappropriately using the action song has beencreated and performed in front of the class.
32. Teaching aids Props ( hill ), Puppets of ducklings ( made ofpolysterin ), Masks of flowers and Mother Duck.Reflection / Impact All the Year 3 pupils were able to:a) produce and perform the action song creativelyand attractively.b) pronounce the singular and plural nounscorrectly to show the different between singular andpluralc) create 5 simple sentences using any singular andplural nouns ( written and orally ).ACTIVITIES STRATEGIES NOTESSet Induction ( 5 min )( song of Five Little Ducks– with vocals )Stage 1 ( 20 min )- Listen to the song of FiveLittle Ducks.- Pupils try to sing along.( whole class )- Pupils sit in a big group .- Discuss about the songheard and sung.- Try to think of and talkabout the ideas to performSing together ( wholeclass )Title : Five Little Ducks
33. Stage 2 (25 min )the song accurately,creatively and attractively.- Make use of some masksand props given by theteacher to have a goodperformance of an actionsong.- Body gestures,movements will be usedtoo.- Divide their owncharacters or parts. ( theMother Duck, Ducklings,Flowers )- Work in groups- Perform out their actionsong in front of the class- Teacher helps the pupilsto record the performance.- Finally, watch therecorded performance andtry to correct someGroup discussionMasks and propsPerformance of an actionsongPost Mortem ( orally )O
34. CLOSURE ( 10 min )pronunciation or mistakes. (where necessary especiallyto the pronunciation of thesingular and plural nouns )- Pupils create 5 sentencesusing the other singular andplural nouns ( out of thelyrics of Five Little Ducks )OrallyAPPENDICESA) LYRICSFive little ducks went out one dayOver the hill and far awayMother duck said quack quack quackquackOnly four little ducks came back.One little duck went out one dayOver the hill and far awayMother duck said quack quack quack quackNone of the 5 little ducks came back.
35. B) PICTURES ( MASKS, PROPS )Four little ducks went out one dayOver the hill and far awayMother duck said quack quack quackquackOnly three little ducks came back.Poor Mother duck went out to findOver the hill and far awayMother duck said quack quackAll of the five little ducks weren’tfoundThree little ducks went out one dayOver the hill and far awayMother duck said quack quack quackquackOnly two little ducks came back.Oh my mother..Oh…my motherWhere are you..Where are youWe cannot find youWe cannot find youWe miss you……We miss youTwo little ducks went out one dayOver the hill and far awayMother duck said quack quack quackquackOnly one little duck came back.Sad mother duck went out one dayOver the hill and far awayMother duck said quack….quackAll of the five little ducks came back…..
36. C) URL OF THE VIDEO ( ACTION SONG )http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0f7JopnepQ8