ORIENTATION AND TRAINING HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT (HRD) ………………………………
DEFINITION: A procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about the organization.
PURPOSE OF ORIENTATION
Reduce the new employees anxiety.
Employees feel welcome.
Reinforcing a favorable and impression.
STAGES IN AN ORIENTATION PROGRAM
General information about the organization
Specific information about the department where employees is assigned to.
Evaluation and follow - up.
AREAS COVERED IN AN ORIENTATION PROGRAM
Introduction to others employees
Expectation for attendance, conduct and appearance
Condition of employment such as hours, and pay periods.
Explanation of job duties, standards and appraisal criteria
A list of names and position that we receive instruction from.
Explanation of organization purpose and goals.
List of employee benefits
Copies of insurance plans
an organization planned efforts to help employees acquired job-related knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors with the goals of a playing these on the job (Raymon A. Noe- Fundamantel of HRM)
THE BENEFITS OF TRAINING
Increases workers’ productivity
Increases workers’ job satisfaction
Keep workers’ skills and knowledge up-to-date
Helps to motivate workers
TRAINING PROCESS STEP 1 DETERMINING TRAINING NEEDS STEP 3 ADMINITERING THE TRAINING PROGRAMS ( IMPLEMENTATION ) STEP 4 EVALUATION THE PROGRAM STEP 2 DESIGNING THE TRAINING PROGRAM
TYPES OF TRAINING
1) ON THE JOB TRAINING
2) OFF THE JOB TRAINING
TYPES OF TRAINING
ON THE JOB TRAINING
Takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment,
document or materials that trainees will use when fully training.
OFF THE JOB TRAINING
Training carried out by parties external to the organization and usually on not
owned by the employee.
The choice of training methods will depend on a number of factors such as :
A small company has to be realistic. Purchase of expensive computers for simulation or computer-based instruction system may be out of the question.
The skill of the trainer
The trainer should avoid any method he is not familiar with until he has mastered the the necessary skills to use is efficiently.
The objectives of the programmed
Certain methods are particularly suited for developing skills, some for helping trainees acquire knowledge and others for changing attitudes. The methods must be chosen with the course objective in mind.
The target learner
A group of employees may respond more happily to particular method rather than another depending on their prior
The target learner
A group of employee may respond more happily to a particular method rather than another depending on their prior experiences and expectations. The choice of training method depend on the number of participants.
Effectiveness of training method
One more factor deserves special attention as it can make or break the success of training programme
Selecting training methods:
On the job training (OJT)
-Job instruction training
Off the job training
The most popular method are briefly discussed below:
Lecturer (off the job)
- Every student is familiar with the lecture, while the lecture may be suited to college environment because easy to conduct and fairly cheap. ( not recommended in industrial training )
-A stimulating and provoking lecture can be an exciting event. Unfortunately too many lectures fail to achieve even the basic objective of disseminating knowledge to trainees.
The are boring and too long!
Role-play (off the job)
In a role- play exercise, trainees get to play-act various roles.
-Exmp: Thus a manager might play the role of an employee to understand how such employees feel.
- help to developed communication skills, practice other specific skills (lawyer)
A role –play may be designed to simulate a typical situation the trainee will face in the workplace.
Job rotation (OJT)
Is a method of systematically providing employees with exposure to range of skills and disciplines found throughout the organization.
Computer-aided learning and e-learning (off the job)
- Organizations with large numbers of employees to train, especially those whose workers are geographically dispersed, are at the forefront of the move to use computer software programmes and e-learning to assist workers develop key skills and knowledge bases.
In-tray or in –basket exercises
-In-tray or in basket exercises are simulations of situations in which documents have to be processed and are usually used in the training of clerks and supervisors.
Case studies and discussion ( off the job )
-A case study is used to train programme participant participants to identify problems and seek appropriate solutions to the problems.
Depending on the nature of the assignment given to the trainee, a variety of skills and knowledge bases can be developed.
Simulations are training events where a group of people practice a particular skill or activity. They may or may not be computerised.
Outdoor or adventure learning is a training method used to develop team working, leadership, problem-solving and communication skills.
Effective trainers use training methods which encourage learners to learn by doing.
They promote active participation in the in the training by the trainees. Good trainers learn from their mistakes.
Given below is a list of common blunders made by the trainers.
They give lectures to the trainees
While lectures do have some value, they are one way monologues. They need a regular change of pace. Lectures are only useful for providing specific facts and explanations. They do not developed trainees, skills nor do they change attitudes.
They provide no visual aids
Today’s workers belong to the television generation. They are comfortable with computer games and icons and all things visual, except the written word.
They prepare hundreds of visuals, then stand and read them
Some trainers believe the visual materials used, the more effective the training. To make matters worse, they stand and read them.
They treat trainees like children in a school-room
-Training provided by employers to employees is training given to adults, young and old.
They ignore the non-verbal signals of the trainees
As the trainer you must be able to use appropriate non-verbal signals when in front of trainees. The trainer must listen to trainees when they ask the questions, share experiences and participate and discussion.
EVALUATE THE TRAINING PROGRAMME
Reasons for evaluation ( P. Bernthal, 2005)
To justify the financial investment in the training .
To get feedback for ongoing improvement .
To compare the effectiveness of 2 or more programmes.
To meet requirements set by legislation.
4 questions that need to be addressed What are the trainee’s responses to the programme ?
What have the trainees learned?
In what way has the behavior of the trainees changed after training?
How has the organization benefited from the training programme?
( Donald Kirkpatrick , 1950 )
- a questionnaire will be giving to every trainee :
the clarity, acceptability of the speaker/trainers, comfort of the physical facilities, and usefulness of the handouts.
- trainer must focus on how to set objectives before the course was implemented.
- If the programme aims at providing the trainee with certain skills, trainer can ask trainee to demonstrate these skills.
- if dissemination of knowledge the main purpose :
* trainer can give an examination ( oral / written ) to trainee.
Application of new skills & knowledge
- common problem of training – trainees are unable to apply skills & knowledge from what they learn in training.
- to discover whether the trainee has changed is behavior on the job after undergoing training – interview trainee himself/ his supervisor& even his peers.
Assessing the results
- the last level- to persuading management of the important of training.
- to prove training have benefited the organization –the trained workers should show higher levels of output with better quality achieved in a shorter time period.