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Interpret the tools and equipments selection

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industrial maintenance

industrial maintenance

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  • 1. 1 GROUP #2 - Interpret the tools and equipments selection: a) The importance of inspecting a hand tool  To avoid an accident  good working order and appropriately guarded.  can detect theft of tools and equipment.  identify if there is unauthorized use by your employees b) The proper used of various types of hand tools Hand tools are a fundamental aspect of many businesses and institutions. However, hand tools are involved in many injuries to workers. For instance, according to Accident Facts, hand tools are involved in 6% of all compensated work injuries. This figures increases to 14% for non-compensated work injuries. Causes of hand tool injuries can often be traced to some type of improper use or maintenance of the hand tool. The below information focuses on non-powered hand tool safety. Some ways to avoid hand tool injuries include: Use the right tool for the job. Some examples of misuse of tools are using a wrench as a hammer, pliers as a wrench, knife as a saw, claw hammer as a ballpeen hammer, screwdriver as a chisel, etc.
  • 2. 2 Ensure you have the correct size tool, such as correct screwdriver, pliers, wrench, scissor, etc. Individuals using the tool should be trained in the basic safety and proper use of the tool. Keep tools in good condition. Broken or worn tools (i.e. wrenches with cracked or worn jaw, electric tools with broken plugs, etc.) should be repaired or discarded immediately. Report defective equipment to your supervisor. Use tools the way they were intended (i.e. drive a wood chisel outward and away from your body). When using a knife, cut away from the body and keep hands and body clear of knife stroke. Razor blades and utility knife blades should be disposed of in a puncture-resistant sharps container. Be cautious of tools around electrical equipment. Only trained and qualified individuals may work on electrical equipment. Store tools in a safe place. Many accidents have been caused by tools falling from overhead, and by sharp tools carried in pockets or left in toolboxes with the cutting edges exposed. Ensure the tool is put away in the proper place after use and that sharp edges or blades are protected or enclosed to prevent contact. Ensure tool handles are wedged tightly in the head of all tools. Hand tools such as chisels and punches, which develop mushroomed heads during use, must be reconditioned or replaced as necessary. Keep tool cutting edges sharp so the tool will move smoothly without binding or skipping. Dull tools can be more hazardous than sharp tools. When using hand tools, maintain a good grip and stand in a balanced position to avoid sudden slips.
  • 3. 3 Wear gloves when necessary to protect your hands. However, be cautious of gloves and/or loose materials when using powered tools where they could get caught in a moving part. Wear other personal protective equipment as warranted such as eye, face, and hearing protection, respirators, appropriate shoes, etc. Keep wood handles free of splinters and cracks. Wrenches should not be used if jaws are sprung or loose. When using hand tools, ensure area around your work is clean, dry, well lit and free of obstructions when possible. When using a screwdriver, do not hold an object in one hand and press a screwdriver into it, place it on a bench or a table. Be cautious of spark-producing hand tools when working near flammable materials. Use non-sparking tools when necessary. Consider ergonomically designed tools to fit the tool to the worker -- especially those tools that are utilized frequently and repetitively during the day. Inspect your tools before each job to ensure proper condition.
  • 4. 4 c) The most common types of power tools Circular saws are useful when you need to take the saw to the timber, which is often the case when the timber is long or heavy, or when it is already fixed into a larger structure. Although they're mostly used for cross cutting, with the correct adjustments you can also rip timber lengthways, and cut grooves and trenches. Angle grinders are mostly used to cut steel or masonry with a grinding wheel, and are commonly used by maintenance workers in sawmills and manufacturing plants. But they can also be fitted with sanding discs and used to sand large surfaces or places where the clearance above the surface is limited.
  • 5. 5 Drills are the most common cordless tools in the workplace, because they are generally smaller and consume less power than the heavier tools, so their rechargeable batteries are lightweight and relatively cheap. Most cordless drills now have variable speeds and clutches, and can be used to drive in screws. Some also have a hammer drill function. Routers improve the overall look of the final wood project due to the various bits that create specific edge shapes. In all, the user has two router bases to choose from: stationary and plunge. Stationary Base Routers The stationary router stays at a specific depth during the entire cut. Plunge Routers The plunge router lets the user plunge the router bit down and into the stock to make the cut. Afterward, the user lifts the router bit, ending the cut. Horsepower is one of the most important features to consider when choosing a router. Major brands, such as Bosch and Craftsman, offer routers with two or more horsepower. Keep in mind that a router with less than two horsepower may not push larger bits through the material. Variable speed control is another important feature. Single-speed routers work best with smaller bits, but larger bits tend to slow the cutting speed. Some routers only use 1/4-inch or 1/2-inch shank router bits, so choose a router that uses both to gain the most benefit from the tool. A soft-start mechanism will reduce the amount of jitter when powering the router, and a power switch located near the handles minimizes accidents when turning off the tool. Advanced routers feature electronic systems that adjust the speed based on the load. Chainsaw. Chainsaws are the quintessential power tool. They are used to cut trees and trim branches, with specialized versions also available for cutting stone and concrete.
  • 6. 6 These portable devices use a small engine to pull a bladed chain along a slotted guide bar. Modern chainsaws are powered by either an internal combustion engine or by an electric motor. Sanders. Sanders smooth a surface by moving another rough surface over the top of it. They are one of the most varied types of power tools, and include belt sanders, disk sanders, drum sanders, and mouse sanders. Saws. A saw is a type of cutting tool. Powered saws move a blade or band extremely fast, resulting in significant cutting power. Band, radial arm, and table are all different types of saws. d) The many safety issues when working with electricity and power tools in general General safety tips for working with or near electricity Inspect tools, power cords, and electrical fittings for damage or wear prior to each use. Repair or replace damaged equipment immediately. Always tape cords to walls or floors when necessary. Nails and staples can damage cords causing fire and shock hazards. Use cords or equipment that is rated for the level of amperage or wattage that you are using. Always use the correct size fuse. Replacing a fuse with one of a larger size can cause excessive currents in the wiring and possibly start a fire. Be aware that unusually warm or hot outlets may be a sign that unsafe wiring conditions exists. Unplug any cords to these outlets and do not use until a qualified electrician has checked the wiring. Always use ladders made of wood or other non-conductive materials when working with or near electricity or power lines.
  • 7. 7 Place halogen lights away from combustible materials such as cloths or curtains. Halogen lamps can become very hot and may be a fire hazard. Risk of electric shock is greater in areas that are wet or damp. Install Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCIs) as they will interrupt the electrical circuit before a current sufficient to cause death or serious injury occurs. Make sure that exposed receptacle boxes are made of non-conductive materials. Know where the breakers and boxes are located in case of an emergency. Label all circuit breakers and fuse boxes clearly. Each switch should be positively identified as to which outlet or appliance it is for. Do not use outlets or cords that have exposed wiring. Do not use power tools with the guards removed. Do not block access to circuit breakers or fuse boxes. Do not touch a person or electrical apparatus in the event of an electrical accident. Always disconnect the current first. General safety tips for working with Power Tools Power tools can be hazardous when improperly used. There are several types of power tools, based on the power source they use: electric, pneumatic, liquid fuel, hydraulic and powder- actuated. The following general precautions shall be observed by power tool users: Never carry a tool by the cord or hose; Never remove prongs from any cords; Never stand in or near water when using tools; Always use a Ground Fault Circuit Interprupter (GFCI) with electrical tools if working in a wet environment;
  • 8. 8 Never “yank” the cord or the hose to disconnect it from the receptacle; Keep cords and hoses away from heat, oil and sharp edges; Replace all frayed and/or damaged extension cords. Do not try to tape cords; Disconnect tools when not in use, before servicing and when changing accessories such as blades, bits and cutters; All observers shall be kept at a safe distance away from the work area; Secure work with clamps or a vise, freeing both hands to operate the tool; Avoid accidental starting. The worker shall not hold a finger on the switch button while carrying a plugged-in tool; Tools shall be maintained with care. They shall be kept sharp and clean for the best performance. Follow instructions in the user’s manual for maintenance, lubricating and changing accessories; Maintain good footing and balance; Avoid loose fitting clothes, ties or jewelry such as bracelets, watches or rings, which can become caught in moving parts; Use tools that are either double-insulated or grounded (three-pronged); Keep work area well lighted when operating electric tools; Ensure that cords and hoses do not pose as a tripping hazard; and All portable electric tools that are damaged shall be removed from use and tagged “Do Not Use”. This shall be done by supervisors and/or employees. e) List the proper and improper use of each power tool that is mentioned. Electric Tools The following general practices should be followed when using electric tools:
  • 9. 9 1. Operate electric tools within their design limitations. 2. Use gloves and appropriate safety footwear when using electric tools. 3. Store electric tools in a dry place when not in use. 4. Do not use electric tools in damp or wet locations unless they are approved for that purpose. 5. Keep work areas well lighted when operating electric tools. 6. Ensure that cords from electric tools do not present a tripping hazard. Portable Abrasive Wheel Tools When using a powered grinder: 1. Always use eye or face protection. 2. Turn off the power when not in use. 3. Never clamp a hand-held grinder in a vise. Abrasive Wheel Equipment 1. The work rest shall be within an inch of the wheel. 2. The adjustable tongue on the top side of grinder must be within ¼ inch of the wheel. 3. The grinder is mounted in such a way that it is secure and will not shift or tip. 4. On-off control switches are clearly marked in red and readily accessible to the operator for easy deactivation of equipment in case of emergency. 5. The maximum RPM rating of the grinder is clearly posted and the maximum rating of the wheel does not exceed the grinder rating. 6. Grinding wheels are not cracked or otherwise damaged. 7. Grinders that use a coolant must be equipped with splash guards to prevent coolant from coming into contact with the operator. Powder Actuated Tools 1. Powder-actuated tools are stored in their own locked container when not being used. 2. All powder-actuated tools will be left unloaded until they are actually used. 3. Only trained and authorized employees will use powder-actuated tools. Machine Guarding 1. Machine guards will be clean, secure and so arranged so they do not offer a hazard in their use. 2. All moving chains, gears, pulleys, etc. will be properly guarded. 3. All emergency STOP buttons will be colored red and easily accessible to the operator in an emergency. 4. All non-current-carrying metal parts of electric equipment will be properly grounded. 5. Sufficient clearance must be maintained around equipment to ensure safe operation, maintenance and waste removal.
  • 10. 10 f) The importance of inspecting all power tools before and after their use The goal underlying routine work place inspections must be part and parcel of a comprehensive prevention program that focuses on health and safety. Far from being isolated, this function is directly related to the main program objectives, which are: to identify health and safety hazards in the work place; to develop health and safety standards and procedures; to establish preventive controls; to monitor the effectiveness of controls. When correctly performed, routine inspections serve to support and improve other elements of the program components. They should not be seen as an isolated or one-time activity. To be effective, they must be performed regularly and be an integral part of a systematic accident prevention program. References a) http://toolboxes.flexiblelearning.net.au/demosites/series13/13_05/toolbox13_05/unit6 _using_hand_tools/section1_hand_held_tools/lesson3_common_power_tools.htm b) http://www.ebay.com/gds/5-Power-Tools-Every-Garage-Should-Have/27930/g.html) c) http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-the-different-types-of-power-tools.htm d) http://safety.uchicago.edu/pp/occsafety/powertools.shtml e) http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/safety_haz/electrical.html f) http://www4.uwm.edu/usa/safety/general_safety/art_studio_shop/hand_tools.cfm g) https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3080.html